Mishnah Tahorot
1א׳
1 א

שְׁלשָׁה עָשָׂר דָּבָר בְּנִבְלַת הָעוֹף הַטָּהוֹר. צְרִיכָה מַחֲשָׁבָה, וְאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה הֶכְשֵׁר, וּמְטַמָּא טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִין בְּכַבֵּיצָה, וְכַזַּיִת בְּבֵית הַבְּלִיעָה, וְהָאוֹכְלָהּ טָעוּן הֶעֱרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ. וְחַיָּבִים עָלֶיהָ עַל בִּיאַת הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, וְשׂוֹרְפִין עָלֶיהָ אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה. וְהָאוֹכֵל אֵבָר מִן הַחַי מִמֶּנָּה סוֹפֵג אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים. שְׁחִיטָתָהּ וּמְלִיקָתָהּ מְטַהֲרוֹת אֶת טְרֵפָתָהּ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֵינָן מְטַהֲרוֹת. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, שְׁחִיטָתָהּ מְטַהֶרֶת, אֲבָל לֹא מְלִיקָתָהּ:

Thirteen rulings govern the carrion of a clean bird:There must be intention; It need not be rendered susceptible; It conveys food uncleanness if its minimum bulk is that of an egg; And it conveys uncleanness when in one's gullet if its minimum bulk is that of an olive; He that eats of it must wait until sunset [to be clean]; Guilt is incurred on account of it for entering the sanctuary; Terumah is burned on account of it; He who eats a limb of it while it is alive suffers forty lashes; Slaughtering it or nipping [off its neck] cleanses it even if it is terefah, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: they do not cleanse it. Rabbi Yose says: the slaughtering does cleanse it but nipping does not.

2 ב

הַכְּנָפַיִם וְהַנּוֹצָה, מִטַּמְּאוֹת וּמְטַמְּאוֹת וְלֹא מִצְטָרְפוֹת. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, הַנּוֹצָה מִצְטָרֶפֶת. הַחַרְטוֹם וְהַצִּפָּרְנַיִם מִטַּמְּאִין וּמְטַמְּאִין וּמִצְטָרְפִים. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אַף רָאשֵׁי אֲגַפַּיִם וְרֹאשׁ הַזָּנָב מִצְטָרְפִים, שֶׁכֵּן מַנִּיחִים בַּפְּטוּמוֹת:

The large feathers and the down contract uncleanness and convey uncleanness but do not combine [with the flesh to constitute the prescribed minimum]. Rabbi Ishmael says: the down does combine [with the flesh]. The beak and the claws contract uncleanness and convey uncleanness and also combine [with the flesh to constitute the prescribed minimum]. Rabbi Yose says: also the ends of the wings and the end of the tail combine [with the flesh to constitute the minimum] since they are left unplucked on fattened birds.

3 ג

נִבְלַת הָעוֹף הַטָּמֵא צְרִיכָה מַחֲשָׁבָה וְהֶכְשֵׁר, וּמְטַמְּאָה טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִין בְּכַבֵּיצָה, וְכַחֲצִי פְרָס לִפְסֹל אֶת הַגְּוִיָּה, וְאֵין בָּהּ כַּזַּיִת בְּבֵית הַבְּלִיעָה, וְהָאוֹכְלָהּ אֵין טָעוּן הֶעֱרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ, וְאֵין חַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ עַל בִּיאַת מִקְדָּשׁ. אֲבָל שׂוֹרְפִין עָלֶיהָ אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה, וְהָאוֹכֵל אֵבָר מִן הַחַי מִמֶּנָּה אֵינוֹ סוֹפֵג אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים, וְאֵין שְׁחִיטָתָהּ מְטַהֲרְ תָּהּ. הַכְּנָפַיִם וְהַנּוֹצָה, מִטַּמְּאוֹת וּמְטַמְּאוֹת וּמִצְטָרְפוֹת. הַחַרְטוֹם וְהַצִּפָּרְנַיִם, מִטַּמְּאִין וּמְטַמְּאִים וּמִצְטָרְפִין:

The carrion of an unclean bird requires intention; and it must be rendered susceptible; It conveys food uncleanness if its minimum bulk is that of an egg; The consumption of a half of half a loaf's bulk of it renders one's person unfit to eat terumah; There is no rule that an olive's worth defiles in the gullet; He who eats of it need not wait for sunset; No guilt is incurred on account of it for entering the sanctuary; But on account of it terumah must be burnt. He who eats a limb of it while it is alive is not subject to the penalty of forty stripes; Slaughtering it does not render it fit. The large feathers and the down contract uncleanness and convey uncleanness and combine with the flesh to constitute the prescribed minimum. The beak and the claws contract uncleanness and convey uncleanness and combine [with the flesh to make up the prescribed minimum].

4 ד

וּבַבְּהֵמָה, הָעוֹר וְהָרֹטֶב וְהַקִּפָּה וְהָאֲלָל וְהָעֲצָמוֹת וְהַגִּידִים וְהַקַּרְנַיִם וְהַטְּלָפַיִם, מִצְטָרְפִין לְטַמֵּא טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִין, אֲבָל לֹא טֻמְאַת נְבֵלוֹת. כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, הַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה לְנָכְרִי וְהִיא מְפַרְכֶּסֶת, מְטַמְּאָה טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִין, אֲבָל לֹא טֻמְאַת נְבֵלוֹת, עַד שֶׁתָּמוּת אוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּתִּיז אֶת רֹאשָׁהּ. רִבָּה לְטַמֵּא טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִין, מִמַּה שֶּׁרִבָּה לְטַמֵּא טֻמְאַת נְבֵלוֹת:

The hide, meat juice, sediment, dried-up meat, bones, sinews, horns and hooves join together [to make up the minimum quantity in order] to convey food-uncleanness, but not to [make up the minimum quantity in order to] convey nevelah-uncleanness. Similarly, if a man slaughtered an unclean animal for a Gentile and it still has convulsions, it can convey food-uncleanness, but it conveys nevelah-uncleanness only after it is dead, or its head has been chopped off. [Scripture] has [thus] made more cases that convey food-uncleanness than those that convey nevelah-uncleanness.

5 ה

הָאֹכֶל שֶׁנִּטְמָא בְאַב הַטֻּמְאָה וְשֶׁנִּטְמָא בִוְלַד הַטֻּמְאָה, מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה לְטַמֵּא כַקַּל שֶׁבִּשְׁנֵיהֶן. כֵּיצַד. כַּחֲצִי בֵיצָה אֹכֶל רִאשׁוֹן וְכַחֲצִי בֵיצָה אֹכֶל שֵׁנִי שֶׁבְּלָלָן זֶה בָזֶה, שֵׁנִי. כַּחֲצִי בֵיצָה אֹכֶל שֵׁנִי וְכַחֲצִי בֵיצָה אֹכֶל שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבְּלָלָן זֶה בָזֶה, שְׁלִישִׁי. כַּבֵּיצָה אֹכֶל רִאשׁוֹן וְכַבֵּיצָה אֹכֶל שֵׁנִי שֶׁבְּלָלָן זֶה בָזֶה, רִאשׁוֹן. חִלְּקָן, זֶה שֵׁנִי וְזֶה שֵׁנִי. נָפַל זֶה לְעַצְמוֹ וְזֶה לְעַצְמוֹ עַל כִּכָּר שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה, פְּסָלוּהוּ. נָפְלוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן כְּאַחַת, עֲשָׂאוּהוּ שֵׁנִי:

Food that contracted uncleanness from a "father of uncleanness" and one that contracted uncleanness from a derived uncleanness may be combined together to convey uncleanness according to the lighter grade of the two. How so? If the amount of half an egg of food that has first grade uncleanness and the amount of half an egg of food that has second grade uncleanness were mixed together, the two are regarded having second grade uncleanness. And if the amount of half of an egg of food that has second grade uncleanness and the amount of half an egg of food that has third grade uncleanness were mixed together, the two are regarded as having third grade of uncleanness. If the amount of an egg of food having first grade uncleanness and the amount of an egg of food having second grade uncleanness were mixed together, both are regarded as having first grade uncleanness; But if they were then divided, each part is regarded as having second grade uncleanness. If each part separately fell on a loaf of terumah, they cause it to become unfit. But if the two fell together they cause it to have second grade uncleanness.

6 ו

כַּבֵּיצָה אֹכֶל שֵׁנִי וְכַבֵּיצָה אֹכֶל שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבְּלָלָן זֶה בָזֶה, שֵׁנִי. חִלְּקָן, זֶה שְׁלִישִׁי וְזֶה שְׁלִישִׁי. נָפַל זֶה לְעַצְמוֹ וְזֶה לְעַצְמוֹ עַל כִּכָּר שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה, לֹא פְסָלוּהוּ. נָפְלוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן כְּאַחַת, עֲשָׂאוּהוּ שְׁלִישִׁי. כַּבֵּיצָה אֹכֶל רִאשׁוֹן וְכַבֵּיצָה אֹכֶל שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבְּלָלָן זֶה בָזֶה, רִאשׁוֹן. חִלְּקָן, זֶה שֵׁנִי וְזֶה שֵׁנִי, שֶׁאַף הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁנָּגַע בָּרִאשׁוֹן נַעֲשָׂה שֵׁנִי. כִּשְׁתֵּי בֵיצִים אֹכֶל רִאשׁוֹן כִּשְׁתֵּי בֵיצִים אֹכֶל שֵׁנִי שֶׁבְּלָלָן זֶה בָזֶה, רִאשׁוֹן. חִלְּקָן, זֶה רִאשׁוֹן וְזֶה רִאשׁוֹן. לִשְׁלשָׁה אוֹ לְאַרְבָּעָה, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֵׁנִי. כִּשְׁתֵּי בֵיצִים אֹכֶל שֵׁנִי וְכִשְׁתֵּי בֵיצִים אֹכֶל שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבְּלָלָן זֶה בָזֶה, שֵׁנִי. חִלְּקָן, זֶה שֵׁנִי וְזֶה שֵׁנִי. לִשְׁלשָׁה אוֹ לְאַרְבָּעָה, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שְׁלִישִׁי:

An egg's worth of food that has second degree uncleanness and an egg's worth of food that has third decree uncleanness that were mixed together are regarded as having second degree uncleanness. If they were then divided, each part is regarded as having only third degree uncleanness. If each part separately fell on a loaf of terumah they do not render it invalid. But if the two fell together they convey to it third degree uncleanness. An egg's worth of food that has first degree uncleanness and an egg's worth of food that has third degree uncleanness that were mixed together are regarded as having first degree uncleanness. If they were then divided, each part is regarded as having only second grade uncleanness, for even the third grade that touched the first has become only a second grade. If two eggs worth of food that have first degree uncleanness and two eggs worth of food that have second degree uncleanness were mixed together they are regarded as having first degree uncleanness. If they were then divided, each part is still regarded as having first degree uncleanness. But if they were divided into three or four parts, each is regarded as having second grade. If two eggs worth of food having second degree uncleanness and two eggs worth of food having third degree uncleanness were mixed together, they are regarded as having second degree uncleanness. If they were then divided, each part is still regarded as having second degree uncleanness. But if they were divided into three or four parts, each is regarded as having only third degree uncleanness.

7 ז

מִקְרָצוֹת נוֹשְׁכוֹת זוֹ בָזוֹ, וְכִכָּרִים נוֹשְׁכִין זֶה בָזֶה, נִטְמֵאת אַחַת מֵהֶן בְּשֶׁרֶץ, כֻּלָּן תְּחִלָּה. פֵּרְשׁוּ, כֻּלָּן תְּחִלָּה. בְּמַשְׁקִין, כֻּלָּן שְׁנִיּוֹת. פֵּרְשׁוּ, כֻּלָּן שְׁנִיּוֹת. בְּיָדַיִם, כֻּלָּן שְׁלִישִׁיּוֹת. פֵּרְשׁוּ, כֻּלָּן שְׁלִישִׁיּוֹת:

Pieces of dough which are stuck to each other or loaves stuck to each other, if one of them was defiled from a sheretz, they all become unclean in the first degree; If they were then separated they are still regarded as having first degree uncleanness. If one of them was defiled by a liquid they all have second degree uncleanness; If they were then separated they are still regarded as have second degree uncleanness. If one of them was defiled from the hands, they all become have third degree uncleanness; If they were then separated they are still regarded as having third degree of uncleanness.

8 ח

מִקְרֶצֶת שֶׁהָיְתָה תְחִלָּה וְהִשִּׁיךְ לָהּ אֲחֵרוֹת, כֻּלָּן תְּחִלָּהּ. פֵּרְשׁוּ, הִיא תְחִלָּה וְכֻלָּן שְׁנִיּוֹת. הָיְתָה שְׁנִיָּה וְהִשִּׁיךְ לָהּ אֲחֵרוֹת, כֻּלָּן שְׁנִיּוֹת. פֵּרְשׁוּ, הִיא שְׁנִיָּה וְכֻלָּן שְׁלִישִׁיּוֹת. הָיְתָה שְׁלִישִׁית וְהִשִּׁיךְ לָהּ אֲחֵרוֹת, הִיא שְׁלִישִׁית וְכֻלָּן טְהוֹרוֹת, בֵּין שֶׁפֵּרְשׁוּ בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא פֵרְשׁוּ:

A piece of dough that had first degree uncleanness, and then others became stuck to it, they all become unclean in the first degree. If they were separated, it still remains unclean in the first degree but all the others are have only second degree uncleanness. If [the original piece] had second degree uncleanness and then others became stuck to it, they all become unclean in the second degree; If they were separated, it still remains unclean in the second degree but all the others are only unclean in the third degree. If [the original piece] had third degree uncleanness, and then other became stuck to it, it remains unclean in the third degree but all the others remain clean, whether they were subsequently separated from it or whether they were not separated.

9 ט

כִּכְּרוֹת הַקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ גֻּמּוֹתֵיהֶם מַיִם מְקֻדָּשִׁים, נִטְמֵאת אַחַת מֵהֶן בְּשֶׁרֶץ, כֻּלָּן טְמֵאוֹת. בַּתְּרוּמָה, מְטַמֵּא שְׁנַיִם וּפוֹסֵל אֶחָד. אִם יֵשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶם מַשְׁקֶה טוֹפֵחַ, אַף בַּתְּרוּמָה, הַכֹּל טָמֵא:

Holy loaves in whose hollows there was holy water, if one contracted uncleanness from a sheretz, they all become unclean. In the case of loaves of terumah, uncleanness is conveyed to two loaves and one is invalidated. If there was dripping liquid between them, even in the case of terumah all become unclean.