Sanhedrin 50aסנהדרין נ׳ א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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50aנ׳ א

קסברי רבנן נשואה יוצאה לשריפה ולא ארוסה ומדאפקה רחמנא לארוסה בסקילה ש"מ סקילה חמורה

The Gemara answers: The Rabbis hold that only the married daughter of a priest who committed adultery is singled out from all those who commit adultery, for burning, but not one who is betrothed, as a betrothed woman who committed adultery, whether or not she is the daughter of a priest, is executed by stoning. And since the Merciful One singles out a betrothed woman who is not married from all married women who commit adultery, to be executed by stoning, conclude from it that stoning is more severe than burning.

סקילה חמורה מסייף שכן ניתנה למגדף ולעובד עבודת כוכבים ומאי חומרא כדאמרן

Stoning is considered more severe than decapitation by the sword, as it is meted out to one who blasphemes and to one who worships idols. And for what reason is the severity of these transgressions considered greater than others? As we said, it is because the transgressors undermine the fundamental tenets of Judaism.

אדרבה סייף חמור שכן ניתן לאנשי עיר הנדחת ומאי חומרא שכן ממונן אבד

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; decapitation by the sword would appear to be more severe than stoning, as it is meted out to the people of an idolatrous city, who also undermine the fundamental tenets of Judaism. And for what reason is the severity of this case of an idolatrous city considered greater than others? Because the transgressors are not only executed, their property is destroyed as well.

אמרת איזה כח מרובה כח המדיח או כח הנידח הוי אומר כח המדיח ותניא מדיחי עיר הנדחת בסקילה

The Gemara answers: In response to this objection, you should say: The severity of which transgression is greater: The severity of the transgression of the one who subverts the city, inciting them to sin, or the severity of the transgression of the subverted? You must say that the severity of the transgression of the subverter is greater. And it is taught in a baraita: The subverters of an idolatrous city are executed by stoning. Evidently, stoning is a more severe type of execution than decapitation.

סקילה חמורה מחנק שכן ניתן למגדף ולעובד עבודת כוכבים ומאי חומרא כדאמרן

Stoning is considered more severe than strangulation, as it is meted out to one who blasphemes and to one who worships idols. And for what reason is the severity of these transgressions considered greater? As we said, it is because the transgressors undermine the fundamental tenets of Judaism.

אדרבה חנק חמור שכן ניתן למכה אביו ואמו ומאי חומרא שכן הוקש כבודן לכבוד המקום

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; strangulation is more severe, as it is meted out to one who wounds his father or his mother. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? Because the honor of one’s parents is compared to the honor of the Omnipresent (see Kiddushin 30b).

מדאפקיה רחמנא לארוסה בת ישראל מכלל נשואה בת ישראל מחנק לסקילה ש"מ סקילה חמורה

The Gemara answers: Since the Merciful One singles out the case of a betrothed Jewish woman from the category of a married Jewish woman, changing the punishment of a betrothed Jewish woman who committed adultery from strangulation to stoning, conclude from it that stoning is more severe.

שריפה חמורה מסייף שכן ניתנה לבת כהן שזינתה ומאי חומרא שכן מחללת את אביה

Burning is considered more severe than decapitation by the sword, as it is meted out to a priest’s daughter who committed adultery. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater than others? Because she profanes both herself and her father.

אדרבה סייף חמור שכן ניתן לאנשי עיר הנדחת ומאי חומרא שכן ממונן אבד

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; decapitation by the sword is more severe, as it is meted out to the people of an idolatrous city. And for what reason is the severity of this case considered greater? Because the transgressors are not only executed, their property is destroyed as well.

נאמר אביה בסקילה ונאמר אביה בשריפה מה אביה האמור בסקילה סקילה חמורה מסייף אף אביה האמור בשריפה שריפה חמורה מסייף

The Gemara answers: The severity of burning is derived by means of a verbal analogy. The term “her father” is stated with regard to stoning, in the verse: “And the men of her city shall stone her with stones and she shall die, because she has done a depraved thing in Israel, to play the harlot in the house of her father” (Deuteronomy 22:21), and the term “her father” is stated with regard to burning, in the verse: “And the daughter of a priest, when she profanes herself by playing the harlot, she profanes her father; she shall be burned with fire” (Leviticus 21:9). Therefore, just as, concerning the term “her father” that is stated with regard to stoning it is established that stoning is more severe than decapitation by the sword, so too, concerning the term “her father” that is stated with regard to burning, it may be established that burning is more severe than decapitation by the sword.

שריפה חמורה מחנק שכן ניתנה לבת כהן שזינתה ומאי חומרא כדאמרן

Burning is considered more severe than strangulation, as it is meted out to a priest’s daughter who committed adultery. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? As we said, because she profanes both herself and her father.

אדרבה חנק חמור שכן ניתן למכה אביו ואמו ומאי חומרא שכן הוקש כבודן לכבוד המקום

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; strangulation is more severe, as it is meted out to one who wounds his father or his mother. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? Because the honor of one’s parents is compared to the honor of the Omnipresent.

מדאפקיה רחמנא לנשואה בת כהן מכלל נשואה בת ישראל מחנק לשריפה ש"מ שריפה חמורה

The Gemara answers: Since the Merciful One singles out the case of the married daughter of a priest from the category of a married Jewish woman, changing the punishment of the married daughter of a priest who committed adultery from strangulation to burning, conclude from it that burning is more severe than strangulation.

סייף חמור מחנק שכן ניתן לאנשי עיר הנדחת ומאי חומרא שכן ממונם אבד

Decapitation by the sword is considered more severe than strangulation, as it is meted out to the people of an idolatrous city. And for what reason is the severity of this case considered greater? Because their property is destroyed as well.

אדרבה חנק חמור שכן ניתן למכה אביו ואמו ומאי חומרא שכן הוקש כו'

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; strangulation is more severe, as it is meted out to one who wounds his father or his mother. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? Because the honor of one’s parents is compared to the honor of the Omnipresent.

אפילו הכי פושט ידו בעיקר עדיף:

The Gemara answers: Nevertheless, the transgression of one who undermines the fundamental tenets of Judaism is more severe, as he defiles the honor of the Omnipresent Himself, so his punishment must certainly be the most severe.

רבי שמעון אומר כו': שריפה חמורה מסקילה שכן ניתנה לבת כהן שזינתה ומאי חומרא שכן מחללת את אביה

§ The mishna teaches that Rabbi Shimon says that the order of severity is burning, stoning, strangulation, and killing. The Gemara explains the basis for his opinion. Burning is considered more severe than stoning, as burning is meted out to a priest’s daughter who committed adultery. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater than the others? Because she profanes both herself and her father.

אדרבה סקילה חמורה שכן ניתנה למגדף ולעובד עבודת כוכבים ומאי חומרא שכן פושט ידו בעיקר

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; stoning is more severe, as it is meted out to one who blasphemes and to one who worships idols. And for what reason is the severity of these transgressions greater? Because the transgressor undermines the fundamental tenets of Judaism.

רבי שמעון לטעמיה דאמר אחת ארוסה ואחת נשואה יצאה לשרפה ומדאפקיה רחמנא לארוסה בת כהן מכלל ארוסה בת ישראל מסקילה לשריפה ש"מ שריפה חמורה

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Shimon conforms to his line of reasoning, as he says that the daughter of a priest, whether she is betrothed or married, is singled out for burning. And since the Merciful One singles out the case of the betrothed daughter of a priest from the category of a betrothed Jewish woman, changing her punishment from execution by stoning to execution by burning, conclude from it that burning is more severe than stoning, as the punishment for a priest’s daughter who committed adultery must certainly be more severe than that of the daughter of a non-priest.

שריפה חמורה מחנק שכן ניתנה לבת כהן שזינתה ומאי חומרא כדאמרן

The Gemara continues to explain the order of severity according to Rabbi Shimon. Burning is considered more severe than strangulation, as it is meted out to a priest’s daughter who committed adultery. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? As we said, it is because she profanes both herself and her father.

אדרבה חנק חמור שכן ניתן למכה אביו ואמו ומאי חומר' שכן הוקש כבודם לכבוד המקו'

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; strangulation is more severe, as it is meted out to one who wounds his father or his mother. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? Because the honor of one’s parents is compared to the honor of the Omnipresent.

מדאפקיה רחמנא לנשואה בת כהן מכלל נשואה בת ישראל מחנק לשריפה ש"מ שריפה חמורה

The Gemara answers: Since the Merciful One singles out the case of the married daughter of a priest who committed adultery from the category of a married Jewish woman who committed adultery, changing her punishment from execution by strangulation to execution by burning, conclude from it that burning is more severe than strangulation.

שריפה חמורה מסייף שכן ניתנה לבת כהן שזינתה ומאי חומרא כדאמרן

Burning is considered more severe than decapitation by the sword, as it is meted out to a priest’s daughter who committed adultery. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? As we said, it is because she profanes both herself and her father.

אדרבה סייף חמור שכן ניתן לאנשי עיר הנדחת ומאי חומרא שכן ממונם אבד

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; decapitation by the sword is more severe, as it is meted out to the people of an idolatrous city. And for what reason is the severity of this case considered greater? Because their property is destroyed as well.

אמרת וכי איזה כח מרובה כח המדיח או כח הנידח

The Gemara answers: In response to this objection, you should say: But the severity of which transgression is greater: The severity of the transgression of the subverter, or the severity of the transgression of the subverted?