Power of Midrash ~ Intro Class 2: The Creation story is not for kids

Composed in Talmudic Israel/Babylon (500 CE). Bereshit Rabbah (The Great Genesis) is a midrash comprising a collection of rabbinical homiletical interpretations of the Book of Genesis. It contains many simple explanations of words and sentences, often in Aramaic and varied haggadic expositions popular in the public lectures of the synagogues and schools. The tradition that Rabbi Hoshaiah is the author of Genesis Rabbah may be taken to mean that he began the work as numerous additions have been made over the subsequent years before it was redacted (4th-5th Century CE). The editor strung together various longer or shorter explanations and haggadic interpretations of the successive passages, sometimes anonymously, sometimes citing the author.

(א) וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ (בראשית א, כו), רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן פָּתַח (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אִם זָכָה אָדָם, אוֹכֵל שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, וְאִם לָאו הוּא בָּא לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס בְּרָאוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ה, ב): זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, דְּיוּ פַּרְצוּפִים בְּרָאוֹ, וְנִסְּרוֹ וַעֲשָׂאוֹ גַּבִּים, גַּב לְכָאן וְגַב לְכָאן. אֲתִיבוּן לֵיהּ וְהָכְתִיב (בראשית ב, כא): וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו, אֲמַר לְהוֹן מִתְּרֵין סִטְרוֹהִי, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כו, כ): וּלְצֶלַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן, דִּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן וְלִסְטַר מַשְׁכְּנָא וגו'. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בְּנָיָה וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן גֹּלֶם בְּרָאוֹ, וְהָיָה מוּטָל מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ, הֲדָא הוא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קלט, טז): גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וגו'. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר מְלֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם בְּרָאוֹ, מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו'. מִצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם. וּמִנַּיִן אַף בַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, טז): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה, כְּמָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (איוב יג, כא): כַּפְּךָ מֵעָלַי הַרְחַק. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן. הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר (בראשית א, כד): תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, דְּאָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ (בראשית א, ב): וְרוּחַ אֱלֹקִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמֵר (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה', אִם זָכָה אָדָם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ אַתָּה קָדַמְתָּ לְמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, וְאִם לָאו אוֹמְרִים לוֹ זְבוּב קְדָמְךָ, יַתּוּשׁ קְדָמְךָ, שִׁלְשׁוּל זֶה קְדָמְךָ. אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן אָחוֹר לְכָל הַמַּעֲשִׂים, וָקֶדֶם לְכָל עֳנָשִׁין. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אַף בְּקִלּוּס אֵינוֹ בָּא אֶלָּא בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קמח, א): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם וגו', וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (תהלים קמח, ז): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הָאָרֶץ וגו' וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר (תהלים קמח, יא): מַלְכֵי אֶרֶץ וְכָל לְאֻמִּים (תהלים קמח, יב): בַּחוּרִים וְגַם בְּתוּלוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי כְּשֵׁם שֶׁקִּלּוּסוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף, כָּךְ בְּרִיָּתוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף, מַה טַּעְמֵיהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, כ): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כד): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ וגו', וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כו): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם וגו'.

after(1) 'And E-lohim said 'let's make Adam in our image, as our likeness' (Gen. 1:26) - Rabbi Yochanan opened with 'You hedge me before and behind; You lay Your hand upon me' (Ps. 139:5) and rabbi Yochanan said: 'if Adam had merits, he eats two worlds, as it's written 'You formed me before/achor and behind/kedem', and if not, he comes to receive judgment and accounting, as its written 'You lay Your hand upon me'. Said R. Yirmiyah ben Elazar: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created him [as] an androgyne [androginos], as it is said, “male and female He created them”. Said Rabbi Shmuel bar Nachman: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created him double-faced [du-par’tsufin], and sawed him and made him backs, a back here and a back [t]here, as it is said, “Before/achor and behind/kedem You formed me” [Ps. 139:5]. They objected to him: But it says, “He took one of his ribs [tsale'otav]” [Gen. 2:21]! He said to them: [It means, one of] his sides [sit’rohi], just as you would say, “And for the side [tsela] of the Tabernacle [mishkan]” [Ex 26:20], which they translate [in Aramaic] “for the side [setar] of the mishkan”. Rabbi Tanchuma in the name of Rabbi Banayah, and Rabbi Berachyah in the name of R. Elazar said: 'In the time that the Holy One of Blessing created the First Human [Adam HaRishon], [as] a golem He created him and he was extended from [one] end of the world and unto its [other] end – that’s what is written: “Your eyes did see my unformed substance [golmi], [and in Your book they were all written, even the days that were yet to be fashioned, when there was none of them.]” [Ps 139:16]. Rabbi Yehoshua bar Nechemiah and Rabbi Yehudah bar Simon said in Rabbi Elazar’s name said: He created him [Adam] filling the whole world. From where [do we know he extended] from the East to West? That it’s said: “Back [achor / after, the place of sunset] and before [kedem/East] You formed me [tsartani / enclosed me]” [Ps 139:5]. From where [do we know that he extended] from North to South? As it’s said: “and from the edge of the heavens and until the edge of the heavens” [Deut. 4:32]. And from where [that he filled] even the world’s hollow-space? That it’s said: “You laid Your palm upon me” [Ps 139:5] and as you say "Your palm is far away from me" [Job 13:21]. Said Rabbi Eleazar: Achor means before the deeds of the first day, Kedem means after the deeds of the last day. This is [also] the opinion of Rabbi Eleazar, as Rabbi Eleazar said: "'Let the earth bring forth nefesh chayah [living soul] after its kind [cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after its kind.' And it was so.]" (Gen. 1:24) - this is the spirit of First Human [Adam HaRishon]. Said Rabbi Shime'on Ben Lakish: Achor means for the last [acharon] day, and Kedem means for the first day. This is the opinion of Rabbi Shime'on Ben Lakish, since Resh Lakish said: "And the spirit of God hovered above the surface" (Gen 1:2) - this is the spirit of King Mashiach, like you say: "And the spirit of Ad-nai shall rest upon him [the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of Ad-nai]." (Isaiah 11:2) - if a human being merits, we say to him: 'you were created before the angels of service'; and if not we say to him: 'a fly was before you, a mosquito was before you, a worm was before you.' Said Rabbi Nachman: Achor means [after] all deeds, Kedem means [before] all punishments. Rabbi Shmuel said: even for praise the Human only came at the end, since it says "Praise y'all Ad-nai from the heavens" (Psalms 148:1) it says all the portion, then it says "Praise y'all Ad-nai from the earth" (Psalms 148:7) and says all the portion, and after that it says (Psalms 148:11) "Kings of the earth and all peoples" and "Young men and also maidens" (Psalms 148:12). Said Rabbi Simlai: just as his praise comes only after the animals, the wild animals and the birds; so too his covenant [brit] comes only after the animals, the wild animals and the birds. What is his [Simlai's] reasoning? It is written "And God said: 'Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures" (Genesis 1:20) and then "And God said: 'Let the earth bring forth the living creature after its kind" (Genesis 1:24) and then "And God created the Human in His own image" (Genesis 1:27).

(ה) אָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִבְרֹאת אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, נַעֲשׂוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת כִּתִּים כִּתִּים, וַחֲבוּרוֹת חֲבוּרוֹת, מֵהֶם אוֹמְרִים אַל יִבָּרֵא, וּמֵהֶם אוֹמְרִים יִבָּרֵא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים פה, יא): חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת נִפְגָּשׁוּ צֶדֶק וְשָׁלוֹם נָשָׁקוּ. חֶסֶד אוֹמֵר יִבָּרֵא, שֶׁהוּא גּוֹמֵל חֲסָדִים. וֶאֱמֶת אוֹמֵר אַל יִבָּרֵא, שֶׁכֻּלּוֹ שְׁקָרִים. צֶדֶק אוֹמֵר יִבָּרֵא, שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה צְדָקוֹת. שָׁלוֹם אוֹמֵר אַל יִבָּרֵא, דְּכוּלֵיהּ קְטָטָה. מֶה עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נָטַל אֱמֶת וְהִשְׁלִיכוֹ לָאָרֶץ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל ח, יב): וְתַשְׁלֵךְ אֱמֶת אַרְצָה, אָמְרוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים מָה אַתָּה מְבַזֶּה תַּכְסִיס אַלְטִיכְסְיָה שֶׁלָּךְ, תַּעֲלֶה אֱמֶת מִן הָאָרֶץ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים פה, יב): אֱמֶת מֵאֶרֶץ תִּצְמָח. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי לָהּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר אִידֵי וְרַבִּי פִּינְחָס וְרַבִּי חֶלְקִיָּה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי סִימוֹן אָמַר, מְאֹד, הוּא אָדָם. הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית א, לא): וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת כָּל אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וְהִנֵּה טוֹב מְאֹד, וְהִנֵּה טוֹב אָדָם. רַב הוּנָא רַבָּהּ שֶׁל צִפּוֹרִין אֲמַר עַד שֶׁמַּלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת מִדַּיְּנִין אֵלּוּ עִם אֵלּוּ וּמִתְעַסְּקִין אֵלּוּ עִם אֵלּוּ בְּרָאוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. אָמַר לָהֶן מָה אַתֶּם מִדַּיְּנִין כְּבָר נַעֲשָׂה אָדָם.

(5) Rabbi Simon said: At the time when the Holy Blessed One came to create the first man, the ministering angels formed themselves into groups, some saying 'man should not be created' and some saying 'man should be created.' As it says: "Kindness and Truth met; Justice and Peace kissed" (Psalms 85:11). Kindness said: man should be created because he does acts of kindness, and Truth said: man should not be created, because he is all lies. Justice said: man should be created because he does just acts, and Peace said: man should not be created because he is all quarrels. What did the Holy Blessed One do? God took Truth and threw him to the ground, as it says: "And Truth was thrown to the ground" (Daniel 8:12). The ministering angels said before the Blessed Holy One: Master of the Universe: why are You disgracing the chief of your court ceremonies - bring Truth back from the ground! As it says: "Truth will grow from the ground" (Psalms 85:12). The rabbis say this [same teaching] in the name of Rabbi Chanina bar Yidey and Rabbi Pinchas and rabbi Chelkiah in the name of rabbi Simon, who said: Much [mem/alef/dalet] - this is Adam [alef/dalet/mem], since it is written (Gen. 1:31) 'And E-lohim saw all that He had done, and behold it was very/much good - and behold Adam [is] good. Rav Huna, the rabbi of Tziporin, said: and while the angels of service are disputing [who is right] which one another, the Holy One of Blessing created him. And He said to them: what are you disputing? Adam is already made.

~ What does this midrash see in the human being? What space in the story does it wish to fill or explain?

(ח) כָּל מַה שֶּׁאַתָּה רוֹאֶה תּוֹלְדוֹת שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ הֵן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, א): בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ, בַּשֵּׁנִי בָּרָא מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, ו): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ. בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי בָּרָא מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, (בראשית א, יא): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִּים תַּדְשֵׁא הָאָרֶץ. בָּרְבִיעִי בָּרָא מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, (בראשית א, יד): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִּים יְהִי מְאֹרֹת. בַּחֲמִישִׁי בָּרָא מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, (בראשית א, כ): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם. בַּשִּׁשִּׁי בָּא לִבְרֹאת אֶת אָדָם אָמַר אִם אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים עַכְשָׁיו הָעֶלְיוֹנִים רָבִים עַל הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים בְּרִיָּה אַחַת וְאֵין שָׁלוֹם בָּעוֹלָם, וְאִם אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים עַכְשָׁיו הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים רָבִים עַל הָעֶלְיוֹנִים בְּרִיָּה אַחַת וְאֵין שָׁלוֹם בָּעוֹלָם, אֶלָּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וּמִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים בִּשְׁבִיל שָׁלוֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ב, ז): וַיִּיצֶר ה' אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם וגו'. עָפָר מִן הָאֲדָמָה, מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, (בראשית ב, ז): וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים, מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים. דְּאָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ (איוב כה, ב): הַמְשֵׁל וָפַחַד עִמּוֹ עֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם בִּמְרוֹמָיו. הַמְשֵׁל, זֶה גַּבְרִיאֵל. וָפַחַד, זֶה מִיכָאֵל.

(8) All that you see, they are generations of heavens and earth, as it is said: “In beginning, E-lohim created heavens and earth” [Gn 1:1]. On the second [day] He created from the upper ones / min ha'elyonim, as it is said: “And E-lohim said: Let there be a firmament” On the third He created from the lower ones / min hatachtonim: “And E-lohim said: Let the earth sprout”. On the fourth He created from the upper ones: “Let there be lights” On the fifth He created from the lower ones: “Let the waters swarm” On the sixth He came to create Adam. He said: If I create him from the upper ones, then the upper ones will be greater than the lower ones by one creation, and there won’t be peace in the world; and if I create him from the lower ones, then the lower ones will be greater than the upper ones by one creation, and there won’t be peace in the world. Rather, here am I [going to] create him from the upper ones and the lower ones, for the sake of peace / bish’vil shalom, since it is written ‘And Ad-nai E-lohim formed him dirt from the ground’—from the lower ones; ‘and He blew in his nostrils life’s breath / nishmat chayyim’ [Gn 2:7]—from the upper ones, since Rabbi Shime'on ben Lakish says: 'Dominion and fear with Him, the Maker of Peace on His heights'(Job 25:2). 'Dominion' , this is Gavriel; 'and fear' this is Michael.

What pattern does this midrash find?

How does this impact the creation of the Human Being? What else does this midrash say about the nature of Adam?

What is the last piece of this midrash? What does R. Shime'on ben Lakish's point add to the midrash?

(ח) רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן אָמַר, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה משֶׁה כּוֹתֵב אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, הָיָה כּוֹתֵב מַעֲשֵׂה כָּל יוֹם וָיוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לַפָּסוּק הַזֶּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ, אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים מָה אַתָּה נוֹתֵן פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לַמִּינִים, אֶתְמְהָא. אָמַר לוֹ כְּתֹב, וְהָרוֹצֶה לִטְעוֹת יִטְעֶה. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, משֶׁה, הָאָדָם הַזֶּה שֶׁבָּרָאתִי, לֹא גְּדוֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים אֲנִי מַעֲמִיד מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁאִם יָבוֹא הַגָּדוֹל לִטֹּל רְשׁוּת מִן הַקָּטָן מִמֶּנוּ וְהוּא אוֹמֵר מָה אֲנִי צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל רְשׁוּת מִן הַקָּטָן מִמֶּנִּי, וְהֵן אוֹמְרִים לוֹ לְמַד מִבּוֹרְאֶךָ, שֶׁהוּא בָּרָא אֶת הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וְאֶת הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּא לִבְרֹאת אֶת הָאָדָם נִמְלַךְ בְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי לֵית הָכָא מַלְכוּ, אֶלָּא מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה מְטַיֵּל בְּפֶתַח פָּלָטִין שֶׁלּוֹ, וְרָאָה בְּלוֹרִין אַחַת מוּשְׁלֶכֶת, אָמַר מַה נַּעֲשֶׂה בָהּ, מֵהֶן אוֹמְרִים דִּימוּסִיּוֹת, וּמֵהֶן אוֹמְרִים פְּרִיבְטָאוֹת, אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אִינְדַרְטִין אֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ, מִי מְעַכֵּב.

Rabbi Shmuel bar Nachman in the name of Rabbi Yonatan: At the time when Moshe was writing [the story of creation in] the Torah, he wrote the doings of each day. When he got to write the verse "And God said, Let us make man..." he said, 'Master of the World, why do we give opening for the claims of heretics? This is surprising!' He said to him, "Write. One who wishes to err, may err." The Holy One, blessed is He, said to Moshe, "This human that I create - shall I not establish great and small from him [his descendants]? For if [in the future] a great man should come to take counsel from a lesser man, he may say, "Who am I that I should take counsel from my inferior?" Then they will say to him, "Learn from your creator who created what is above and below, yet when He came to create man he took counsel from the ministering angels." Rabbi Levi said: He did not , rather, it is similar to a king that was walking in front of his palace, and he saw a bath-house cast down, and said 'what should we do with it?' Some said 'make it a public bath' and some said 'make it a private bath'. The king said 'I will make it a royal reception hall/a bust, who will prevent me?'

~ What are the anxieties expressed in this midrash about the text? How are they resolved?

~ What does this midrash express about the creation story, and how it impacts/should impact human beings?

(ז) מָה הָיָה אוֹתוֹ הָאִילָן שֶׁאָכַל מִמֶּנּוּ אָדָם וְחַוָּה, רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר חִטִּים הָיוּ, כַּד לָא הֲוָה בַּר נָשׁ דֵּעָה אִינּוּן אָמְרִין לָא אֲכַל הַהוּא אִינְשָׁא פִּתָּא דְּחִטֵּי מִן יוֹמוֹי. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַבִּי יִצְחָק בָּעֵי קַמֵּי רַבִּי זְעֵירָא אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֶפְשָׁר חִטִּים הָיוּ, אָמַר לוֹ הֵן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְהָכְתִיב עֵץ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מְתַמְּרוֹת הָיוּ כְּאַרְזֵי לְבָנוֹן. אָמַר רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר אַחָא אִתְפַּלְּגוּן רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר הַמּוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ, שֶׁכְּבָר הוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי מוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ, שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לְהוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עב, טז): יְהִי פִסַּת בַּר בָּאָרֶץ. לֶפֶת, תְּרֵין אָמוֹרָאִין פְּלִיגֵי, רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר יִצְחָק וְרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר אַמֵּי, חַד אָמַר לֶפֶת לֹא פַּת הָיְתָה, וְחוֹרָנָה אָמַר לֶפֶת לֹא פַּת הִיא עֲתִידָה לִהְיוֹת. רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בָּרֵיךְ קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי זֵירָא הַמּוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ וְקַלְסֵיהּ, כְּרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, אֶתְמְהָא. אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹא לְעָרֵב אֶת הָאוֹתִיּוֹת. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר אִלְעָאי אָמַר, עֲנָבִים הָיוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לב, לב לג): עֲנָבֵמוֹ עִנְבֵי רוֹשׁ אַשְׁכְּלֹת מְרֹרֹת לָמוֹ, אוֹתָן הָאֶשְׁכּוֹלוֹת הֵבִיאוּ מְרוֹרוֹת לָעוֹלָם. רַבִּי אַבָּא דְּעַכּוֹ אָמַר אֶתְרוֹג הָיָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (בראשית ג, ו): וַתֵּרֶא הָאִשָּׁה כִּי טוֹב הָעֵץ וגו', אֲמַרְתְּ צֵא וּרְאֵה אֵיזֶהוּ אִילָן שֶׁעֵצוֹ נֶאֱכָל כְּפִרְיוֹ, וְאֵין אַתָּה מוֹצֵא אֶלָּא אֶתְרוֹג. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר תְּאֵנִים הָיוּ, דָּבָר לָמֵד מֵעִנְיָנוֹ, מָשָׁל לְבֶן שָׂרִים שֶׁקִּלְקֵל עִם אַחַת מִן הַשְּׁפָחוֹת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁשָּׁמַע הַשַֹּׂר טְרָדוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ חוּץ לַפָּלָטִין, וְהָיָה מְחַזֵּר עַל פִּתְחֵיהֶן שֶׁל שְׁפָחוֹת וְלֹא הָיוּ מְקַבְּלוֹת אוֹתוֹ, אֲבָל אוֹתָהּ שֶׁקִּלְקְלָה עִמּוֹ פָּתְחָה דְלָתֶיהָ וְקִבִּלַתּוֹ. כָּךְ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָכַל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן מֵאוֹתוֹ הָאִילָן, טְרָדוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְהוֹצִיאוֹ חוּץ לְגַן עֵדֶן, וְהָיָה מְחַזֵּר עַל כָּל אִילָנוֹת וְלֹא הָיוּ מְקַבְּלִין אוֹתוֹ, וּמַה הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים לוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה הָא גַּנָּב דְּגָנַב דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּבָרְיֵהּ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים לו, יב): אַל תְּבוֹאֵנִי רֶגֶל גַּאֲוָה, רֶגֶל שֶׁנִּתְגָּאֶה עַל בּוֹרְאוֹ, (תהלים לו, יב): וְיַד רְשָׁעִים אַל תְּנִדֵנִי, לָא תִיסַב מִמֶּנִּי עָלֶה. אֲבָל תְּאֵנָה שֶׁאָכַל מִפֵּרוֹתֶיהָ, פָּתְחָה דְּלָתֶיהָ וְקִבְּלַתּוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ג, ז): וַיִּתְפְּרוּ עֲלֵה תְאֵנָה, מָה הָיְתָה אוֹתָהּ הַתְּאֵנָה, רַבִּי אָבִין אָמַר בְּרַת שֶׁבַע דְּאַמְטְיַת שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי אֶבְלָא לְעָלְמָא. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם ר"א אָמַר בְּרַת אֱלִיתָא, דְּאַמְטְיַת אֱלִיתָא לְעָלְמָא. רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר, חַס וְשָׁלוֹם לֹא גִּלָּה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אוֹתוֹ אִילָן לְאָדָם, וְלֹא עָתִיד לְגַלּוֹתוֹ. רְאֵה מַה כְּתִיב (ויקרא כ, טז): וְאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר תִּקְרַב אֶל כָּל בְּהֵמָה וגו', אִם אָדָם חָטָא בְּהֵמָה מַה חָטָאת, אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹא תְהֵא בְּהֵמָה עוֹבֶרֶת בַּשּׁוּק וְיֹאמְרוּ זוֹ הִיא הַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁנִּסְקַל פְּלוֹנִי עַל יָדָהּ, וְאִם עַל כְּבוֹד תּוֹלְדוֹתָיו חָס הַמָּקוֹם, עַל כְּבוֹדוֹ עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה, אֶתְמְהָא.

(7) What was the tree, from which Adam and Eve ate? Rabbi Meir said, it was wheat. When a person lacks knowledge people say "That person has not eaten bread made from wheat even a day." Rabbi Shmuel bar Rabbi Yitzhak asked before Rabbi Zeira and said to him "Is it possible that it is wheat?" He said to him, "Yes!" He said to him, "But isn't it written, 'tree'" He said to him, "It rose like the cedars of Lebanon" Rabbi Yaakov Bar Aha said: Rabbi Nechemiah and the Rabbis disagree. Rabbi Nechemiah said, "[When we bless our bread we should say]...'the one who brings bread from the earth', since bread already came from the earth." But the Rabbis say, "'who is bringing bread from the earth' since in the future he will bring bread from the earth, as it is said, 'There will be a abundant grain in the land.' (Psalm 72:16). What does the word lefet mean? Two [scholars] disagree. They are Rabbi Hanina son of Yitzhak and Rabbi Shmuel Bar Ami. One says: lefet means there was no bread and the other says lefet means there will be no bread in the future. Rabbi Jeremiah recited the blessing before Rabbi Zeira as "The one who brings bread from the earth" and he praised him. But does that mean we hold like Rabbi Nechemiah? Rather we say it so we don't mix up the letters. Rabbi Yehuda Bar Yilay said: they were grapes, as it is written 'their vine is from Sodom, from the vineyards of Gomorrah; their grapes are poison; a bitter growth, their clusters' (Deuteronomy 32:32-33), those same grapes brought bitterness to the world. Rabbi Aba from Akko said: it was an etrog tree, since it is written 'and the woman saw that the tree was good etc.'(Gen. 3:6), you say, go and see which tree can be eaten as its fruit, and the only one you find is the etrog tree. Rabi Yosi says: they were figs, the thing is learned from its issue, it is similar to a son of princes who had relations with one of the female slaves, and once the prince heard it he threw him out of the palace, and he came to the quarters of the female slaves and they wouldn't receive him, but the one who had relations with him opened her door and received him. So too, at the moment that Adam ate from the fruit the Holy One of Blessing sent him out of the Garden of Eden, and he went back to all the trees, but they wouldn't receive him, and what did they say to him? Rabbi Berachis: 'here is the thief who deceived his creator', since it is written "do not come close to me, arrogant foot' - a foot that was arrogant over its creator (Ps. 36:12) 'and the hand of the evil ones should not drive me' - not drive even a leaf away from me. But the fig tree, from which he ate its fruit opened its door and received him, since it is written "and they sewed from fig leaves" (Gen. 3:7). What was that exact fig tree? Rabbi Avin said: it is the 'daughter of seven', it brought seven days of mourning for the world. Rabbi Yehoshua of Sichnin said in the name of Rabbi Eleazar: it is the 'daughter of mourning', it brought wailing and weeping to the world. Rabbi Azaria and Rabbi Yehuda bar Simon say in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: 'It is not possible that the Holy One of Blessing revealed that tree to the Human and not redeem him in the future!' Look what is written:"If a woman approaches any beast [to mate with it, you shall kill the woman and the beast; they shall be put to death—their bloodguilt is upon them.]' (Lev. 20:16), if a person sins, what did the animal sin?! Rather, it is so that an animal would not pass in through the market and people say 'this is the animal that brought so-and-so to be stoned!' And if The Place has mercy on the honor of His creations, all the more so on His own honor! This is surprising.

~ What is the main question of the text? Is it resolved? If so, how?

~ What is the solution of the rabbis regarding what kind of tree it was? Is this surprising to you? What are we conditioned to think due to Christian iconography? Why?

(א) וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֱלֹהִים לֹא טוֹב הֱיוֹת (בראשית ב, יח), תְּנֵינַן בַּעֲשָׂרָה מַאֲמָרוֹת נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן (בראשית א, א): בְּרֵאשִׁית (בראשית א, ב): וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת (בראשית א, ג): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר (בראשית א, ו): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ (בראשית א, ט): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם (בראשית א, יא): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תַּדְּשֵׁא הָאָרֶץ

(בראשית א, יד): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי מְאֹרֹת

(בראשית א, כ): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם

(בראשית א, כד): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ

(בראשית א, כו): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם. מְנַחֵם בַּר יוֹסֵי מוֹצִיא וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת, וּמֵבִיא וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֱלֹהִים לֹא טוֹב הֱיוֹת הָאָדָם. אָמַר רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב בֶּן קוּרְשָׁאי מַאֲמָר נִתַּן לָרוּחַ בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ.

And Ad-nai E-lohim said: it is not good to be [, for the Human, alone](Gen 2:8). We learnt: By ten acts of speech the world was created, and these are they: In the beginning (Gen. 1:1);

And the spirit of God hovered (ib. 2);

And God said: Let there be light (ib. 3);

And God said: Let there be a firmament (ib. 6);

And God said: Let the waters be gathered together (ib. 9);

And God said: Let the earth put forth grass (ib.11);

And God said: Let there be lights (ib.14)

And God said: Let the waters swarm (ib. 20);

And God said: Let the earth bring forth (ib. 24);

And God said: Let us make man (ib. 26).

Menahem the son of Rav Yosi excludes, 'And the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters,' and includes And Ad-nai E-lohim said: it is not good to be, for the Human, alone. Said Rabbi Yaakov ben Rabbi Kurshai: A separate speaking was devoted to the wind.

~ What is this midrash addressing? Why is it important? What are other 'tens' that you know from the Jewish tradition?

(ב) לֹא טוֹב, תָּנֵי רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב כָּל שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אִשָּׁה, שָׁרוּי בְּלֹא טוֹבָה בְּלֹא עֵזֶר בְּלֹא שִׂמְחָה בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה בְּלֹא כַּפָּרָה. בְּלֹא טוֹבָה, לֹא טוֹב הֱיוֹת הָאָדָם לְבַדּוֹ. בְּלֹא עֵזֶר, אֶעֱשֶׂה לוֹ עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ. בְּלֹא שִׂמְחָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יד, כו): וְשָׂמַחְתָּ אַתָּה וּבֵיתֶךָ. בְּלֹא כַפָּרָה, (ויקרא טז, יא): וְכִפֶּר בַּעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ. בְּלֹא בְרָכָה (יחזקאל מד, ל): לְהָנִיחַ בְּרָכָה אֶל בֵּיתֶךָ. רַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי. יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר אַף בְּלֹא שָׁלוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א כה, ו): וְאַתָּה שָׁלוֹם וּבֵיתְךָ שָׁלוֹם. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר אַף בְּלֹא חַיִּים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (קהלת ט, ט): רְאֵה חַיִּים עִם אִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר אָהַבְתָּ. רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר גַּמְדָא אָמַר אַף אֵינוֹ אָדָם שָׁלֵם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ה, ב): וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם וַיִּקְרָא אֶת שְׁמָם אָדָם, שְׁנֵיהֶם כְּאֶחָד קְרוּיִים אָדָם. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים אַף מְמַעֵט אֶת הַדְּמוּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ט, ו): כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת הָאָדָם, מַה כְּתִיב אַחֲרָיו (בראשית ט, ז): וְאַתֶּם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ.

Not good[, the Human being alone]” (Gen 2:18) - Taught Rabbi Yaakov: Anyone (man) that has no woman lives without good, without help, without happiness, without blessing, without atonement. Without good: "Not good for the human to be alone." Without help: "I'll make a him helpmate"(Gen 2:18). Without happiness: "And you and your house will be happy"(Deut. 14:26). Without atonement: "And he will atone for himself and for his house" (Lev. 16:11). Without blessing: "To attach blessing to your house" (Ez. 44:30). Rabbi Simon in the name of R’ Yehoshua ben Levi said: Even without peace, as it is written "And for you peace, and for your house, peace" (I Sam. 25:6). Rabbi Yehoshua of Sichnin in the name of Rabbi Levi said: Even without life, as it is written "See life with the woman you love" (Eccl. 9:9) Rabbi Chiya bar Gamdi said: He is not even a whole human / adam shalem, for it says: “And He blessed them and called their name Adam”. (Gen 5:2) - the two together are called Adam. And there are those who say: he even diminishes the Image, as it is written "Because in the Image of E-lohim, He made Adam" (Gen. 9:6), what is written afterwards? "And you, be fruitful and multiply" (Gen. 9:7)

~ What is the main question of this midrash?

~ How is the word "house" being used?

~ What is the relationship between Adam and Chava, here?

~ How do you feel about this midrash?

~ Would the rabbis held the same midrash in our day and age?

(ג) אֶעֱשֶׂה לוֹ עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ, אִם זָכָה עֵזֶר, וְאִם לָאו כְּנֶגְדּוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה אִם זָכָה, כְּאִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר חֲכִינָאי, וְאִם לָאו, כְּאִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הֲוָה לֵיהּ אִנְתְּתָא בִּישָׁא, וַהֲוַת בְּרַתָּא דַּאֲחָתֵיהּ, וַהֲוַת בָּזֵית לֵיהּ קֳדָם תַּלְמִידוֹי, אָמְרִין תַּלְמִידָיו שַׁבְקָא לַהֲדָא אִנְתְּתָא בִּישָׁא דְּלֵיתָא מְיַקְרָךְ. אֲמַר לְהוֹן פּוּרְנָא רַב עָלַי, לֵית בְּיָדִי מָה אֶשְׁבּוֹק לָהּ. חַד זְמַן הֲווֹן יָתְבִין פָּשְׁטִין הוּא וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, דְּמִן חַסְלִין אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַשְׁגַּח רַבִּי וַאֲנַן סָלְקִין בְּבֵיתָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין, סָלֵיק, כִּי סְלֵיק אַמַּכַת לְאַפָּהּ וּנְפַקַת לָהּ, צָפָה בְּהַהִיא קְדֵרָה, אֲמַר לָהּ אִית בְּהַהִיא קְדֵרָה כְּלוּם, אֲמַרָה לֵיהּ אִית פַּרְפְּרָיִין, אָזַל גַּלֵּיתָהּ וְאַשְׁכַּח פַּרְגָיִין, יָדַע רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה מַה הוּא שָׁמַע, יָתְבוּן לְהוֹן אָכְלִין, אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי לָא אֲמַרַת אֶלָּא פַּרְפְּרָיִין וְהָא אַשְׁכַּחְנַן בְּגַוָּהּ פַּרְגָיִין, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַעֲשֶׂה נִסִּים הֵן. מִן דְּחַסְלִין אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי שְׁבוֹקָא הַהִיא אִנְתְּתָא מִינָךְ, דְּלֵית הִיא עָבְדָא לִיקְרָתָךְ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ פּוּרְנָא רַב עָלַי וְלֵית בִּי מָה אֶשְׁבּוֹק לָהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֲנַן יַהֲבִינַן לָהּ פּוּרְנָא וְשַׁבְקֵית מִינָךְ. עֲבַדּוּן לֵיהּ כֵּן פְּסַק לָהּ פּוּרְנָא וּשְׁבַק יָתָהּ מִינֵיהּ וְאַסְבוּן יָתֵיהּ אִתְּתָא אָחֳרָא טָבָא מִינַהּ, גַּרְמוּן חוֹבִין דְּהַהִיא אִתְּתָא וַאֲזַלַּת וְאִתְנַסְבֵית לְסַנְטְרִין דְּקַרְתָּא, לְבָתַר יוֹמִין אֲתוֹן יִסּוּרִין עָלָיו וְאִתְעַוֵּר, וַהֲוַת צָיְירַת בִּיְדֵיהּ וּמְחַזְרָא לֵיהּ עַל שְׁקָקַיָא דְּקַרְתָּא, כֵּיוָן דַּהֲוַת מַטְיָא בִּשְׁקָקַיָא דְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי הֲוַת קָיְימָא לָהּ וְחָזְרָה לַאֲחוֹרָהּ, מִן דַּהֲוָה הַהוּא גַבְרָא חַכִּים קַרְתָּא אֲמַר לָהּ לָמָּה אַתְּ לֹא מוֹבַלְתְּ לִי לִשְׁכוּנְתֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי, דַּאֲנָא שָׁמַע דְּהַהוּא עָבִיד מִצְוָה. אֲמַרַת לֵיהּ מַשְׁבַּקְתֵּיהּ אֲנָא, וְלֵית בִּי דְּלֶחֱמֵי סְבַר אַפּוֹהִי. חַד זְמַן אֲתוֹן קָרוֹן בִּשְׁכוּנְתֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי, אַרְגֵּישׁ בַּהּ יוֹם קֳדָמוֹי, וְיוֹם תִּנְיָן וּשְׁרֵי מָחֵי לָהּ, וַאֲזֵיל קָלְהוֹן וַהֲווֹן מִתְבַּזִּין בְּכָל קַרְתָּא, אוֹדִיק רַבִּי יוֹסֵי לְקָלְהוֹן וַחֲמְהוֹן מִתְבַּזִּין בְּגוֹ שׁוּקָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַתְּ מָחֵי לָהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ כָּל יוֹם הִיא מוֹבְדָה פַּרְנָסָתֵיהּ דְּהָדֵין שְׁקָקַיָּה מִנִּי, כֵּיוָן דִּשְׁמַע רַבִּי יוֹסֵי כֵּן נְסַבֵיהוֹן וִיהֵיב יָתְהוֹן בְּחָדָא בֵּיתָא מִן דִּידֵיהּ, וַהֲוָה מְפַרְנֵס יָתְהוֹן כָּל יוֹמֵי חַיֵּיהוֹן, עַל שֵׁם (ישעיה נח, ז): וּמִבְּשָׂרְךָ לֹא תִתְעַלָּם.

(3) "I will make him a helper corresponding to him [ezer knegdo]." If he merits it - a helper [ezer]; if not - an enemy [knegdo]. Rabbi Joshua the son of Nechemia said: If he merits it, [his helper] will be like the wife of Rabbi Hanina the son of Hachinai; if not, like the wife of Rabbi Yossi the Galilean. Rabbi Yossi had a bad wife - who was the daughter of his sister - and she would disparage him in front of his students. They said to him: Why don't you divorce this bad wife, she does you no honor! He said to them: she has a large dowry, and I cannot divorce her. One time he was sitting and teaching with Rabbi Eleazar the son of Azariyah, and when they finished, Rabbi Eleazar suggested that they go to Rabbi Yossi's house. Rabbi Yossi agreed, and so they went. When they got there, Rabbi Yossi's wife was scornful, and when she had left [the room] Rabbi Yossi looked in the pot. He said to her: there is nothing in the pot. She said to him: there is bread crumbs and vegetables. He went and found chickens. Rabbi Eleazar the son of Azariyah knew what he heard [understood that the marriage was an unhappy one]. They sat and ate [in silence]. Rabbi Eleazar said to Rabbi Yossi: Rabbi! You said that there was only bread and vegetables, and there was chicken! He replied: it was a miracle. When the meal was over, he said: Rabbi, you should leave this woman, she does not bring value to your life. He replied: her dowry is large, and I cannot divorce her. He said: we will cover the dowry, and you can divorce her. They did this, and he divorced her, and he found another woman to marry, who was better than the first. When he was finished financially supporting his first wife, she found and married a guardsmen of the town. After some time, an injury befell him [the guardsmen] and he was blinded, and she would go out with him around the streets to beg. When they approached the street of Rabbi Yossi, she turned around. He [due to his job] was a knowledgeable man when it came to the layout of the town, and he said to her: why do you not lead me down the street of Rabbi Yossi, I have heard it is a very generous man? She said: I was divorced from him, and I cannot face him now. Another time they called upon the neighborhood of Rabbi Yossi. He became angry with her on the first and second day, and eventually he started hitting her. The noise traveled, and they were shamed in the city. Rabbi Yossi examined the sound, and discovered that they were disgraced. He asked him [the former guardsmen]: why do you hit her? He replied: every day she deprives me of [potential] income from begging. When Rabbi Yossi heard this, he immediately brought them into his house, and supported them for the rest of his life, according to the verse: "And from your flesh do not turn away" (Isaiah 58:7).

~ How does this midrash understand the relationship between man and woman? Between husband and wife?

~ Why do we have no midrash about how good the wife of Rabbi Haninah bar Chaninai was?

(ד) וַיִּצֶר ה' אֱלֹהִים מִן הָאֲדָמָה (בראשית ב, יט), בְּעוֹן קוֹמֵי רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, כְּתִיב (בראשית א, כד): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ, וּמַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר וַיִּצֶר ה' אֱלֹהִים מִן הָאֲדָמָה כָּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה, אָמַר לָהֶן לְהַלָּן לַבְּרִיאָה, וְכָאן לְכִבּוּשׁ, הֵיאַךְ מַה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (דברים ב, יט): כִּי תָצוּר אֶל עִיר יָמִים רַבִּים, אָמַר רַבִּי אַחָא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִבְרֹאת אֶת הָאָדָם, נִמְלַךְ בְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, אָמַר לָהֶן (בראשית א, כו): נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ אָדָם זֶה מַה טִּיבוֹ, אָמַר לָהֶן חָכְמָתוֹ מְרֻבָּה מִשֶּׁלָּכֶם, הֵבִיא לִפְנֵיהֶם אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה וְאֶת הַחַיָּה וְאֶת הָעוֹף, אָמַר לָהֶם זֶה מַה שְּׁמוֹ וְלֹא הָיוּ יוֹדְעִין, הֶעֱבִירָן לִפְנֵי אָדָם, אָמַר לוֹ זֶה מַה שְּׁמוֹ, אָמַר זֶה שׁוֹר, זֶה חֲמוֹר, זֶה סוּס וְזֶה גַּמָּל, וְאַתָּה מַה שְּׁמֶךָ, אָמַר לוֹ אֲנִי נָאֶה לְהִקָּרֵא אָדָם שֶׁנִּבְרֵאתִי מִן הָאֲדָמָה, וַאֲנִי מַה שְּׁמִי, אָמַר לוֹ לְךָ נָאֶה לְהִקָרְאוֹת אֲדֹנָי, שֶׁאַתָּה אָדוֹן לְכָל בְּרִיּוֹתֶיךָ. אָמַר רַבִּי אֲחָא (ישעיה מב, ח): אֲנִי ה' הוּא שְׁמִי, הוּא שְׁמִי שֶׁקָּרָא לִי אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. חָזַר וְהֶעֱבִירָן לְפָנָיו זוּגוֹת, אָמַר לַכֹּל יֵשׁ בֶּן זוּג וְלִי אֵין בֶּן זוּג, (בראשית ב, כ): וּלְאָדָם לֹא מָצָא עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ, אֶתְמְהָא, וְלָמָּה לֹא בְרָאָהּ לוֹ תְּחִלָּה, אֶלָּא צָפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לִקְרוֹת עָלֶיהָ תִּגָּר, לְפִיכָךְ לֹא בְּרָאָהּ לוֹ עַד שֶׁתְּבָעָהּ בְּפִיו, כֵּיוָן שֶׁתְּבָעָהּ, מִיָּד (בראשית ב, כא): וַיַּפֵּל ה' אֱלֹהִים תַּרְדֵּמָה וגו'.

(4) "And the Lord God created [animals] from the earth." It asked of Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakkai: It is written: "And the Lord said, let the earth bring forth living beings by kind" (Genesis 1:24) - what is being taught by saying "And the Lord God created all animals of the field"? He answered them: the earlier was about creation, and the later was about gathering [to be named], like the verse says: "when you besiege a city for many days..." (Deuteronomy 20:19). Rabbi Aha said: when the Holy One, Blessed be He, came to create the world, he consulted the angels of the heavenly court. He said to them: "Let us make Adam" (Genesis 1:26). They said to him: this Adam, what is his nature? He said to them: his wisdom exceeds yours. He brought before them the domesticated beasts, the wild beasts, and the birds. He said to them: what are their names? They did not know. He brought them before Adam. He said to him: what are their names? Adam said: this is a ox, this is a donkey, this is a cow, this is a camel. And you, what is your name? Adam said to him: it is fitting that I should be called 'Adam' as I was created from the earth [adamah]. And Me, what is My name? Adam said to Him: it is fitting to call You Adonai, as You are the master [adon] of all your creations. Rabbi Hiyyah said: "I am God, that is my name" (Isaiah 42:8). "That is my name" - that Adam, the first person, called me. God returned and brought before Adam pairs [of animals]. Adam said: to each and every one there is a pair, but I have no pair! "And for Adam no help-mate was found" (Genesis 2:20). And why did God not create her first? Rather, The Holy One, Blessed be He, foresaw that Adam would be charges against her, and so he did not create her until Adam expressly requested it. Once he requested it, immediately: "And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall..." (Genesis 2:21)

(ה) וַיַּפֵּל ה' אֱלֹהִים תַּרְדֵּמָה (בראשית ב, כא), רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר תְּחִלַּת מַפָּלָה שֵׁנָה, דָּמַךְ לֵיהּ וְלָא לָעֵי בְּאוֹרַיְתָא, וְלָא עָבֵיד עֲבִידְתָּא. רַב אָמַר שָׁלשׁ תַּרְדֵמוֹת הֵן, תַּרְדֵּמַת שֵׁנָה, וְתַרְדֵּמַת נְבוּאָה, וְתַרְדֵּמַת מַרְמִיטָה. תַּרְדֵּמַת שֵׁנָה וַיַּפֵּל ה' אֱלֹהִים תַּרְדֵּמָה עַל הָאָדָם וַיִּישָׁן. תַּרְדֵּמַת נְבוּאָה (בראשית טו, יב): וַיְהִי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לָבוֹא וְתַרְדֵּמָה נָפְלָה עַל אַבְרָם. תַּרְדֵּמַת מַרְמִיטָה (שמואל א כו, יב): אֵין רֹאֶה וְאֵין יוֹדֵעַ וְאֵין מֵקִיץ כִּי כֻלָּם יְשֵׁנִים כִּי תַּרְדֵּמַת ה' נָפְלָה עֲלֵיהֶם. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי אַף תַּרְדֵּמָה שֶׁל שְׁטוּת, דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה כט, י): כִּי נָסַךְ עֲלֵיכֶם ה' רוּחַ תַּרְדֵּמָה. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר יִצְחָק אָמַר שָׁלשׁ נוֹבְלוֹת הֵן, נוֹבֶלֶת מִיתָה, שֵׁנָה. נוֹבֶלֶת נְבוּאָה, חֲלוֹם. נוֹבֶלֶת הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שַׁבָּת. רַבִּי אָבִין מוֹסִיף עוֹד תַּרְתֵּין, נוֹבֶלֶת אוֹרָה שֶׁל מַעְלָה, גַּלְגַּל חַמָּה. נוֹבֶלֶת חָכְמָה שֶׁל מַעְלָה, תּוֹרָה.

(5) "And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall." Rabbi Joshua of Sichnin in the name of Rabbi Levi said: the beginning of a man's downfall is sleep. When asleep, he does not engage in study or work. Rav said: there are three types of deep sleep: the deep sleep of sleep; the deep sleep of prophecy; and the deep sleep of a trance. The deep sleep of sleep: "And the Lord God caused a deep sleep [tardemah] to fall on Adam, and he slept" (Genesis 2:21). The deep sleep of prophecy: "And the sun went down and a deep sleep [tardemah] fell over Avram" (Genesis 15:12). The deep sleep of a trance: "And no one saw, and no one knew and no one awoke because all were sleeping, because the deep sleep [tardemah] of God has fallen on them" (Samuel I 26:12). The Rabbis said: [there is a fourth type] even the deep sleep of folly, as it is written: "Because God poured upon you the spirit of deep sleep [tardemah]" (Isaiah 29:9). Rabbi Hanina bar Yitzchak said: there are three varieties of analogy: A taste of death - is sleep; a taste of prophecy - is dreaming; a taste of the world to come - is Shabbat. Rabbi Avin added two more: a taste of the light of heaven - is the sun; a taste of the wisdom of heaven - is Torah.

סי' אש"ה וקרק"ע עז"ר זא"ת שת"י הברכו"ת תגר"י פחת"י: א"ר אלעזר כל אדם שאין לו אשה אינו אדם שנאמר (בראשית ה, ב) זכר ונקבה בראם ויקרא את שמם אדם ואמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שאין לו קרקע אינו אדם שנא' (תהלים קטו, טז) השמים שמים לה' והארץ נתן לבני אדם ואמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב (בראשית ב, יח) אעשה לו עזר כנגדו זכה עוזרתו לא זכה כנגדו ואיכא דאמרי ר' אלעזר רמי כתיב כנגדו וקרינן כניגדו זכה כנגדו לא זכה מנגדתו אשכחיה רבי יוסי לאליהו א"ל כתיב אעשה לו עזר במה אשה עוזרתו לאדם א"ל אדם מביא חיטין חיטין כוסס פשתן פשתן לובש לא נמצאת מאירה עיניו ומעמידתו על רגליו וא"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (בראשית ב, כג) זאת הפעם עצם מעצמי ובשר מבשרי מלמד שבא אדם על כל בהמה וחיה ולא נתקררה דעתו עד שבא על חוה
§ The Gemara provides a mnemonic device for a series of statements cited in the name of Rabbi Elazar: Woman; and land; helper; this; two; the blessings; merchants; lowly. The Gemara presents these statements: Rabbi Elazar said: Any man who does not have a wife is not a man, as it is stated: “Male and female He created them…and called their name Adam” (Genesis 5:2). And Rabbi Elazar said: Any man who does not have his own land is not a man, as it is stated: “The heavens are the heavens of the Lord; but the earth He has given to the children of men” (Psalms 115:16). And Rabbi Elazar said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “I will make him a helpmate for him [kenegdo]” (Genesis 2:18)? If one is worthy his wife helps him; if he is not worthy she is against him. And some say a slightly different version: Rabbi Elazar raised a contradiction: It is written in the Torah with a spelling that allows it to be read: Striking him [kenagdo], and we read it as though it said: For him [kenegdo]. If he is worthy she is for him as his helpmate; if he is not worthy she strikes him. The Gemara relates that Rabbi Yosei encountered Elijah the prophet and said to him: It is written: I will make him a helpmate. In what manner does a woman help a man? Elijah said to him: When a man brings wheat from the field, does he chew raw wheat? When he brings home flax, does he wear unprocessed flax? His wife turns the raw products into bread and clothing. Is his wife not found to be the one who lights up his eyes and stands him on his feet? And Rabbi Elazar said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh” (Genesis 2:23)? This teaches that Adam had intercourse with each animal and beast in his search for his mate, and his mind was not at ease, in accordance with the verse: “And for Adam, there was not found a helpmate for him” (Genesis 2:20), until he had intercourse with Eve.

(ו) וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו (בראשית ב, כא), רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר מִן סִטְרוֹהִי, הֵיךְ מַה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כו, כ): וּלְצֶלַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן. וּשְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר עִלְעָא חָדָא מִבֵּין שְׁתֵּי צַלְעוֹתָיו נָטַל, תַּחְתֶּיהָ אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא (בראשית ב, כא): תַּחְתֶּנָּה. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב אִידֵי מִתְּחִלַּת הַסֵּפֶר וְעַד כָּאן אֵין כְּתִיב סַמֶּ"ךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּבְרֵאת נִבְרָא שָׂטָן עִמָּהּ, וְאִם יֹאמַר לְךָ אָדָם (בראשית ב, יא יג): הוּא הַסּוֹבֵב, תֹּאמַר לוֹ בִּנְהָרוֹת הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר יִצְחָק, עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נוֹי לְתַחְתִּיתוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹא יְהֵא מִתְבַּזֶּה כִּבְהֵמָה. רַבִּי אַמֵּי וְרַבִּי יַנַּאי חַד אָמַר עָשָׂה לוֹ מִנְעָל וַאֲפִיפּוֹרִין כָּבוּשׁ עָלָיו כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹא יִצְטָעֵר כְּשֶׁהוּא יוֹשֵׁב. וְחָרָנָא אָמַר עָשָׂה לוֹ כְּסָתוֹת. רַבִּי לֵוִי וְרַבִּי אַמֵּי חַד אָמַר עָשָׂה לוֹ קְבוּרָה, וְחַד אָמַר עָשָׂה לוֹ תַּכְרִיכִין.

(6) "And He took one of his ribs." Rabbi Shmuel bar Nachman said: from one of his sides, as it says: "And for the side of the tabernacle" (Exodus 26:20). Shmuel said: He took one rib from between two other ribs. 'From under it' was not written, rather "from under them." Rabbi Hanina the son of Rav Idi: from the beginning of the book until now there has not been a samech, once Eve was created, Satan was created with her. And if you want to argue that man is the one that circles, the reply is that the text is talking about the rivers [that encircle Eden]. Rabbi Hanina bar Yitzchak said: The Holy one, Blessed be He, decorated his bottom so that he would not be disgraceful like an animal. Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Yannai; one said: He made his buttocks a cover so that he would not be pained when he sat down, and one said: He made him covers. Rabbi Levi and Rabbi Ami; one said: he made him bury, and one said: he made him burial garments.

(ז) מַטְרוֹנָה אַחַת שָׁאֲלָה אֶת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, אָמְרָה לוֹ, לָמָּה בִּגְנֵבָה, אָמַר לָהּ מָשָׁל אִם הִפְקִיד אָדָם לְיָדֵךְ אוּנְקְיָא שֶׁל כֶּסֶף בַּחֲשַׁאי וְחָזַרְתְּ לֵיהּ לִטְרָא שֶׁל זָהָב בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא, זוֹ גְּנֵבָה. אָמְרָה לוֹ, לָמָּה בְּמַטְמוֹנִיּוֹת, וְאָמַר לָהּ בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּרָאָהּ לוֹ, וְרָאָה אוֹתָהּ מְלֵאָה רִירִין וְדָם הִפְלִיגָהּ מִמֶּנוּ, חָזַר וּבְרָאָהּ לוֹ פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה. אָמְרָה לוֹ מוֹסֶפֶת אֲנִי עַל דְּבָרֶיךָ, אֲמוּרָה הָיִיתִי לְהִנָּשֵׂא לַאֲחִי אִמִּי, וְעַל יְדֵי שֶׁגָּדַלְתִּי עִמּוֹ בַּבַּיִת הִתְכַּעַרְתִּי בְּעֵינָיו, וְהָלַךְ וְנָשָׂא לוֹ אִשָּׁה אַחֶרֶת וְאֵינָהּ נָאָה כָּמוֹנִי. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּחָסִיד אֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה נָשׂוּי לַחֲסִידָה אַחַת וְלֹא הֶעֱמִידוּ בָנִים זֶה מִזֶּה, אָמְרוּ אֵין אָנוּ מוֹעִילִים לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כְּלוּם, עָמְדוּ וְגֵרְשׁוּ זֶה אֶת זֶה, הָלַךְ זֶה וְנָשָׂא רְשָׁעָה אַחַת וְעָשְׂתָה אוֹתוֹ רָשָׁע, הָלְכָה זֹאת וְנִשַֹּׂאת לְרָשָׁע אֶחָד וְעָשְׂתָה אוֹתוֹ צַדִּיק, הֱוֵי שֶׁהַכֹּל מִן הָאִשָּׁה.

(7) A certain matron asked Rabbi Yosi, saying: why did God steal [Adam's rib]? He replied in a parable: if a person gave you a deposit of an ounce of silver in secret, and returned to you a pound of gold publicly, would that be stealing? She said to him: so why was it done in secret? He replied: at first, He created her, and Adam saw her full of secretions and blood. He kept her away from him, and went back and created her a second time. She said to him: I will add further, I was meant to marry my mother's brother, but because I grew up in the same house as him, I was unattractive in his eyes, and he went and married a different woman, who is less attractive than I am. A story [is told] of a pious man and his wife who could not have kids. They said: we are of no benefit to the Holy of of Blessing, so they divorced. He went and married a wicked woman, and she made him wicked; and she went and married a wicked man, and she made him righteous. Thus: everything is from the woman.

(א) וַיִּבֶן ה' אֱלֹהִים אֶת הַצֵּלָע, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן זִמְרָא אָמַר נִתַּן בָּהּ בִּינָה יוֹתֵר מִן הָאִישׁ, דְּתָנִינָן בַּת י"א שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד נְדָרֶיהָ נִבְדָּקִין, בַּת י"ב שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד נְדָרֶיהָ קַיָּימִין וּבוֹדְקִין כָּל י"ב, אֲבָל לְזָכָר בֶּן י"ב שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד נְדָרָיו נִבְדָקִין, בֶּן י"ג נְדָרָיו קַיָּימִין וּבוֹדְקִין כָּל י"ג. רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַב יִצְחָק אָמַר אִית דִּמְחַלְּפִין, דַּרְכָּהּ שֶׁל אִשָּׁה לִהְיוֹת יוֹשֶׁבֶת בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתָהּ וְדַרְכּוֹ שֶׁל אִישׁ לִהְיוֹת יוֹצֵא לַשּׁוּק וְלָמֵד בִּינָה מִבְּנֵי אָדָם. רַבִּי אַיְבוּ וְאַמְרֵי לָהּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בְּנָיָיה וְהוּא תָּנֵי לָהּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי, קִשְׁטָהּ כַּכַּלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הֱבִיאָהּ לוֹ. אִית אַתְרִין דְּקָרְיָין לְקַלְעִיתָא בִּנְיָתָא. אָמַר רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר חֲנִינָא אַתְּ סָבוּר שֶׁמִּתַּחַת חָרוּב אֶחָד אוֹ שִׁקְמָה אַחַת הֱבִיאָהּ לוֹ, אֶלָּא מִשֶּׁקִּשְׁטָהּ בְּכ"ד מִינֵי תַּכְשִׁיטִין אַחַר כָּךְ הֱבִיאָהּ לוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (יחזקאל כח, יג): בְּעֵדֶן גַּן אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ כָּל אֶבֶן יְקָרָה מְסֻכָתֶךָ אֹדֶם פִּטְדָה וגו'. רַבָּנָן וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי עֶשֶׂר, וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אָמַר י"א. רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר חֲנִינָא וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ תַּרְוֵיהוֹן אָמְרִין כְּלַל וּפְרַט, עָשָׂה אֶת הַכְּלַל מוֹסֶפֶת לַפְּרַט וְהַכֹּל בִּכְלַל, כָּל אֶבֶן יְקָרָה מְסֻכָתֶךָ כְּלַל, אֹדֶם פִּטְדָה וְיָהֲלֹם תַּרְשִׁישׁ וגו' פְּרַט, הַכֹּל בִּכְלַל. כָּל אֶבֶן יְקָרָה מְסֻכָתֶךָ, רַבִּי לֵוִי וְרַבִּי סִימוֹן, חַד אָמַר ט' וְחַד אָמַר י', מַאן דְּאָמַר עֶשֶׂר, כְּרַבָּנָן, וּמַאן דְּאָמַר ט' הָדֵין דְּהַב דְּהָכָא לֵית הוּא חֻפָּה. רַבִּי אַחָא בַּר חֲנִינָא אָמַר עָשָׂה כְּתָלִים שֶׁל זָהָב, וּבָתֵּי קְרָיוֹת שֶׁל אֲבָנִים טוֹבוֹת וּמַרְגָּלִיּוֹת. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר בִּיסְנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַחָא אָמַר אֲפִלּוּ קוֹרְקוּסִים שֶׁל זָהָב עָשָׂה לוֹ.

(1) "And God built [out of] the rib" - Rabbi Eliezer said in the name of Rabbi Yossi the son of Zimra: woman was endowed with more understanding than man. As it is taught: at eleven years and one day, her vows stick; at twelve years and one day her vows apply; and all twelve-year-olds are checked. But for males, at twelve years and one day his vows stick; at thirteen years they apply, and all thirteen-year-olds are checked. Rabbi Yirmiya said in the name of Rabbi Shmuel bar Yitzchak: there are those that say the opposite, as the way of a woman is to sit in her home, and the way of a many is to go out to the marketplace and learn understanding from others. Rabbi Aybu said, and some attribute it to the name of Rabbi Benaya, and it is [also] taught in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai: [God] adorned her [Eve] like a bride, and afterwards brought her to him [Adam]. In some places they call 'kil'ata' [braids] 'bin'yata' [net-works]. Rabbi Hamma bar Chanina said: you think that she was brought to him under a carob or sycamore tree, rather she was adorned with twenty four kinds of finery, and then brought to him, as it says: "In Eden, the garden of God you were, and all precious stones were your covering: the carnelian, the topaz..." (Ezekiel 28:13). The Rabbis and Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish; the Rabbis said: ten, and Rabbi Shimon said: eleven. Rabbi Hamma bar Chanina and Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish both said: a general rule followed by a specific; follow the general rule by adding the specific, and it is all in the general rule - "every precious stone is your covering" is a general rule. "Carnelian, topaz, emerald, beryl..." are the specifics. Follow the general rule - "every precious stone is your covering." Rabbi Levi and Rabbi Simon: one said nine, and one said ten. The one who said ten is like the Rabbis, and the one who said nine argues that the "gold" mentioned in the verse surely does not refer to a canopy. Rabbi Acha bar Chanina said: he made walls of gold and coverings of precious stones and pearls. Rabbi Eleazar bar Bisna said in the name of Rabbi Aha: He even made him hooks of gold.

(ו) וַיִּהְיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם עֲרוּמִּים (בראשית ב, כה), אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר שְׁלשָׁה הֵן שֶׁלֹא הִמְתִּינוּ בְּשַׁלְוָתָן שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת וְאֵלּוּ הֵן, אָדָם, וְיִשְׂרָאֵל, וְסִיסְרָא. אָדָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ב, כה): וְלֹא יִתְבּוֹשָׁשׁוּ, לֹא בָאוּ שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת וְהוּא בְּשַׁלְוָתוֹ. וְיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לב, א): וַיַּרְא הָעָם כִּי בשֵׁשׁ משֶׁה, כִּי בָאוּ שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת וְלֹא בָא משֶׁה. סִיסְרָא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים ה, כח): מַדּוּעַ בּשֵׁשׁ רִכְבּוֹ לָבוֹא, בְּכָל יוֹם הָיָה לָמוּד לָבוֹא בְּשָׁלשׁ שָׁעוֹת בְּאַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת, וְעַכְשָׁיו בָּאוּ שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת וְלֹא בָא, הֱוֵי וְלֹא יִתְבּוֹשָׁשׁוּ. וְהַנָּחָשׁ הָיָה עָרוּם (בראשית ג, א), לֹא הָיָה צָרִיךְ קְרָא לוֹמַר אֶלָּא (בראשית ג, כא): וַיַּעַשׂ ה' אֱלֹהִים לְאָדָם וּלְאִשְׁתּוֹ וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קָרְחָה לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ מֵאֵי זוֹ חַטָּיָה קָפַץ עֲלֵיהֶם אוֹתוֹ הָרָשָׁע, מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁרָאָה אוֹתָן מִתְעַסְּקִין בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶרֶץ וְנִתְאַוָּה לָהּ. אָמַר רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב דִּכְפַר חָנִין שֶׁלֹא לְהַפְסִיק בְּפָרָשָׁתוֹ שֶׁל נָחָשׁ.

(6) "And they were both naked." Rabbi Eleazar said: there were three who did not wait for their contentment even six hours, and these are they: Adam, and Israel, and Sisra. Adam, as it says: "and they were not embarrassed" (Genesis 2:25) - six hours had not passed, and he was content. Israel, as it says: "And the nation saw that Moses delayed" (Exodus 32:1), when six hours had passed and Moses had not appeared. Sisra, as it says: "Why does his chariot delay in coming?" (Judges 5:28) - every day he would come in three or four hours, and today six hours have past and he is not here - these are all cases related to "and they were not embarrassed." "And the snake was crafty" (Genesis 3:1) - the text only needed to continue with "And Hashem God made for Adam and his wife..." (Genesis 3:21). Rabbi Yehoshua ben Karchah said: to teach you which temptation the snake sprung on them - he saw them engaged in the way of the world, and desired here. Rabbi Yaakov of the village of Hannin said: to not pause the story of the snake.

(ב) דבר אחר זה שאמר הכתוב (משלי יח כב) מצא אשה מצא טוב. וכאן אתה אומר (קהלת ז כו) ומוצא אני מר ממות את האשה. אלא אם אשה רעה היא אין סוף לרעתה. ואם אשה טובה היא אין סוף לטובתה. הוי מצא אשה מצא טוב. את מוצא עד שלא נבראת האשה מה כתיב (בראשית ב יח) לא טוב היות האדם לבדו. משנבראה מה כתיב (שם א לא) וירא אלקים את כל אשר עשה והנה טוב מאד. הוי מצא טוב. ...

Another idea: this is what the text says "found a woman, found good" (Proverbs 18: 22). And here you say "and I find the woman bitter than death" (Kohelet/Ecclesiastes 7:26). Rather, [explain the contradiction like this] if she is an evil woman, there is no end to her wickedness; and if she is a good woman, there is no end to her goodness - this is found a woman, found good. You find that until she was created, what is written? "It is not good for the Man to be alone" (Genesis 2:18). And from the moment she was created, what is written? "And God saw all that He had made, and it was very good" (Genesis 1:31). So, this is 'found good'. ...

ויאמר אדם זאת הפעם עצם מעצמי וגו'. מלמד שבא אדם על חיה ובהמה, ולא נתקררה דעתו, עד שנזדווג לחוה:
לזאת יקרה אשה. את מוצא זכר ונקבה נקראו אש, ולא היו יכולין לעמוד עד ששיתף הקב"ה שמו בהם, ה' באשה וי' באיש הרי י'ה', מלמד שהוא משותף על שניהם: