אִילֵימָא רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן מִי הָוֵי נָזִיר כֵּיוָן דִּבְשַׁעְתָּא דְּקָא נָזַר לָא יָדַע אִי פְּלוֹנִי הוּא וְאִי לָא מִי חָלָה עֲלֵיהּ נְזִירוּת וְהָתַנְיָא רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן אֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶן נָזִיר לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְּנָה נְזִירוּת אֶלָּא לְהַפְלָאָה If we say it is the opinion of Rabbi Tarfon, even in a case where the individual in question came before us and identified himself, is the one who claimed to know his identity be a nazirite? Since at the time when he vowed he did not know whether the subject of their debate is so-and-so or not, does naziriteship take effect with regard to him? But isn’t it taught in a baraita (Tosefta 3:19) that Rabbi Yehuda says in the name of Rabbi Tarfon: In the case of the mishna not one of the six people is a nazirite, since naziriteship is imposed upon someone only if the vow is stated with explicitness [hafla’a] enunciated. The Torah says that a vow must be “clearly” pronounced, as the verse states: “When either man or woman shall clearly utter [yafli] a vow, the vow of a nazirite” (Numbers 6:2). This verse indicates that his vow is valid only if it is explicit.
אֶלָּא רַבִּי יְהוּדָה דִּכְרִי הוּא דְּתַנְיָא הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר עַל מְנָת שֶׁיְּהֵא בַּכְּרִי הַזֶּה מֵאָה כּוֹר וְהָלַךְ וּמְצָאוֹ שֶׁנִּגְנַב אוֹ שֶׁאָבַד רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹסֵר וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה מַתִּיר Rather, the mishna represents the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as stated with regard to a heap of grain. As it is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 2:9): If someone said: I am hereby a nazirite on the condition that this heap of grain contains one hundred kor, a measurement of volume, and when he went to measure it he discovered that the heap was stolen or lost, so that the amount it held cannot be determined, Rabbi Shimon deems him prohibited in all the halakhot of naziriteship, as the heap might have contained one hundred kor. And Rabbi Yehuda deems him permitted, as he maintains that the halakha is lenient in cases of uncertain naziriteship. Rabbi Yehuda’s reasoning applies equally to the case of the mishna.
רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן סָבַר כֵּיוָן דְּאִילּוּ לֹא נִגְנַב דִּלְמָא הֲווֹ בֵּיהּ מְאָה כּוֹר וְהָוֵי נָזִיר הַשְׁתָּא נָמֵי הָוֵי נָזִיר וְהָכָא נָמֵי כֵּיוָן דְּאִי אֲתָא לְקַמַּן וְיָדְעִינַן דִּפְלוֹנִי הֲוַאי הָוֵי נָזִיר הַשְׁתָּא נָמֵי הָוֵי נָזִיר: As for Rabbi Shimon, who disputes the ruling of the mishna, he holds with regard to the heap of grain: Since if the heap had not been stolen perhaps it might have contained one hundred kor and he would have been a nazirite, now too, he is a nazirite due to the uncertainty. And here too, in the case of the mishna, since if that person would have come before us and we would have known that he was so-and-so, the one who took the vow would have been a nazirite, consequently, now too, he is a nazirite as a result of the uncertainty cast by the unknown identity of the individual.
מַתְנִי׳ רָאָה אֶת הַכּוֹי וְאָמַר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר שֶׁזֶּה חַיָּה הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר שֶׁזֶּה אֵינוֹ חַיָּה הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר שֶׁזֶּה בְּהֵמָה הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר שֶׁאֵין זֶה בְּהֵמָה MISHNA: Someone saw a kosher animal with characteristics of both a domesticated animal and a non-domesticated animal [koy], and said: I am hereby a nazirite if this is a non-domesticated animal; and another individual said: I am hereby a nazirite if this is not a non-domesticated animal; and a third person said: I am hereby a nazirite if this is a domesticated animal; and a fourth said: I am hereby a nazirite if this not a domesticated animal.
הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר שֶׁזֶּה חַיָּה וּבְהֵמָה הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר שֶׁאֵין זֶה לֹא חַיָּה וְלֹא בְּהֵמָה הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר שֶׁאֶחָד מִכֶּם נָזִיר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר שֶׁאֵין אֶחָד מִכֶּם נָזִיר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר שֶׁכּוּלְּכֶם נְזִירִין הֲרֵי כּוּלָּן נְזִירִין: The mishna continues: A fifth person added: I am hereby a nazirite if this is a non-domesticated animal and a domesticated animal, and a sixth person said: I am hereby a nazirite if this is neither a non-domesticated animal nor a domesticated animal. Someone who heard all the above statements said: I am hereby a nazirite if one of you is a nazirite, and another one stated: I am hereby a nazirite if not one of you is a nazirite, and a final person said: I am hereby a nazirite if all of you are nazirites. In this case, they are all nazirites.
גְּמָ׳ תָּנֵי חֲדָא תִּשְׁעָה נְזִירִים וְתַנְיָא אִידַּךְ תֵּשַׁע נְזִירִיּוֹת בִּשְׁלָמָא תִּשְׁעָה נְזִירִין כְּגוֹן דְּהָוֵי גַּבְרֵי טְפֵי דְּאִיתְּפִיס וְאָזֵיל בֵּיהּ GEMARA: With regard to the ruling of the mishna that they are all nazirites, it is taught in one baraita that this case involves a total of nine nazirites, and it is taught in the other baraita that there are nine sets of naziriteship here. The Gemara clarifies: Granted, one can understand the baraita that says that there are nine nazirites, for example, if there were many people who associated their naziriteship with the status of this koy, each with one of the statements listed above.
אֶלָּא תֵּשַׁע נְזִירִיּוֹת לְחַד גַּבְרָא הֵיכִי מַשְׁכַּחַתְּ לַהּ בִּשְׁלָמָא שֵׁית מַשְׁכַּחַתְּ לַהּ כְּדִתְנַן However, how can you find these circumstances of nine sets of naziriteship in one person? Granted, you find six, as we learned in the mishna that there are six ways in which the nature of a koy can be expressed: It is a non-domesticated animal; it is not a non-domesticated animal; it is a domesticated animal; it is not a domesticated animal; is a non-domesticated animal and a domesticated animal; it is neither a non-domesticated animal nor a domesticated animal. One person could associate his acceptance of naziriteship with all of the above possibilities.
אֲבָל תְּלָת הֵיכִי מַשְׁכַּחַתְּ לַהּ אָמַר רַב שֵׁשֶׁת כְּגוֹן דְּאָמַר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר וּנְזִירוּת הַכֹּל עָלַי: However, how can you find these circumstances of the other three sets of naziriteship? The statements: If one of you is a nazirite, and: If one of you is not a nazirite, are necessarily expressed by individuals who did not make the initial six statements, as these last three statements address the group of people who made the first six statements. Rav Sheshet said: It is possible in a case where nine people issued the statements mentioned in the mishna, and someone said: I am hereby a nazirite and the naziriteship of all of them are incumbent upon me. Since each of the nine people is obligated to observe a term of naziriteship, this last one is obligated to observe nine terms.
הַדְרָן עֲלָךְ בֵּית שַׁמַּאי
שְׁלֹשָׁה מִינִין אֲסוּרִין בַּנָּזִיר הַטּוּמְאָה וְהַתִּגְלַחַת וְהַיּוֹצֵא מִן הַגֶּפֶן וְכׇל הַיּוֹצֵא מִן הַגֶּפֶן מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה וְאֵין חַיָּיב עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל מִן הָעֲנָבִים כַּזַּיִת MISHNA: Three types of actions are prohibited for a nazirite: The contraction of ritual impurity from a corpse, and the shaving of one’s hair, and eating or drinking any substances that emerge from the vine. The mishna adds: And all products that emerge from the vine combine with one another to the amount that renders a nazirite liable to receive lashes. And he is liable only if he eats an olive-bulk of the grapes.