Power of Midrash ~ Midreshei Halacha II ~ An eye for an eye
(יח) וְכִֽי־יְרִיבֻ֣ן אֲנָשִׁ֔ים וְהִכָּה־אִישׁ֙ אֶת־רֵעֵ֔הוּ בְּאֶ֖בֶן א֣וֹ בְאֶגְרֹ֑ף וְלֹ֥א יָמ֖וּת וְנָפַ֥ל לְמִשְׁכָּֽב׃ (יט) אִם־יָק֞וּם וְהִתְהַלֵּ֥ךְ בַּח֛וּץ עַל־מִשְׁעַנְתּ֖וֹ וְנִקָּ֣ה הַמַּכֶּ֑ה רַ֥ק שִׁבְתּ֛וֹ יִתֵּ֖ן וְרַפֹּ֥א יְרַפֵּֽא׃ (ס)
(18) When men quarrel and one strikes the other with stone or fist, and he does not die but has to take to his bed— (19) if he then gets up and walks outdoors upon his staff, the assailant shall go unpunished, except that he must pay for his idleness and his cure.
(ל) כָּל־מַ֨כֵּה־נֶ֔פֶשׁ לְפִ֣י עֵדִ֔ים יִרְצַ֖ח אֶת־הָרֹצֵ֑חַ וְעֵ֣ד אֶחָ֔ד לֹא־יַעֲנֶ֥ה בְנֶ֖פֶשׁ לָמֽוּת׃ (לא) וְלֹֽא־תִקְח֥וּ כֹ֙פֶר֙ לְנֶ֣פֶשׁ רֹצֵ֔חַ אֲשֶׁר־ה֥וּא רָשָׁ֖ע לָמ֑וּת כִּי־מ֖וֹת יוּמָֽת׃
(30) If anyone kills a person, the manslayer may be executed only on the evidence of witnesses; the testimony of a single witness against a person shall not suffice for a sentence of death. (31) You may not accept a ransom for the life of a murderer who is guilty of a capital crime; he must be put to death.
(כב) וְכִֽי־יִנָּצ֣וּ אֲנָשִׁ֗ים וְנָ֨גְפ֜וּ אִשָּׁ֤ה הָרָה֙ וְיָצְא֣וּ יְלָדֶ֔יהָ וְלֹ֥א יִהְיֶ֖ה אָס֑וֹן עָנ֣וֹשׁ יֵעָנֵ֗שׁ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר יָשִׁ֤ית עָלָיו֙ בַּ֣עַל הָֽאִשָּׁ֔ה וְנָתַ֖ן בִּפְלִלִֽים׃ (כג) וְאִם־אָס֖וֹן יִהְיֶ֑ה וְנָתַתָּ֥ה נֶ֖פֶשׁ תַּ֥חַת נָֽפֶשׁ׃ (כד) עַ֚יִן תַּ֣חַת עַ֔יִן שֵׁ֖ן תַּ֣חַת שֵׁ֑ן יָ֚ד תַּ֣חַת יָ֔ד רֶ֖גֶל תַּ֥חַת רָֽגֶל׃ (כה) כְּוִיָּה֙ תַּ֣חַת כְּוִיָּ֔ה פֶּ֖צַע תַּ֣חַת פָּ֑צַע חַבּוּרָ֕ה תַּ֖חַת חַבּוּרָֽה׃ (ס)
(22) When men fight, and one of them pushes a pregnant woman and a miscarriage results, but no other damage ensues, the one responsible shall be fined according as the woman’s husband may exact from him, the payment to be based on reckoning. (23) But if other damage ensues, the penalty shall be life for life, (24) eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, (25) burn for burn, wound for wound, bruise for bruise.
(כח) וְכִֽי־יִגַּ֨ח שׁ֥וֹר אֶת־אִ֛ישׁ א֥וֹ אֶת־אִשָּׁ֖ה וָמֵ֑ת סָק֨וֹל יִסָּקֵ֜ל הַשּׁ֗וֹר וְלֹ֤א יֵאָכֵל֙ אֶת־בְּשָׂר֔וֹ וּבַ֥עַל הַשּׁ֖וֹר נָקִֽי׃ (כט) וְאִ֡ם שׁוֹר֩ נַגָּ֨ח ה֜וּא מִתְּמֹ֣ל שִׁלְשֹׁ֗ם וְהוּעַ֤ד בִּבְעָלָיו֙ וְלֹ֣א יִשְׁמְרֶ֔נּוּ וְהֵמִ֥ית אִ֖ישׁ א֣וֹ אִשָּׁ֑ה הַשּׁוֹר֙ יִסָּקֵ֔ל וְגַם־בְּעָלָ֖יו יוּמָֽת׃ (ל) אִם־כֹּ֖פֶר יוּשַׁ֣ת עָלָ֑יו וְנָתַן֙ פִּדְיֹ֣ן נַפְשׁ֔וֹ כְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יוּשַׁ֖ת עָלָֽיו׃ (לא) אוֹ־בֵ֥ן יִגָּ֖ח אוֹ־בַ֣ת יִגָּ֑ח כַּמִּשְׁפָּ֥ט הַזֶּ֖ה יֵעָ֥שֶׂה לּֽוֹ׃
(28) When an ox gores a man or a woman to death, the ox shall be stoned and its flesh shall not be eaten, but the owner of the ox is not to be punished. (29) If, however, that ox has been in the habit of goring, and its owner, though warned, has failed to guard it, and it kills a man or a woman—the ox shall be stoned and its owner, too, shall be put to death. (30) If ransom is laid upon him, he must pay whatever is laid upon him to redeem his life. (31) So, too, if it gores a minor, male or female, [the owner] shall be dealt with according to the same rule.

(יז) וְאִ֕ישׁ כִּ֥י יַכֶּ֖ה כָּל־נֶ֣פֶשׁ אָדָ֑ם מ֖וֹת יוּמָֽת׃ (יח) וּמַכֵּ֥ה נֶֽפֶשׁ־בְּהֵמָ֖ה יְשַׁלְּמֶ֑נָּה נֶ֖פֶשׁ תַּ֥חַת נָֽפֶשׁ׃ (יט) וְאִ֕ישׁ כִּֽי־יִתֵּ֥ן מ֖וּם בַּעֲמִית֑וֹ כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֔ה כֵּ֖ן יֵעָ֥שֶׂה לּֽוֹ׃ (כ) שֶׁ֚בֶר תַּ֣חַת שֶׁ֔בֶר עַ֚יִן תַּ֣חַת עַ֔יִן שֵׁ֖ן תַּ֣חַת שֵׁ֑ן כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר יִתֵּ֥ן מוּם֙ בָּֽאָדָ֔ם כֵּ֖ן יִנָּ֥תֶן בּֽוֹ׃ (כא) וּמַכֵּ֥ה בְהֵמָ֖ה יְשַׁלְּמֶ֑נָּה וּמַכֵּ֥ה אָדָ֖ם יוּמָֽת׃

(17) If anyone kills any human being, he shall be put to death. (18) One who kills a beast shall make restitution for it: life for life. (19) And when a man gives a blemish on his fellow, as he has done so shall it be done to him: (20) fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth - as he gave a blemish to a man, so it will be given to him. (21) One who strikes a beast shall make restitution for it; but one who strikes a human being shall be put to death.

(טז) כִּֽי־יָק֥וּם עֵד־חָמָ֖ס בְּאִ֑ישׁ לַעֲנ֥וֹת בּ֖וֹ סָרָֽה׃ (יז) וְעָמְד֧וּ שְׁנֵֽי־הָאֲנָשִׁ֛ים אֲשֶׁר־לָהֶ֥ם הָרִ֖יב לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה לִפְנֵ֤י הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ וְהַשֹּׁ֣פְטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִהְי֖וּ בַּיָּמִ֥ים הָהֵֽם׃ (יח) וְדָרְשׁ֥וּ הַשֹּׁפְטִ֖ים הֵיטֵ֑ב וְהִנֵּ֤ה עֵֽד־שֶׁ֙קֶר֙ הָעֵ֔ד שֶׁ֖קֶר עָנָ֥ה בְאָחִֽיו׃ (יט) וַעֲשִׂ֣יתֶם ל֔וֹ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר זָמַ֖ם לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת לְאָחִ֑יו וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ׃ (כ) וְהַנִּשְׁאָרִ֖ים יִשְׁמְע֣וּ וְיִרָ֑אוּ וְלֹֽא־יֹסִ֨פוּ לַעֲשׂ֜וֹת ע֗וֹד כַּדָּבָ֥ר הָרָ֛ע הַזֶּ֖ה בְּקִרְבֶּֽךָ׃ (כא) וְלֹ֥א תָח֖וֹס עֵינֶ֑ךָ נֶ֣פֶשׁ בְּנֶ֗פֶשׁ עַ֤יִן בְּעַ֙יִן֙ שֵׁ֣ן בְּשֵׁ֔ן יָ֥ד בְּיָ֖ד רֶ֥גֶל בְּרָֽגֶל׃ (ס)

(16) If a man appears against another to testify maliciously and gives false testimony against him, (17) the two parties to the dispute shall appear before the LORD, before the priests or magistrates in authority at the time, (18) and the magistrates shall make a thorough investigation. If the man who testified is a false witness, if he has testified falsely against his fellow, (19) you shall do to him as he schemed to do to his fellow. Thus you will sweep out evil from your midst; (20) others will hear and be afraid, and such evil things will not again be done in your midst. (21) And your eyes shall have no pity: life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot.

(יא) כִּֽי־יִנָּצ֨וּ אֲנָשִׁ֤ים יַחְדָּו֙ אִ֣ישׁ וְאָחִ֔יו וְקָֽרְבָה֙ אֵ֣שֶׁת הָֽאֶחָ֔ד לְהַצִּ֥יל אֶת־אִישָׁ֖הּ מִיַּ֣ד מַכֵּ֑הוּ וְשָׁלְחָ֣ה יָדָ֔הּ וְהֶחֱזִ֖יקָה בִּמְבֻשָֽׁיו׃ (יב) וְקַצֹּתָ֖ה אֶת־כַּפָּ֑הּ לֹ֥א תָח֖וֹס עֵינֶֽךָ׃ (ס)

(11) If two men get into a fight with each other, and the wife of one comes up to save her husband from his antagonist and puts out her hand and seizes him by his genitals, (12) you shall cut off her hand; your eyes shall have no pity.

~ The Mekhilta de-Rabbi Shimon (Measures, Rules of R. Simon) is a halakhic midrash on Exodus from the school of R. Akiba. Rabbi Shimon is identified with R. Shimon bar Yohai. He is probably the author. However, the frequent citation of his son Elazar makes it plausible that he edited his father's midrash. Though no midrash of this name is mentioned in the Talmud, it was known by other names including Mekhilta Ahirta de R. Shimon or Mekhilta Aheret. Today it has disappeared, but some extracts from it have been preserved and collected together as Midrash ha-Gadol. Shimon Bar Yochai died on year 160 CE. It is not clear when Eleazar ben Shimon died.

עין תחת עין משלם נזק דמי עינו:..... בן עזאי אומר הרי הוא אומר חבורה תחת חבורה ולהלן הוא אומר (פס' י"ח) והכה איש את רעהו באבן או באגרוף הא חבורה (חבורה) [אמורה] מה חבורה האמור להלן שבתו יתן ורפא ירפא אף כאן שבתו יתן ורפא ירפא חבורה בכלל היתה ויצאת ללמד ולא ללמד על עצמה אלא ללמד על הכלל מה חבורה שנ' בה תחת הרי היא תשלומין אף (כאן) [כל] שנ' בו תחת הרי הוא תשלומין או יכול אף נפש תחת נפש ת"ל (במ' ל"ה ל"א) ולא תקחו כפר לנפש רוצח [לנפש רוצח] אי אתה לוקח כופר אבל אתה לוקח כופר לאיברין :

An eye for an eye - one pays damage(s), the value of his eye. ...... Ben Azai says: behold here it says "a wound for a wound" and further on (verse 18) it says "if a man hits his neighbor with a stone or with the fist" - behold, this is the wound spoken. Just as the wound spoken of above "he will pay for his idleness and for his cure", here too "he will pay for his idleness and his cure". The wound is included in the general idea, and is expressed [lit. comes out] to teach (in general) and not about itself (specifically) - but it does come to teach regarding the general principle: just as the wound of which it is said "due to" is about payment, so too (here) [everything] of which it is said "due to" is about payment. Or - is it possible that this applies even for "life for life"? [No,] the text says (Numbers 35:31) "and you will not take ransom for the life of a murderer". [For the life of a murderer] you do not take ransom, but you do take ransom for limbs.

כויה תחת כויה אם חבורה כבר נאמר אלא אעפ״י שאין בה חבורה כגון שהכהו בספוד או במסמר על צפרנו במקום שאין עושה חבורה (מכאן אתה אומר המחסר חבירו אבר משלם חמשה דברים נזק וצער ושבת ורפוי ובשת : נזק וצער אמור כאן: שבת ורפוי למעלה ובשת במקום אחר שנ' (דב' כ"ה י"א) ושלחה ידו והחזיקה במבושיו : נזק שמין אותו כמה הוא שוה שלם וכמה הוא שוה אחר שחיסרו אבר: צער אומדין כמה אדם רוצה שיתן שיחתכו ידו בסם ולא יחתכו אותה בסכין: שבת רואין אותו כאלו הוא שומר: רפוי אומרין בכמה ימים יתרפא וכמה צריך: ובשת הכל לפי המבייש והמתבייש ואם לא חסרו אבר פטור מן הנזק ואם אין בה צער פטור מן הצער ואם אין בה שבת פטור מן השבת ואם אין בה רפוי פטור מן הרפוי ואם אין בה בושת פטור מן הבושת) :

Burn for burn - if with wound it was already said, but if even though there is no wound [inflicted], such as he hit him with a [towel?] or a nail on his nail, on a place that does not make a wound, from here you say that one who diminishes the limb of his fellow, he pays five things: damages, and pain, and idleness, and healing, and shame. Damages and pain are spoken of here. Idleness and healing [are spoken of] above. And shame in another place, as it is written (Deut. 25:11) "and she stretches her hand and seizes him by his genitals [lit. shames]." Damages - we assess him: how much is he worth complete, and how much he is worth after he made him lose a limb. Pain - we appraise how much a person would want that would be given to him to have his hand cut with a narcotic or not cut at all, [cut]with a slaughtering knife. Idleness - we see him as if he is a guard. Healing - we appraise in how many days he will heal, and how many are needed. And shame - All goes according to who shames and who is shamed. And if he did not make him lose a limb, he is exempt from damages; and if there is no pain, he is exempt of [paying for] pain; and if there is no idleness, he is exempt of [paying for] idleness; and if there is no healing he is exempt of [paying for] healing; and if there is no shame, he is exempt of [paying for] shame.

~ Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael (Measure, Rule of R. Ishamel) is a halakhic midrash to the Book of Exodus. Composed in Talmudic Israel/Babylon (135 CE). Neither the Babylonian nor the Jerusalem Talmud mention the Mekhilta by name, but it is referred to once as She'ar Sifre debe Rab. The first person to mention the Mekhilta by name was the author of the Geonic work Halakhot Gedolot. Another Geonic name for it was Mekhilta de-Erez Yisrael. The author, or more correctly the redactor, of the Mekhilta cannot be ascertained. Some scholars thought it was R. Ishmael ben Elisha, R. Akiba's contemporary. The present Mekhilta cannot, however, be the one composed by R. Ishmael, as is proved by the references in it to R. Ishmael's pupils and to other later tannaim. It must be assumed, therefore, that R. Ishmael composed an explanatory midrash to the last four books of the Torah, and that his pupils amplified it.

עין תחת עין ממון. אתה אומר ממון, או אינו אלא עין ממש. היה רבי אלעזר אומר, ומכה בהמה ישלמנה ומכה אדם יומת. הקיש הכתוב נזקי אדם לנזקי בהמה (נזקי בהמה לנזקי אדם). מה נזקי בהמה לתשלומין אף נזקי אדם לתשלומין. רבי יצחק אומר, הרי הוא אומר אם כופר יושת עליו. והרי דברים קל וחומר. ומה במקום שענש הכתוב מיתה, לא ענש אלא ממון. כאן שלא ענש מיתה, דין הוא שלא יענש אלא ממון. רבי (יצחק) [אליעזר] אומר, עין תחת עין. (שומע אני בין מתכוין בין שאינו מתכוין אינו משלם אלא ממון. והרי הכתוב מוציא המתכוון לעשות בו מום שאינו משלם אלא ממון) שנאמר ואיש כי יתן מום בעמיתו כלל, עין תחת עין פרט, כלל ופרט אין בכלל אלא מה שבפרט. כשהוא אומר כאשר יתן מום באדם חזר וכלל. או כלל כלל הראשון. אמרת לאו, אלא כלל ופרט וכלל אי אתה דן אלא כעין הפרט. מה הפרט מפורש מומין הקבועין בו ובראשי אברים בגלוי ובמתכוין שאינו משלם אלא ממון, אף כל מומין הקבועין וראשי אברים בגלוי ובמתכוין משלם ממון. (תלמוד לומר כאשר (יתן מום באדם עד שיתכוין) [עשה כן יעשה לו] לעשות בו מום).

"An eye for an eye" money. You say "money," but perhaps a real eye [is intended]? R. Elazar was used to say (Leviticus 24:21) "One who strikes a beast shall pay for it, and one who strikes a man shall be put to death." Scripture likens the injuries of a man to the injuries of a beast, and the injuries of a beast to the injuries of a person. And just as the injuries of a beast are subject to monetary payment, so too the injuries of a person. R. Yitzchak says: Behold, it says (Exodus 21:30) "When ransom is imposed upon him." Now this follows a fortiori [kal vachomer]: if where Scripture makes him liable for death, he only pays money, then here where Scripture does not make him liable for death, how much more so does he pay only money! R. Yitzchak says: "an eye for an eye": From this I hear that whether or not he intends (to blind him), he pays only money. And, indeed, Scripture brings out [the case of] one who intends to cause a blemish whose only payment is money, as it is written (Leviticus 24:19) "And when a man makes a blemish on his fellow" — [this is the] general [case]; "an eye for an eye" — [is the] particular. [From] general [to] particular, [the rule is:] the general [case] has only what exists in the particular [case]. Then, when the text says "as he gave a blemish to a man," (Leviticus 24:20) there is a reversion to the general. Perhaps the first general is generalized (i.e., all maimings are to be included.) You would say no [to that], rather we have here an instance of general-particular-general, where [the rule is that] you judge only in accordance with the particular: just as the particular specifies permanent maimings, external limb prominences, and intended (injuries) as paying only money [and not being punishable by death, so, all maimings are included for payment]. (But you would be wrong, since the text says "as he maims a man" — when he intends to maim him - "what he has done will be done to him" [in that case] one does on him a blemish.)

כויה תחת כויה אם תאמר שפצעו והוציא (את (מוחו) [דם]) והלא כבר נאמר פצע תחת פצע. אם תאמר שעשה בו חבורה, והלא כבר נאמר חבורה תחת חבורה. ומה תלמוד לומר כויה תחת כויה, אלא כוואו על צפרנו ועל רגלו ולא רשם בו. טענו אבנים וצערו, הטיל שלג על ראשו וצננו, הרי זה נותן לו דמי צערו. (אבל אם) היה מרוכך מעודן מפונק, כל שכן שכפול בו צערו. זהו הצער האמור בתורה כויה תחת כויה.

(Exodus 21:25) "A burn for a burn": If you say the meaning is that he wounded him and spilled his blood, isn't this already implied in "a wound for a wound." If you say that he made a welt, this is already subsumed in "a bruise for a bruise." How, then, is "a burn for a burn" to be understood? As his burning him on his nail or on the sole of his foot without leaving an impression, lading him with stones and causing him suffering thereby, placing snow on his head and making him cold — in these [instances] he compensates him for his suffering. But if he were frail, refined, and coddled, how much more so is his "suffering" allotment to be doubled. This is the (type of) suffering intended in "a burn for a burn."

ומנין שהמבייש משלם ממון? נאמר כאן "לא תחוס עינך", ונאמר להלן (דברים כה) "לא תחוס עינך". מה "לא תחוס עינך" האמור (להלן) [כאן] ממון, אף "לא תחוס עינך" האמור (להלן) [כאן] ממון.

And from where is it derived that one who shamed another pays money? It is written here (19:21) "your eyes shall not pity," and elsewhere (in an instance of shaming) (25:12) "your eyes shall not pity." Just as here monetary payment (is being referred to), so, there, monetary payment.

רבי יהודה אומר, נאמר כאן "יד ורגל", ונאמר להלן (שמות כא) "יד ורגל"; מה "יד ורגל" האמור (כאן) [להלן] ממון, אף "יד ורגל" האמור (להלן) [כאן] ממון.

R. Yehudah says: It is written here (19:21) "hand" and "foot," and elsewhere (Shemot 21:24) "hand" and "foot." Just as "hand" and "foot" here refer to monetary payment, so, "hand" and "foot" there.

רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר, מנין שלא יצא למלחמה, עד שיהיו בו ידים ורגלים ועינים ושנים? תלמוד לומר לא תחוס עינך נפש בנפש... כי תצא למלחמה.

R. Yossi Haglili says: From where is it derived that one should not go out to war unless he has hands, feet, eyes, and teeth? From (19:21) "Your eyes shall not pity; a soul for a soul, an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a hand for a hand, a foot for a foot" [being next to] (20:1) "when you go out to war against your foes."

Midrash Aggadah is a collection of midrashim published in 1894 by Solomon Buber, who worked from manuscripts. The age of that collection is put to no older than year 1000.