סדר ליל יום הכפורים ובו ג סעיפים:
ליל יום הכפורים נוהגים שאומר שליח צבור בישיבה של מעלה ובישיבה של מטה ע"ד המקום ועל דעת הקהל אנו מתירים להתפלל עם העבריינים ונוהגים שאומר כל נדרי וכו' ואח"כ אומר שהחיינו בלא כוס: הגה ואח"כ מתפללים ערבית ונוהגים לומר כל נדרי בעודו יום וממשיך בניגונים עד הלילה ואומרים אותו שלשה פעמים וכל פעם מגביה קולו יותר מבראשונה (מהרי"ל) וכן אומר הש"צ ג"פ ונסלח לכל עדת וגו' והקהל אומרים ג' פעמים ויאמר ה' סלחתי כדבריך (מנהגים) ואל ישנה אדם ממנהג העיר אפילו בניגונים או בפיוטים שאומרים שם (מהרי"ל): “The order (of prayer) on the Night of Yom Kippur” - Containing six paragraphs.
On the Night of Yom Kippur the custom is that the reader says, “In the court of high, in the court of low (earthly); with the consent of God and with the consent of the congregation, we are permitted to pray together with the transgressors140This is the prayer that the reader recites as the services begin on the night of Yom Kippur after the sun goes down marking the beginning of the Day of Atonement. The prayer is said immediately after placing on the talit, the prayer shawl, which is only worn during the day, but exceptionally, also on the night of Yom Kippur.
The word "transgressors" at the end of the prayer referred originally to the Marranos, those Jews who chose to convert to Christianity rather than suffer as Jews.”, and it is customary that he say “Kol Nidrei”, (“All the Vows”)141The Evening Service (see footnote 144) on the night of Yom Kippur has taken on the name of Kol Nidrei, כל נדרי, "All Vows" after the unique Aramaic prayer of the same name that marks the beginning of the Service. The prayer is a supplication for annulment of vows. The congregants pray that all the personal vows, oaths, and obligations that will be made during the coming year should be null and void. This applies to vows made between man and God. The recitation of the Kol Nidrei begins while there is still daylight and is prolonged until the sun sets. It has become the custom to repeat the chant three times so that late comers can be sure and hear it. The prayer relieved anxieties of a person who worried that he might have violated the sanctity of some pledge. The rabbis were concerned with the ease of annulling a vow and put certain restrictions on the procedure.
The origin of the Kol Nidrei is not know for sure. It is mentioned in the responsa of Babylonian geonim (see footnote 19) in the eigth century. It was condemned by the geonim of Sura. Some theorize that it originated in Palestine as a Rabhanite practice against the Karaites. Some feel that prayer has mystical origins like other Aramaic prayers which annul curses and oaths which had touched off evil forces in the community. By 1000 C.E. the prayer had been generally accepted by the Pumbedita geonim as a way to invoke pardon, forgiveness and atonement for failing to keep a vow from the previous Day of Atonement to this one. Rabbenu Tam's version changed the wording to read from this Day of Atonement to the next, the wording accepted by most Ashkenazim while most Sephardim except for the oriental and Yemenites, refer to past vows not future ones.
Anti-Semites have often used this prayer as evidence that the vow of a Jew was worthless, even though the prayer does not refer to man's vows with his fellow man, only with God.
Bathja Bayer, E. J., v. 10, pp. 1166-68. (and the entire prayer that follows) and afterward he says (the prayer) “שהחינו142The prayer Sheheḥayanu is a prayer recited at the beginning of festivals, minor holidays, and at special times which mark a new, significant event and also when acquiring and putting on new clothing. It is a prayer which thanks God for allowing us to live and celebrate a joyous occasion. "Blessed art Thou, O Lord our God, King of the Universe, who hast kept us in life, and has preserved us, and enabled us to reach this season."” without a cup (of wine).143Normally when the Sheheḥayanu (see footnote 142) prayer is recited at a festival, it can be said with a cup of wine, but since Yom Kippur is a fast day, the wine is not permitted.
Hagah: And afterwards they say the Evening Prayer.144The Evening Prayer Arvit, ערבית, is also referred to as the Ma'ariv Service, which is the word at the beginning and end of the first blessing before the Shema, (see footnote 17 and 173). Originally the Arvit Service was an optional one since there was not an evening Temple sacrifice that corresponded to it as was the case with the Shaḥarit (see footnote 17), Minḥah (see footnote 40) and Musaf (see footnote 166) Service. Traditionally this Service was attributed to Jacob who prayed and Evening Service (Genesis 28:11).
The Arvit Service basically consists of a Barekhu which is a call to worship followed by the Shema and its benedictions and the Amidah (see footnote 43). After nightfall Psalm 134 begins the Service. On weekdays the Service begins with Psalms 78:38 and 20:10.
The blessings around the Shema are a bit different for the Arvit Service. The theme of the first blessing before the Shema is the change from evening to night and the second blessing is one of thanksgiving for the love shown by God for Israel in revealing his Torah. The blessing which follows the Shema in the Arvit Service is a Ge'ullah prayer which praises God as the Redeemer who redeemed Israel from Egyptian slavery. This is all followed by a special night prayer called the Hashkivenu, "Grant us to lie down in peace", which asks for God's help and protection from various mishaps and dangers that can happen in the mysterious night.
There were two versions of the final prayer, a Babylonian and a Palestinian. The Babylonian version is now used on weekdays and it speaks of God "who guards His people Israel forever." The Palestinian version is used on Sabbaths and festivals which is a prayer for peace and Zion; God "who spreads out the tabernacle of peace".
In the Ashkenazi rite several scriptural verses beginning with Psalm 89:53, "blessed by the Lord for evermore", are inserted between the Hashkivenu and the Amidah. The Sephardi rite does not have this.
The Amidah (see footnote 43) during the Arvit Service is only prayed silently. It is not repeated by the reader as it is in the other Services. The Amidah is preceded by a half reader's Kaddish (see footnote 177) and it is followed by the full reader's Kaddish. The prayer, Aleinu le-Shabbe'aḥ (see footnote 182) concludes the Service.
On the evenings of Sabbaths and festivals there are a few changes in the Arvit Service. On the Sabbath it is preceded by a special set of prayers and Psalms which welcome the Sabbath, called Kabbalat Shabbat. The Amidah changes to the special Sabbath Amidah of only seven benedictions. Also a Kiddush, a blessing over wine, is also inserted into the Service. At the conclusion of the Sabbath a special Havdalah (see footnote 226) section is added to the fourth benediction of the Amidah and readings are added to the end of the Service. The Arvit Service usually follows the Minḥah Service immediately after sunset, but it can be recited up until dawn, and under special circumstances, even as late as after twilight.
Alexander Carlebach, E. J., v. 3, pp. 664-66. It is customary to recite “Kol Nidrei145Kol Nidrei, כל נדרי; see footnote 141.” while it was still day and to lengthen it with melodies until nightfall, and (“Kol Nidrei”) is said three times, and each time (the cantor) raises his voice “higher” (says it louder) than before, (מהרי״ל).146Maharil, מהרי״ל; see footnote 8. And likewise the reader says the following prayer sentence three times; “And the entire congregation will be forgiven, (etc.)147This is a prayer from Numbers 15:26 and 14:19-20 which follows the chanting of the Kol Nidrei (see footnote 141).
Ben Zion Bokser. The High Holyday Prayer Book, New York, Hebrew Publishing Company, 1959, p.259.” And the congregation says three times, “And God said I forgave you according to your word”, (מנהגים).148Minhagim, מנהגים; see footnote 13. A man must not deviate from the custom of his city even in the melodies or piyyutim149Piyyutim, פיוטים, is a Hebrew word derived from Greek which means a lyrical composition which was intended to embellish an obligatory prayer in the liturgy, or any other religious service whether communal or private. The word refers to liturgical compositions in Hebrew from the first century of the Common Era until the beginning of the Enlightenment, the Haskalah. Originally piyyutim meant to replace the set versions of prayers, expressing the same basic ideas, mainly on the Sabbath and festivals. When prayers became fixed, piyyutim were inserted into or around a set prayer. Most piyyutim were used to adorn and make beautiful the holy days, but there are many which were written for the Sabbaths, fast days, and even weekdays. There are also piyyutim for weddings, curcumcisions and mourning.
Piyyutim are characterized from regular prayers by their lofty style and rythm. We know the authors of many piyyutim while others remain anonymous. Piyyutim were produced at one time or another in every land where Jews lived, each area producing its own style. There are Kerovah types of piyyutim which usually are found in the Amidah prayer and Yoẓer piyyutim found in the benediction before and after the Shema in the Morning Service (see footnote 17 and 173). Piyyutim used in the Amidah of Musaf and Arvit for Sabbath and holy days are called shivata because of this Amidah having seven (Shevah) blessings. The Morning Service Amidah for Sabbaths and holy days contains a sanctification prayer, therefore the piyyutim associated there are called Kedushata (sanctification is Kedushah in Hebrew, see footnote 213). Different holy days have special Kerovot piyyutim associated with the characteristic of the holiday. On Yom Kippur the special section of the service describing the Temple Sacrificial Service has many piyyutim associated with the Seder ha-Avodah (see footnote 22). There are many seliḥot piyyutim for the fast days (see footnote 14).
Styles and vocabulary of the various piyyutim stretch Hebrew to its fullest in creativity and made the language rich. Many piyyutim are difficult to understand because of the freedom of style and vocabulary that was employed. The first piyyutim only used rhythm but later rhyme also played an important role in the piyyutim especially in Spain. Some have no specific poetical characteristics.
Ezra Fleischer, E. J., v. 13. pp. 573-602. that are said there, (מהרי״ל).150Maharil, מהרי״ל; see footnote 8.
בליל יום הכפורים ומחרתו אומרים ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד בקול רם: On the Night of Yom Kippur and on the next day we say (the blessing), “Blessed be His name whose glorious kingdom is forever and ever” in a loud voice (where normally it is said in a wisper).151This is the blessing that is said in response by the congregation to the Barekhu, which is the call to worship made by the reader. In all other services it is said in a wisper, but on Yom Kippur night and during the day it is said outloud by the congregation.
The following comment is given by Magen Avraham, (see footnote 33.): 619:8 - "Outloud": Since all year we say it in a wisper because Moses stole it (the response) from the angels, but on Yom Kippur, Israel also resembles the angels, (Tur, טור, see footnote 23).
אם חל בשב' אומר ויכולו וברכה אחת מעין שבע וחותם מקדש השב' ואינו מזכיר של יום הכפורים: (וא"א אבינו מלכנו בשבת אבל שאר הסליחות והתחנות אומר כמו בחול) (ריב"ש סימן תקי"ב ומנהגים): If (Yom Kippur) falls on the Sabbath we say “ויכולו152The prayer which begins Va'yekhulu comes from Genesis 2:1-3. It is recited on the Sabbath because it tells the account of God's creation of the seventh day as a day of rest. It is normally recited just before the Sabbath Kiddush, (Kiddush ha-Yom, sanctification of the day; i.e., the Sabbath). There of course is no Kiddush on a fast day such as Yom Kippur, because it is always connected with drinking wine or eating bread.
Bokser, op. cit., p. 275.” after the Silent Prayer,153For an explanation of the Silent Prayer, the Amidah see footnote 43. and the prayer “תפילת מעין שבע154Tefilat Me'ein Sheva, תפילת מעין שבע, is a prayer recited on the Sabbath which is one prayer which summarizes the Sabbath Amidah, containing seven (Sheva, שבע) blessings. The substance (Me'ein, מעין) of the longer prayer is abbreviated in this short prayer. The ideas of the normal seven benedictions of the Sabbath evening Amidah are included in the prayer.” and conclude (the prayer with the words), “מקדש השבת155The prayer concludes with the words Mekadesh ha-Shabbat, מקדש השבת.”, (“who makes the Sabbath holy”), but do not mention Yom Kippur.156There is no special mention in the prayer which states the fact that it is the Day of Atonement, only the fact that it is the Sabbath.
There is mention of the fact that it is a high holyday in the Birkhat ha-Mazon if one must eat on Yom Kippur and thus one must say the Grace if he is able. See footnote 138. (We do not say “אבינו מלכנו157Avinu Malkhenu, אבינו מלכנו, "Our Father, our King"; see footnote 15.” on the Sabbath, but the rest of the prayers for forgiveness158Seliḥot, סליחות, prayers for forgiveness; see footnote 14. and the supplication prayers159Taḥanun, תחנון; supplication prayers; see footnote 10. one says like on a weekday, (ריב״ש סימן תקיב ומנהגים),160Rabbi Isaac ben Sheshet Perfet, chapter 512, and Minhagim, ריב״ש סימן תקי״ב דמנהגים.
Rabbi Isaac ben Sheshet Perfet was also known by his acronym Ribash, ריב״ש. He lived in Spain from 1326 until 1408. This halakhic authority was born in Barcelona and he studied under Perez ha-Kohen, Ḥasdai b. Judah Crescas and Nissim b. Reuben Gerondi. He moved to Saragossa after he was imprisoned in Barcelona, but his life in his new home was also full of controversy and family tragedy.
In Saragossa he tried to abolish certain local customs he did not agree with and he won the anger of many local scholars. He as a result finally moved to Valencia in 1385 where he served as the rabbi. In 1391 there were anti-Jewish riots which forced him to move to North Africa, and he settled in Algiers where he became the communal rabbi and was well respected even though at first his appointment was challenged by Simeon b. Ẓemaḥ Duran (Tashbaẓ, תשב״ץ; see footnote 20).
Perfet's most important work was his responsa which was published in Constantinople in 1546. His responsa influenced the halakhah after him and Caro used Perfet's decisions extensively in the Shulḥan Arukh. In addition to the vast amount of halakhic material, the responsa also reveal much about the life and customs of the Jews of Spain and North Africa in the fourteenth century. Perfet was the first to discuss the status of the Marranos (Spanish Jews who converted to Christianity so as not to be expelled in 1492) from an halakhic point of view. This became a quite crucial and painful problem for the Jews of Spain and North Africa. Perfet also wrote commentaries on many talmudic tractates and the Pentateuch. He refused to be associated with Kabbalah and even though he knew philosophy, he opposed its study including the works of Maimonides.
Hirsch Jacob Zimmels, E. J., v. 9, pp. 32-33.
For Minhagim, מנהגים; see footnote 13.).
צריך להעמיד א' לימין שליח צבור וא' לשמאלו: It is necessary to make one man stand to the right side of the reader and one to his left side (while he is saying these prayers).161While the reader is saying these prayers on the night of Yom Kippur he is to be flanked on both sides.
יש שעומדים על רגליהם כל היום וכל הלילה: There are people who stand161aThe following comment is given by Magen Avraham, (see footnote 33.): 619:10 - "Those who stand": This is at the hour of the Arvit Prayer, (see footnote 144), but one who stands throughout the whole night will not be able to pray with devotion during the day (Beit Yosef, בית יוסף, see footnote 20). They should be careful not to hold back when they need to go to the bathroom; and if they become weak they are able to lean on anything, (Maharil, מהרי״ל, see footnote 8, and Darkhei Moshe, ד״מ, see footnote 6). See the beginning of 585, (in the Shulḥan Arukh, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, and the reason for standing is to be similar to the angels, and therefore women should not stand, and this is what is written at the end of chapter 610 (of the Shulḥan Arukh, Oraḥ Ḥayyim), (Matteh Moshe, מט״מ; this book is a compendium of Jewish ritual law completed in 1584. It was written by Moses Mat who lived from 1551 until 1606. He was a Galician rabbi was born in Przemysl. He was a disciple of Solomon Luria. Mat headed the yeshivah in Pesemysl and later lived in Lyuboml and Opatow. He was one of the leading rabbis of Poland and also wrote Taryag Mitzvot, which is a versification of the 613 commandments. He wrote a commentary to the Pentateuch which was actually a supercommentary to the commentary by Rashi. He is quoted often by his contemporary Joel Sirkes, author of the Bayit Ḥadash, ב״ח, see footnote 20b.); Tovia Preschel, E. J., v. 11, pp. 1120-21). on their feet the entire day and the whole night.
נוהגים ללון בבהכנ"ס ולומר שירות ותשבחו' כל הלילה: הגה וטוב לישן רחוק מן הארון (מרדכי) ומי שאינו רוצה לומר תשבחות ושירות לא יישן שם (מהרי"ו) והחזנים המתפללים כל היום לא יעירו כל הלילה כי מאבדין קולם כשאינם ישנים (מהרי"ל): It is customary to spend the night in the synagogue161bThe following is a comment given by Magen Avraham, (see footnote 33.): 619:11 - "To sleep in the synagogue": Levush, לבוש, (see footnote 20a.) wrote that it is better to go to sleep in one's house because he who stays awake at night will sleep during the day, and he will not say with conviction (his prayers). If (he stays awake all night) so as to guard the candles (so the synagogue does not burn down) he should hire a guard instead. It was written in the Shenei Luḥot ha-Berit, של״ה, (see footnote 20a.), that before one goes to sleep one should say the first four Psalms which is to guard against (nocturnal) pollution. and to recite poems and songs of praise all night.
Hagah: It is better to sleep far from the ark (מרדכי),162Mordekhai, מרדכי; see footnote 24. and whoever does not want to recite songs of praise and poems should not sleep there (in the synagogue), (מהרי״ו).163Mahariv, מהרי״ו; see footnote 27. The chanters (cantors) who pray the entire day should not stay awake all night because they might ruin their voices if they do not sleep, (מהרי״ל).164Maharil, מהרי״ל; see footnote 8.
165. Shaḥarit, שחרית, the Morning Service; see footnote 17.