1א
אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מאי דכתיב (חבקוק א, יד) ותעשה אדם כדגי הים כרמש לא מושל בו למה נמשלו בני אדם כדגי הים לומר לך מה דגים שבים כיון שעולין ליבשה מיד מתים אף בני אדם כיון שפורשין מדברי תורה ומן המצות מיד מתים דבר אחר מה דגים שבים כיון שקדרה עליהם חמה מיד מתים כך בני אדם כיון שקדרה עליהם חמה מיד מתים

Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: What is the meaning of this which is written: “And makes people as the fish of the sea, as the creeping things, that have no ruler over them” (Habakkuk 1:14)? Why are people compared to the fish of the sea? This says: Just as when fish of the sea, arise on to dry land they die immediately; when people separate themselves from studying words of Torah and performing the mitzvot, they die immediately. Alternatively, just as with regard to the fish of the sea, once the sun is heated over them they die immediately, so too with regard to people, once the sun is heated over them they die immediately.

2ב

What is the comparison that is made?

How does Shmuel explain the comparison?

What do you think the sun is a symbol for in this comparison?

3ג

עשרה תקנות תיקן עזרא שקורין במנחה בשבת וקורין בשני ובחמישי

§ The Sages taught that Ezra the Scribe instituted ten ordinances: He instituted that communities read the Torah on Shabbat in the afternoon; and they also read the Torah on every Monday and Thursday;

4ד

Who was Ezra? (It's ok to Google)

5ה
שיהו קוראין במנחה בשבת משום יושבי קרנות:

The Gemara analyzes these ordinances, the first of which is that communities shall read the Torah on Shabbat afternoon. This Gemara explains that this ordinance was instituted due to those who sit idly on street corners, who do not attend the synagogue during the week.

6ו

Why does the Gemara think we're supposed to read Torah on Shabbat afternoon? Is it a good reason?

7ז
ושיהו קוראין בשני ובחמישי עזרא תיקן והא מעיקרא הוה מיתקנא דתניא (שמות טו, כב) וילכו שלשת ימים במדבר ולא מצאו מים דורשי רשומות אמרו אין מים אלא תורה שנאמר (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים

The Gemara discusses the second of Ezra’s ordinances: And that they should read the Torah on every Monday and Thursday. The Gemara asks: Was it Ezra who institute this practice? It was instituted from the beginning, i.e., long before his time. As it is taught: “And Moses led Israel onward from the Red Sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water” (Exodus 15:22). Those who interpret verses metaphorically said that water here is referring to nothing other than Torah, as it is stated metaphorically, concerning those who desire wisdom: “Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water” (Isaiah 55:1).

8ח

The Rabbis seem to disagree about Ezra's role when it comes to choosing days for Torah reading. According to this text, what's the possible reason?

The water metaphor is brought up again, but is it referred to in the same way this time? Why or why not?

9ט
כיון שהלכו שלשת ימים בלא תורה נלאו עמדו נביאים שביניהם ותיקנו להם שיהו קורין בשבת ומפסיקין באחד בשבת וקורין בשני ומפסיקין שלישי ורביעי וקורין בחמישי ומפסיקין ערב שבת כדי שלא ילינו ג' ימים בלא תורה
The baraita continues: The verse means that since the Jews traveled for three days without hearing any Torah they became weary, and therefore the prophets among them arose and instituted for them that they should read from the Torah each Shabbat, and pause on Sunday, and read again on Monday, and pause on Tuesday and Wednesday, and read again on Thursday, and pause on Shabbat eve, so they would not tarry three days without hearing the Torah. Evidently this practice predates Ezra.
10י

According to the Gemara, was it Ezra who created the practice of reading Torah on Monday and Thursday?

What is the symbolism of being in the wilderness and the frequency with which the Israelites found water?

11יא

מעיקרא תקנו חד גברא תלתא פסוקי אי נמי תלתא גברי תלתא פסוקי כנגד כהנים לוים וישראלים אתא הוא תיקן תלתא.

The Gemara answers: Initially they instituted that one person reads three verses; or alternatively, that three people read three verses. Either way, the number three corresponds to the three types of Jews: Cohanim, Levites, and Israelites. Ezra later came and instituted that three people always read.

12יב

How much Torah was originally read on Mondays and Thursdays? What were the two options?

How do we follow both the original practice and Ezra's practices today?

13יג

בשני וחמישי בשבת במנחה קורין שלשה אין פוחתין מהן ואין מוסיפין עליהן ואין מפטירין בנביא

The mishna records several laws governing public Torah readings. On Mondays and Thursdays during the morning service and on Shabbat during the afternoon service, three people read from the Torah; one may neither decrease the number of readers nor add to them. And one does not conclude with a reading from the Prophets [haftara] on these occasions.

14יד

How does the Torah reading for weekdays and Shabbat afternoons work? What are the specific rules at play?

15טו
וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַיָּמִים שֶׁקּוֹרִין בָּהֶם בַּתּוֹרָה בְּצִבּוּר. בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת וּבְמוֹעֲדִים וּבְרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים וּבְתַעֲנִיּוֹת וּבַחֲנֻכָּה וּבְפוּרִים וּבְשֵׁנִי וַחֲמִישִׁי שֶׁבְּכָל שָׁבוּעַ וְשָׁבוּעַ. וְאֵין מַפְטִירִין בַּנְּבִיאִים אֶלָּא בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים וְתִשְׁעָה בְּאָב בִּלְבַד:

The following are the days on which the Law is publicly read: Sabbaths, Festivals, the first day of each month, Fast-days, the Feast of Dedication, the Feast of Lots, the second and fifth day of the week. Lessons from the Prophets are only read on Sabbaths, Festivals and the ninth day of Ab.

16טז

Translate this text into plain/everyday language, including the names of the holidays.

17יז
אֵין הַקּוֹרֵא בַּתּוֹרָה רַשַּׁאי לִקְרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה עַד שֶׁיִּכְלֶה אָמֵן מִפִּי הַצִּבּוּר. קָרָא וְטָעָה אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִקְדּוּק אוֹת אַחַת מַחְזִירִין אוֹתוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּקְרָאֶנָּה בְּדִקְדּוּק. וְלֹא יִקְרְאוּ שְׁנַיִם בַּתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא הָאֶחָד לְבַדּוֹ. קָרָא וְנִשְׁתַּתֵּק יַעֲמֹד אַחֵר תַּחְתָּיו וְיַתְחִיל מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהִתְחִיל הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּתֵּק וּמְבָרֵךְ בַּסּוֹף:
A person who reads the Law must not begin till the sound of the Amen recited by the congregation has ceased. If he made a mistake, even if only in the correct enunciation of a single letter, he is made to turn back to the place where the mistake was made and read the word correctly. Two are not to read in the Torah at the same time, but only one by himself. If one, while reading, has been suddenly stricken so that he cannot continue, another person should take his place and begin where the stricken one began, and recite the blessing after reading his portion.
18יח

What are the special responsibilities of someone who is reading from the Torah has?

Why do you think the rules so strict when it comes to reading Torah?

What happens if the Torah reader suddenly isn't able to finish the aliyah?

19יט
בְּכָל קְרִיאָה וּקְרִיאָה מֵאֵלּוּ כֹּהֵן קוֹרֵא רִאשׁוֹן וְאַחֲרָיו לֵוִי וְאַחֲרָיו מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. וּמִנְהָג פָּשׁוּט הוּא הַיּוֹם שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ כֹּהֵן עַם הָאָרֶץ קוֹדֵם לִקְרוֹת לִפְנֵי חָכָם גָּדוֹל יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְכָל מִי שֶׁהוּא גָּדוֹל מֵחֲבֵרוֹ בְּחָכְמָה קֹדֶם לִקְרוֹת. וְהָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁגּוֹלֵל סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה נוֹטֵל שָׂכָר כְּנֶגֶד הַכּל. לְפִיכָךְ עוֹלֶה וּמַשְׁלִים אֲפִלּוּ גָּדוֹל שֶׁבַּצִּבּוּר:
In each and every one of these readings, a Cohen (descendant of Aaron) reads the first section. He is followed by a Levite (descendant of Levi other than a Cohen) and he, in turn, is followed by an Israelite. It is a universal custom that a Cohen, even though he is illiterate, has precedence over a great scholar in Israel. The person, superior in knowledge reads before one who is his inferior. The reader of the concluding section who rolls up the Scroll will receive a reward equal to that of all the others. Hence, even the greatest man in the congregation goes up [to the reading desk] to complete the portion.
20כ

In traditional settings, who gets the first, second, and third aliyah? Do we follow that tradition at Epstein?

In places where the tradition is followed, why is it ok/necessary for a cohen to get the first aliyah, even if they're unable to read and other people are far smarter?

What is the hierarchy when it comes to who gets honored with aliyot?