מד. חתום בו מחברו מאיר ברבי יצחק חזק ואמץ:
The following prayer was composed by Rabbi Meir ben Isaac.
תְּפִלָּה תִקַּח תְּחִנָּה תִבְחַר. תְּמוּר נִיחֹחַ תְּמִיד הַשַּׁחַר: שְׁקֹל לָעוֹמְדִים שִׁמְךָ לְשַׁבֵּחַ. כְּאִלּוּ זָכוּ תְּרֹם מִזְבֵּחַ:
Receive our prayer, accept our supplication in place of the fragrance of the continual morning offering.1After the destruction of the Temple, prayers replaced the daily offerings. See Mesechet Berachos 26b. Consider those who rise to praise Your Name, as though they had been privileged to remove the ashes from the Altar.2The removal of the ashes from the Altar was the first function of the sacrificial order.
רְצֵה עֲבוֹדָתָם בְּמִקְדַּשׁ שְׁבִיתָם. כִּבְבֵית־עוֹלָמִים לְעוֹשֵֹי חֲבִיתָּם: קְשֹׁב מִקְרָאוֹת וְחִינוּן סְדָרִים. כְּעֵין אֵבָרִים וְעִכּוּל פְּדָרִים:
Accept their worship [prayers] in the sanctuary [synagogues] of their exile as if it were the “Chavittin” in the Temple.3These were daily meal offerings brought by the Kohen Gadol. Listen to our reading [of the Sh’ma] and the order of our Amidah prayers, as the burning of the limbs and fat pieces.4If these were not consumed on the Altar at night, they were placed at the sides of the Altar in the morning. See Mesechet Tamid 2:1.
צְרֹף שִׁטּוּחַ פְּנֵי טָפוּחַ. כְּמַעֲלֶה אֵפֶר עַל גַב תַּפּוּחַ: פְּאַת קָדִימָה פְּנֵיהֶם יִזְרָח. כְּסוֹדְרֵי־חָזִית כְּלַפֵּי מִזְרָח:
Consider the spreading of our hands [in prayer] towards heaven, as the bringing up of the ashes to the heap.5The sacrificial ashes were heaped on the Altar. Consider our facing eastward [in prayer] as the wood on the Altar that faced eastward.6See Mesechet Tamid 2:4.
עֲרֹב מַחְבֶּרֶת לְמִדּוֹת עֲרוּכוֹת. כְּשָׁרֵת כָּשֵׁר שְׁתֵּי מַעֲרָכוֹת: סְפֹר לִצְעָדִים לְעָבְדְךָ גָּשִׁים. כְּמוֹ בָּעֲזָרָה לְפַיֵּס רוֹגְשִׁים:
May it be pleasant before You how they place their feet together at prayer,7During the Amidah prayers. as the service of the [proper] kohain when he arranged the two wood piles.8One on the sacrificial Altar and one on the incense Altar. Count the steps of those who approach You in worship, as those of the kohanim in the Sanctuary who rushed to draw lots [to serve You].9The priests drew lots each day for the privilege of performing various services in the Temple.
נְכוֹן הַשַּׁחַר וְכוֹכָבִים בְּרֹן. בְּרַק הַשַּׁחַר זְכוּת שֶׁבְּחֶבְרוֹן: מְמֻנֶּה מְזָרֵז לְהָבִיא טָלֶה. מִלִּשְׁכַּת־טְלָאִים בְּבִקּוּר מוּפְלֶא:
May our rising early to pray at dawn, as the stars go up in song, be considered as those who announced the dawn, evoking the merit of Hebron.10Before the daily morning sacrifice was offered, they would go up on the roof to see if the daylight had reached Hebron, where the Patriarchs are buried. The presiding kohain ordered that a lamb be brought from the chamber [pen] of lambs, which was carefully examined [for blemishes].
לְכוֹס שֶׁל זָהָב יְשֻׁלַּח לְהַשְׁקוֹת. בְּבַקְּרוֹ שֵׁנִית לְאוֹר הָאֲבוּקוֹת: כְּזָכָה בְּתָמִיד וְזִכָּה אֶחָיו. מְשָׁכוֹ וְהוֹלֵךְ לְבֵית מִטְבָּחָיו:
From a golden vessel it was given to drink,11This was done to facilitate the skinning which was done later. and was examined again by torchlight. The kohain who won the privilege of offering the daily sacrifice— and who allotted twelve of his brethren [the privilege of assisting him]—brought the lamb to the slaughter house.
יְדֵי שְׁחִיטָתוֹ זְבֹחַ יַחְדֹּל. עֲדֵי יִפָּתֵחַ הַשַּׁעַר הַגָּדוֹל: טְרֹד עַד־שֶׁחִי פָּתוֹחַ כֵּיוָן. שְׁתֵּי מַפְתֵּחוֹת לְפָתְחוֹ כִּוָּן:
He delayed the slaughtering until the large gate was opened. He maneuvered his hand, up to his elbow, into the opening of the gate [to open one lock] two keys were needed for opening the gate.
הֲרָצָיו כְּגַלְגְּלוּ וְצִירֵי צְרִיחוֹ. וְנִשְׁמַע קוֹלוֹ בְּבִקְעַת יְרִיחוֹ: זְרִיזִים זְהִירִים עֲקֵדָה לִגְמֹר. בְּיָד וְרֶגֶל כְּיִצְחָק בְהַר מוֹר:
When the door turned on its hinges, it would give out a creaking sound that was heard in the plain of Jericho. The diligent [kohanim] carefully bound [the lamb], binding the fore and hind legs as Isaac was bound on Mount Moriah.
וְזָכוּ שְׁנִיּוֹת שְׁחִיטָה לְשַׁמֵּשׁ. שַׁחַר וָאֶמֶשׁ לְמוּל הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ: הֲרָמַת שְׁתַּיִם לְאַרְבַּע יִתְרֹם. לְמִזְרָח צָפוֹן לְמַעֲרָב דָּרוֹם:
The second ring merited that it be used for slaughtering,12This ring was used to hold the head of the lamb when it was slaughtered. both the morning and afternoon sacrifices were performed facing the sun.13In the morning it was offered in the northwest corner and in the evening in the northeast so as to face the sun. The blood was sprinkled twice against the four sides of the Altar— once on the northeast corner and once on the southwest corner.
דְּמֵי־שִׁירַיִם יְסוֹד הַדָּרוֹם. וְטָעוּן הֶפְשֵׁט וְכָלִיל לַמָּרוֹם: גְּלַל הַנְּתִיחָה מְרֻבָּה בְדִבּוּר. שְׁתִיקָה יָפָה וְאֵימַת צִבּוּר:
The remaining blood was poured out at the southern base of the Altar; and the lamb had to be skinned, and totally consumed by fire as an offering to the Most High. The operation of the dissection [of the lamb] is too lengthy to describe, silence is better than to weary the congregation.
בְּתִשְׁעָה קָרֵב בְּצֵרוּף זוֹכִים. חֲבִתִּים וְסֹלֶת וְיֵין הַנְּסֻכִים: אֲזַי יַם הַכֶּבֶשׁ מְלָחוּם וּבָאוּ בְּלִשְׁכַּת־גָּזִית שְׁמַע יִקְרָאוּ:
Nine kohanim performed the offering joined by three others who were privileged to perform the pan-offering, the fine flour offering and the wine libation. Then, on the western side of the ramp, the pieces were salted; and then they went into the Stone Chamber to read the [morning] Sh’ma.
מְבָרְכִים בְּמִנּוּי בְּרָכָה אַחַת. עֲשֶֹרֶת הַדִּבְרוֹת וּמוֹסִיף בְּנַחַת: אֱמֶת וַעֲבוֹדָה וּבִרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים. יְבָרְכוּ הָעָם בְּרָכָה נֶהֱנִים:
At the signal they recited one blessing;14After receiving a signal from the presiding kohain, they recited the blessing of “אַהֲבָה רַבָּה,” the blessing before the Sh’ma. they also recited the “Ten Commandments,” and an additional blessing on the Sabbath. They recited True and firm and the Avodah,15The seventeenth blessing of the Amidah. and the “Priestly Blessing” [in which] they blessed the people a benificent blessing
יְבָרְרוּ חֲדָשִׁים לְפַיֵס קְטֹרֶת. וְלֹא־שָׁנוּ בָהּ וְהִיא מְעַשֶּׁרֶת: רְבִיעִי פַּיִּס בְּיַחַד נִקְבָּע. נְתָחִים לְהַעֲלוֹת לְגַב הַמְּרֻבָּע:
New kohanim were selected by lot for the privilege of offering the incense, and he who was chosen once, could not repeat because it enriched the one who performed it. At the fourth lot, all kohanim participated, for the privilege of carrying the pieces to the square [Altar].16The Altar was a square.
בְּקוֹל מַגְרֵפָה מַרְבִּים זְמָרִים. וְקוֹלָהּ נִשְׁמַע בְּעִיר־הַתְּמָרִים: רְגִילִים לְקוֹלָהּ לְוִיִּם וְכֹהֲנִים. לְשִׁיר וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוָאוֹת הֱיוֹת מְזֻמָּנִים:
Then they sounded the “Magrephah” which produced many sounds,17The Magrephah had ten holes each of which was capable of producing ten different sounds. See Mesechet Arachin 10b. and its sound was heard in Jericho.18Jericho was known as the city of psalms. Levites and kohanim were trained at its sound to be ready for song and worshipful kneeling.
בְּמַעֲלוֹת אוּלָם עֲלוֹת בִּמְרוּצָה. מִדֶּשֶּׁן פְּנִימִי טֶנִּי נָטַל וְיָצָא: יְדַשֵּׁן מְנוֹרָה וְכָבָה יַעֲרְכוֹ. וְהַכּוּז נָטַל וְנָחַץ לְדַרְכּוֹ:
They quickly ran up the steps of the Vestibule, the kohanim who had to remove the ashes from the inner Altar took the basket of ashes and withdrew. Another cleaned the “Menorah”; rekindled the extinguished lamps, and took the vessel with the Menorah’s ashes and hurriedly went on his way.
יְרַדֵּד זוֹכֶה בְּשׁוּלֵי מַחְתָּה. לְגַחֲלֵי הָאֵשׁ וְשָׁחָה וְאָתָה: צְבוֹר הַקְּטוֹרֶת פְּנִימָה חוּץ־לוֹ. מְלַמְּדִין מַקְטִיר בְּלִי־כְּווֹת אֲצִילוֹ:
Another kohain spread19This kohain had the privilege of bringing burning coals from the outer-altar to the golden altar. the burning coals with the back of the censer; he bowed and withdrew. Another heaped the incense on the coals from the center of the Altar outwards;20Towards himself. they taught him to spread them in this manner so that his arms should not be burned.
חֲרֵדִים לִפְרֹשׁ בְּעֵת־הַקְטָרָה. חֲשָׁאִי כַּפָּרָה לְחֵץ־מַטָּרָה: קְבוּעוֹת הָיוּ לְמוּל הַפְּרָצוֹת. בְּהִשְׁתַּחֲוָיוֹת לְאֵל־חַי לִרְצוֹת:
Trembling, they quickly withdrew during the burning of the incense,21They were not permitted to have benefit from the holy aroma. this was done secretly to atone for slander [which is done in secret]. Fixed according to the breaches22The Greeks made thirteen breaches in the wall by which they entered into Jerusalem. were the number of prostrations [they made] to appease the living Almighty.
חֲגוּרֵי חֶרֶב כְתָב וְלֹא בְּכִנּוּי. מְבָרְכִין אַחַת וְעַל־רֹאשׁ מִנּוּי: זְמַן הַגָּדוֹל לְחֶלְקוֹ כּוֹבֵשׁ. סֶגֶן מִימִינוֹ עֲלוֹת בַּכֶּבֶשׁ:
Those who were girded with swords23Kohanim were composed to soldiers who knew their duties in battle. pronounced the Divine Name as it is written, and not with its appellations when they recited one Priestly Blessing,24Outside the temple, however, the Priestly Blessings were divided into three blessings as we have it today. lifting their hands over their heads. Whenever the Kohain Gadol desired he could take part in the sacrificial order; the Vice Kohain Gadol would be at his right as they walked up the ramp [to the Altar].
קְרֵבִים אֶצְלוֹ וְלוֹ מַגִּישִׁים נְתָחִים לִסְמֹךְ זְרֹק לָאִשִּׁים: וְאָז בַּשִּׁיתִן נְסָכִים סִדֵּר. וְסֶגֶן עוֹמֵד וּמֵנִיף בַּסּוּדָר:
The other kohanim came near him and handed him the pieces upon which he laid his hands and threw them into the fire. And then into the special openings he poured the [wine] libations. The Vice Kohain Gadol stood and waved a cloth.25This was a signal that the libations were completed.
מַחְצַצְרִים בָּאִים עָמַד לוֹ אֵצֶל (בֶּן אַרְזָא). צְרָדָה מַקִּישׁ לְשֵׁמַע צִלְצֵל: לְוִיִּם דִּבְּרוּ בְּשִׁיר הַחֲוָיָה. לְפֶרֶק תְּקִיעָה וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה:
The trumpeteers26These were kohanim. came and stood next to Ben Arza27A member of the only family who knew how to make these sounds. who with his thumb and middle finger caused the tsaltsal28The tsaltsal was a musical instrument that could be heard at a distance. to be heard. When the Levites heard the sound, they chanted songs of praise; at the conclusion of each psalm, they sounded trumpets and prostrated themselves.
וְזֶה סֵדֶר עֲבוֹדַת תָּמִיד. בְּבֵית אֱלֹהֵינוּ מְהֵרָה לְהַעֲמִיד: תְּמִיד הַבֹּקֶר יְשֻׁלַּם בְּסִפּוּר. וּלְעוֹלָם זֹאת עַל־יְשֻׁרוּן כִּפּוּר:
This was the order of the daily service in the House of our God— may it be speedily restored. May the daily morning offering be fulfilled through our recounting of it, and serve as atonement for Jeshurun [Israel].
כְּסִדְרוֹ בַּמִּנְחָה וְנֶסֶּךְ קָרֵב. עֲסֹק בַּשֵּׁנִי לְעִתּוֹת עָרֶב: בְּאַחַד־עָשָֹר זְכוּת בּוֹ מְחַזְּרִים. שְׁנַיִם בְיָדָם שְׁנֵי גְזִרִים:
The same order of the morning sacrifice, and for the meal and wine offerings, was used for the evening sacrifice. Eleven kohanim were privileged to offer it,29Two more than the morning sacrifice. two of whom held the two wooden logs.30Which were used to maintain the fires on the Altar.
כְּבָשִֹים כֹּבְשִׁים עֲוֹנוֹת מְכַבְּסִים. כְּתִינוֹק בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ סְגֻלָּה עוֹשִֹים: פְּרַקְלִיט סַנֵּגוֹר בְּצֶדֶק לְלוֹנְנָהּ. בְעִיר אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֱלֹהִים יְכוֹנְנָהּ:
The lamb offerings subdued and washed away iniquities; and the innocence of a year old child was brought upon the treasured [people]. These sacrifices were like a mighty advocate making it possible for righteousness to abide in the city of our God, may God [soon] restore it.
דֳּמִי אַל תִּתְּנוּ מְמֻנִּים שֹׁמְרִים. וְאַתָּה תָקוּם תְּרַחֵם אוֹמְרִים: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם בְּנוּיַת עֶרֶץ. יְכוֹנֵן וְיָשִֹים לְשֵׁם בָאָרֶץ:
Be not silent [you Angels] appointed as guardians [of Jerusalem] say: “And You shall rise and be merciful.” May the Jerusalem built in heaven be established and be renowned on earth.
וְיַעֲמֹד הַמְשֵׁל הַשַֹּר הַגָּדוֹל. בְּעַד בְּנֵי עַמּוֹ לְחַנֵּן רַע מֵחֲדֹל: תְּחִנַּת־שַׁוְעָם לְהַכְתִּיר תֶּעֱרַב. לְמִזְבֵּח מַעֲלָה כְּכָלִיל יִקְרָב:
And may the great angel [Michael] rise to plead for his people that evil be removed from them. May their cry31Their cry of supplication. adorn You as a crown, and ascend the heavenly Altar as a burnt-offering.
וְשַֹר הַפַּחַד אֲחוֹרֵי הַפַּרְגּוֹד. בְּיֹשֶׁר תַּמְלִיץ וּבִזְכוּת תֶּאֱגֹד: כְּאָז לַחֲמוּדוֹת בְּלַמְּדְךָ זְכוּת. וְזָכִיתָ לַחֲזוֹר לְמֶמְשָׁל וּנְסִיכוּת:
And you, the awesome angel [Gabriel], who stands behind the veil of separation,32Pargod refers to the separation between the sky and the Shechina. See Mesechet Berachos 18b. recommend our righteousness and bind our merits together, as you once interceded favorably for Daniel, and thereby regained your original high rank.33See Mesechet Yoma 77a for explanation of this incident.
בְּעַד יִשְֹרָאֵל צֶדֶק לִמְדוּ. פְּנֵי הָאָדוֹן יְהֹוָה עִמְדוּ: צְדָקוֹת לְגַלְגֵּל כְמֹר נִחוּמִים. לְפָנָיו תָּבֹאוּ בְּמִדַּת הָרַחֲמִים:
On behalf of Israel, plead for justice, stand before the Master, Adonoy.34This is addressed to Michael and Gabriel. Let righteousness arouse His mercy as myrrh, and appear before Him with the attribute of mercy.
מַכְנִיסֵי רַחֲמִים. הַכְנִיסוּ רַחֲמֵינוּ, לִפְנֵי בַּעַל־הָרַחֲמִים. מַשְׁמִיעֵי תְפִלָּה. הַשְׁמִיעוּ תְפִלָּתֵנוּ, לִפְנֵי שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה: מַשְׁמִיעֵי צְעָקָה. הַשְׁמִיעוּ צַעֲקָתֵנוּ, לִפְנֵי שׁוֹמֵעַ צְעָקָה: מַכְנִיסֵי דִּמְעָה. הַכְנִיסוּ דִמְעוֹתֵינוּ, לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ מִתְרַצֶּה בִּדְמָעוֹת: הִשְׁתַּדְּלוּ וְהַרְבּוּ תְחִנָּה וּבַקָּשָׁה, לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ אֵל רָם וְנִשָּׂא: הַזְכִּירוּ לְפָנָיו הַשְׁמִיעוּ לְפָנָיו, תּוֹרָה וּמַעֲשִׂים־טוֹבִים שֶׁל שׁוֹכְנֵי־עָפָר: יִזְכֹּר אַהֲבָתָם, וִיחַיֶּה זַרְעָם שֶׁלֹּא תֹאבַד שְׁאֵרִית־יַעֲקֹב: כִּי־צֹאן רוֹעֶה־נֶאֱמָן הָיָה לְחֶרְפָּה, יִשְׂרָאֵל גּוֹי־אֶחָד לְמָשָׁל וְלִשְׁנִינָה: מַהֵר עֲנֵנוּ אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׁעֵנוּ, וּפְדֵנוּ מִכָּל־גְּזֵרוֹת קָשׁוֹת, וְהוֹשִׁיעָה בְּרַחֲמֶיךָ הָרַבִּים, מְשִׁיחַ צִדְקָךְ וְעַמָּךְ:
Angels of mercy!11Some authorities omit this prayer because they object to the idea of praying to angels. Bring our plea for compassion before the Presence of the Lord of mercy. Angels of prayer! Cause our prayers to be heard before Him Who hears prayer. Angels of weeping! Cause our cries to be heard before Him Who listens to cries. Angels of tears! bring our tears before the King Who is appeased by tears. Intercede for us and amplify supplication and entreaty before the King, Almighty, Who is exalted and uplifted. Mention before Him, cause Him to hear of the Torah learning and good deeds of our ancestors who repose in the dust. May He remember their love and give life to their descendants so that the remnant of Jacob will not perish; for the flock of the faithful shepherd has become a disgrace; Israel the unique nation [has become] an example and a byword [of humiliation]. Hasten and answer us, God of our deliverance, and redeem us from all harsh decrees, deliver in Your abundant mercy Your righteous annointed and Your people.
מָרָן דְּבִשְׁמַיָא לָךְ מִתְחַנֵּנָן, כְּבַר שִׁבְיָא דְמִתְחַנֵּן לִשְׁבוּיֵהּ: כֻּלְּהוֹן בְּנֵי־שִׁבְיָא בְּכַסְפָּא מִתְפָּרְקִין, וְעַמָּךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּרַחֲמֵי וּבְתַחֲנוּנֵי: הַב־לָן שְׁאֶלְתִּין וּבָעוּתִין, דְלָא־נֶהֱדַר רֵיקָם מִן־קָדָמָךְ:
Master in heaven, we beseech You, as a captive implores his captor. All captives are ransomed with money, but Your people Israel [are redeemed] through compassion and supplication. Grant our petition and our request, that we not return empty-handed from before You.
מָרָן דְבִשְׁמַיָא לָךְ מִתְחַנֵּנָן, כְּעַבְדָּא דְּמִתְחַנֵּן לְמָרֵיהּ: עֲשִׁיקֵי אֲנַן וּבַחֲשׁוֹכָא שָׁרִינָן. מְרִירָן נַפְשִׁין מֵעַקְתִין דִּנְפִישִׁין: חֵילָא לֵית־בָּן לְרַצוּיָךְ. מָרָן. עֲבִיד בְּדִיל קַיָּמָא דִגְזַרְתְּ עִם־אֲבְהָתָנָא:
Master in heaven, we beseech You, as a slave implores his master. We are oppressed and live in darkness, our souls are grieved from great affliction. We don’t have the strength to appease You, Master, do it for the sake of the covenant, which You made with our forefathers.
שׁוֹמֵר יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁמוֹר שְׁאֵרִית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאַל יֹאבַד יִשְׂרָאֵל הָאֹמְרִים שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל:
Guardian of Israel, guard the remnant of Israel, and let not Israel perish, who say, “Hear Israel.”
שׁוֹמֵר גּוֹי אֶחָד שְׁמוֹר שְׁאֵרִית עַם אֶחָד וְאַל יֹאבַד גּוֹי אֶחָד הַמְיַחֲדִים שִׁמְךָ יְהֹוָה אֱלֺהֵֽינוּ יְהֹוָה אֶחָד:
Guardian of the unique nation guard the remnant of the unique people and let not the unique nation perish, who proclaim the Oneness of Your Name, [saying:] Adonoy is our God, Adonoy is One.
שׁוֹמֵר גּוֹי קָדוֹשׁ שְׁמוֹר שְׁאֵרִית עַם קָדוֹשׁ וְאַל יֹאבַד גּוֹי קָדוֹשׁ הַמְשַׁלְּשִׁים בְּשָׁלשׁ קְדֻשּׁוֹת לְקָדוֹשׁ:
Guardian of the holy nation, guard the remnant of the holy people and let not the holy nation perish who repeat the threefold sanctification to the Holy One.
מִתְרַצֶּה בְּרַחֲמִים וּמִתְפַּיֵּס בְּתַחֲנוּנִים הִתְרַצֶּה וְהִתְפַּיֵּס לְדוֹר עָנִי כִּי אֵין עוֹזֵר:
You Who are appeased by pleas for mercy, are conciliated by supplications be appeased and conciliated to an afflicted generation for there is none else to help.