Exodus 21:33-34
2 ב
וְכִי יִפְתַּח אִישׁ בּוֹר אוֹ כִּי יִכְרֶה אִישׁ בֹּר וְלֹא יְכַסֶּנּוּ וְנָפַל שָׁמָּה שּׁוֹר אוֹ חֲמוֹר: בַּעַל הַבּוֹר יְשַׁלֵּם כֶּסֶף יָשִׁיב לִבְעָלָיו וְהַמֵּת יִהְיֶה לּוֹ:
When a person opens a pit, or digs a pit and does not cover it, and an ox or a donkey falls into it, the one responsible for the pit must make restitution; he or she shall pay the price to the owner, but shall keep the dead animal. [JPS translation Edited for gender neutrality]
3 ג

Suggested Discussion Questions:

1. Why is the digger of the pit responsible? In what situation would the owner of the animal be responsible?

2. What are the implications of this text on broader issues of negligence and responsibility?

4 ד
Time Period: Biblical (early ancestors to 165 BCE)