9ט׳
1 א

רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, פּוֹתְחִין לָאָדָם בִּכְבוֹד אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹסְרִין. אָמַר רַבִּי צָדוֹק, עַד שֶׁפּוֹתְחִין לוֹ בִכְבוֹד אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ, יִפְתְּחוּ לוֹ בִכְבוֹד הַמָּקוֹם, אִם כֵּן אֵין נְדָרִים. וּמוֹדִים חֲכָמִים לְרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בְּדָבָר שֶׁבֵּינוֹ לְבֵין אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ, שֶׁפּוֹתְחִין לוֹ בִּכְבוֹד אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ:

Rabbi Eliezer says, we give a person an opening [to a vow] by reference to the honor of their father and mother. The Sages forbid doing so. Rabbi Tzadok said, that rather than giving an opening through the honor of their father and mother, open with honor of God. [The Sages retort:] If so there would be no vows! The Sages agree to Rabbi Eliezer in a matter between him and his father and mother, that we may open with the honor of his father and mother.

2 ב

וְעוֹד אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, פּוֹתְחִין בְּנוֹלָד. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹסְרִין. כֵּיצַד. אָמַר, קוֹנָם שֶׁאֵינִי נֶהֱנֶה לְאִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי, וְנַעֲשָׂה סוֹפֵר, אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מַשִּׂיא אֶת בְּנוֹ בְקָרוֹב, וְאָמַר, אִלּוּ הָיִיתִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא נַעֲשֶׂה סוֹפֵר אוֹ שֶׁהוּא מַשִּׂיא אֶת בְּנוֹ בְקָרוֹב, לֹא הָיִיתִי נוֹדֵר. קוֹנָם לְבַיִת זֶה שֶׁאֵינִי נִכְנָס, וְנַעֲשָׂה בֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, וְאָמַר, אִלּוּ הָיִיתִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא נַעֲשֶׂה בֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת לֹא הָיִיתִי נוֹדֵר, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מַתִּיר, וַחֲכָמִים אוֹסְרִין:

And furthermore Rabbi Eliezer said: They make an opening for a vow by reference to a new fact; but the Sages forbid it. How so? He said, “Konam that I will not benefit from so and so,” and he [the latter] then became a scribe, or was about to give his son in marriage, and he said, “Had I known that he would become a scribe or was about to give his son in marriage, I would not have vowed;” [Or if he said,] “Konam, is this house that I will not enter,” and it became a synagogue, and he declared, “Had I known that it would become a synagogue, I would not have vowed,”—Rabbi Eliezer permits [the vow to be released], but the Sages forbid it.

3 ג

רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, יֵשׁ דְּבָרִים שֶׁהֵן כְּנוֹלָד וְאֵינָן כְּנוֹלָד, וְאֵין חֲכָמִים מוֹדִים לוֹ. כֵּיצַד. אָמַר, קוֹנָם שֶׁאֵינִי נוֹשֵׂא אֶת פְּלוֹנִית, שֶׁאָבִיהָ רָע. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מֵת אוֹ שֶׁעָשָׂה תְשׁוּבָה. קוֹנָם לְבַיִת זֶה שֶׁאֵינִי נִכְנָס, שֶׁהַכֶּלֶב רַע בְּתוֹכוֹ אוֹ שֶׁהַנָּחָשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מֵת הַכֶּלֶב אוֹ שֶׁנֶּהֱרַג הַנָּחָשׁ, הֲרֵי הֵן כְּנוֹלָד וְאֵינָן כְּנוֹלָד, וְאֵין חֲכָמִים מוֹדִים לוֹ:

Rabbi Meir says, there are things that are like a new fact but are not like a new fact, but the Sages didn't agree with him. How is this? He said "Konam that I will not marry so and so because her father is wicked." They said to him, "He [the father] died" or "he has repented [from his wicked ways]." [He said:] "Konam, is this house that I will not enter because the dog inside it is bad," or "there is a snake inside it." They said to him, "The dog has died" or "the snake was killed." These cases are like a new fact but not a new fact. But the Sages did not agree with him.

4 ד

וְעוֹד אָמַר רַבִּי מֵאִיר פּוֹתְחִין לוֹ מִן הַכָּתוּב שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ, אִלּוּ הָיִיתָ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁאַתָּה עוֹבֵר עַל לֹא תִקֹּם וְעַל לֹא תִטֹּר (ויקרא יט), וְעַל לֹא תִשְׂנָא אֶת אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ (שם), וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ (שם), וְחֵי אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ (שם כה), שֶׁמָּא יֵעָנִי וְאֵין אַתָּה יָכוֹל לְפַרְנְסוֹ. אָמַר, אִלּוּ הָיִיתִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא כֵן, לֹא הָיִיתִי נוֹדֵר, הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר:

Further, Rabbi Meir said, we make an opening from verses in the Torah and say to him, "If you had known that you would transgress (Leviticus 19:18) "don't take revenge" or "don't bear a grudge" and (Leviticus 19:17) "don't hate your brother in your heart" and (Leviticus 19:18) "love your neighbor as yourself" and (Leviticus 25:36) "that your brother may live with you" [because] maybe he will become poor and you will not be able to support him?" And he responds "Had I known that it is so, I would not have vowed," his vow is released.

5 ה

פּוֹתְחִין לָאָדָם בִּכְתֻבַּת אִשְׁתּוֹ. וּמַעֲשֶׂה בְאֶחָד שֶׁנָּדַר מֵאִשְׁתּוֹ הֲנָאָה וְהָיְתָה כְתֻבָּתָהּ אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת דִּינָרִין, וּבָא לִפְנֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא וְחִיְּבוֹ לִתֵּן לָהּ כְּתֻבָּתָהּ. אָמַר לוֹ, רַבִּי, שְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת דִּינָרִין הִנִּיחַ אַבָּא, וְנָטַל אָחִי אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת וַאֲנִי אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת, לֹא דַיָּהּ שֶׁתִּטֹּל הִיא מָאתַיִם, וַאֲנִי מָאתָיִם. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, אֲפִלּוּ אַתָּה מוֹכֵר שְׂעַר רֹאשְׁךָ, אַתָּה נוֹתֵן לָהּ כְּתֻבָּתָהּ. אָמַר לוֹ, אִלּוּ הָיִיתִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא כֵן, לֹא הָיִיתִי נוֹדֵר, וְהִתִּירָהּ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא:

They make an opening for a person by reference to a wife’s ketubah. And it once happened that a man vowed not to benefit from his wife and her ketubah amounted to four hundred denarii. He went before Rabbi Akiva, who ordered him to pay her the ketubah. He said to him, “Rabbi! My father left eight hundred denarii, of which my brother took four hundred and I took four hundred. Isn’t it enough that she should receive two hundred and I two hundred?” Rabbi Akiva replied: even if you have to sell the hair of your head you must pay her her ketubah. He said to him, “Had I known that it is so, I would not have vowed.” And Rabbi Akiva released his vow.

6 ו

פּוֹתְחִין בְּיָמִים טוֹבִים וּבְשַׁבָּתוֹת. בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים, אוֹתָן הַיָּמִים מֻתָּרִין וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַיָּמִים אֲסוּרִין, עַד שֶׁבָּא רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא וְלִמֵּד, שֶׁהַנֶּדֶר שֶׁהֻתַּר מִקְצָתוֹ, הֻתַּר כֻּלּוֹ:

They make openings by reference to the Shabbatot and festivals. At first they used to say: on those days the vow is cancelled, but for others it is forbidden, until Rabbi Akiva came and taught: a vow which is partially released is entirely released.

7 ז

כֵּיצַד. אָמַר, קוֹנָם שֶׁאֵינִי נֶהֱנֶה לְכֻלְּכֶם, הֻתַּר אֶחָד מֵהֶן, הֻתְּרוּ כֻלָּן. שֶׁאֵינִי נֶהֱנֶה לָזֶה וְלָזֶה, הֻתַּר הָרִאשׁוֹן, הֻתְּרוּ כֻלָּן. הֻתַּר הָאַחֲרוֹן, הָאַחֲרוֹן מֻתָּר, וְכֻלָּן אֲסוּרִין. הֻתַּר הָאֶמְצָעִי, הֵימֶנּוּ וּלְמַטָּה מֻתָּר, הֵימֶנּוּ וּלְמַעְלָה אָסוּר. שֶׁאֵינִי נֶהֱנֶה לָזֶה קָרְבָּן וְלָזֶה קָרְבָּן, צְרִיכִין פֶּתַח לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד:

How so? If one says, “Konam that I will not benefit from any of you,” if one of them was released, they are all released. "That I will not benefit from this one or this one”: If the first was released, all are released; if the last one was released, he is released, but the rest are forbidden. If the middle person was released, those [mentioned] after him are [also] released, but those [mentioned] before him are forbidden. [If one says,] “That I will not benefit from this one [at the price of an] offering, and from this one [at the price of an] offering,” they each require a separate petach [an opening in a vow that enables annulment either due to improper or mistaken original intent, or indication that the person’s mind was unsettled at the time of making the vow].

8 ח

קוֹנָם יַיִן שֶׁאֵינִי טוֹעֵם, שֶׁהַיַּיִן רַע לַמֵּעָיִם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, וַהֲלֹא הַמְיֻשָּׁן יָפֶה לַמֵּעָיִם, הֻתַּר בַּמְיֻשָּׁן. וְלֹא בַמְיֻשָּׁן בִּלְבַד הֻתַּר, אֶלָּא בְכָל הַיָּיִן. קוֹנָם בָּצָל שֶׁאֵינִי טוֹעֵם, שֶׁהַבָּצָל רַע לַלֵּב. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, הֲלֹא הַכֻּפְרִי יָפֶה לַלֵּב, הֻתַּר בַּכֻּפְרִי. וְלֹא בַכֻּפְרִי בִלְבַד הֻתַּר, אֶלָּא בְכָל הַבְּצָלִים. מַעֲשֶׂה הָיָה, וְהִתִּירוֹ רַבִּי מֵאִיר בְּכָל הַבְּצָלִים:

Konam that I will not drink wine, because wine is damaging to the stomach.” They said to him, “But isn't mature wine is beneficial to the stomach?” He is released in respect of mature wine, and not only in respect of mature wine, but of all wine. “Konam that I will not eat onions, because they are damaging to the heart.” They said to him, “But village onions are good for the heart,” He is released in respect of village onions, and not only in respect of village onions, but of all onions. Such a case happened, and Rabbi Meir permitted all onions.

9 ט

פּוֹתְחִין לָאָדָם בִּכְבוֹד עַצְמוֹ וּבִכְבוֹד בָּנָיו. אוֹמְרִים לוֹ, אִלּוּ הָיִיתָ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁלְּמָחָר אוֹמְרִין עָלֶיךָ כָּךְ הִיא וִסְתּוֹ שֶׁל פְּלוֹנִי, מְגָרֵשׁ אֶת נָשָׁיו, וְעַל בְּנוֹתֶיךָ יִהְיוּ אוֹמְרִין בְּנוֹת גְּרוּשׁוֹת הֵן, מָה רָאֲתָה אִמָּן שֶׁל אֵלּוּ לְהִתְגָּרֵשׁ, וְאָמַר, אִלּוּ הָיִיתִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁכֵּן, לֹא הָיִיתִי נוֹדֵר, הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר:

They open one’s vows [by reference] to his own honor and the honor of his children. They say to him, “Had you known that tomorrow they will say of you, ‘It is the regular habit of so-and-so to divorce his wives’; and concerning your daughters they will say, ‘They are the daughters of a divorced woman. What did their mother see in order to be divorced?’" If he replies, “Had I known that it is so, I would not have vowed,” he is released.

10 י

קוֹנָם שֶׁאֵינִי נוֹשֵׂא אֶת פְּלוֹנִית כְּעוּרָה, וַהֲרֵי הִיא נָאָה. שְׁחוֹרָה, וַהֲרֵי הִיא לְבָנָה. קְצָרָה, וַהֲרֵי הִיא אֲרֻכָּה, מֻתָּר בָּהּ. לֹא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כְעוּרָה וְנַעֲשֵׂית נָאָה, שְׁחוֹרָה וְנַעֲשֵׂית לְבָנָה, קְצָרָה וְנַעֲשֵׂית אֲרֻכָּה, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַנֶּדֶר טָעוּת. וּמַעֲשֶׂה בְאֶחָד שֶׁנָּדַר מִבַּת אֲחוֹתוֹ הֲנָיָה, וְהִכְנִיסוּהָ לְבֵית רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל וְיִפּוּהָ. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל, בְּנִי, לָזוֹ נָדָרְתָּ. אָמַר לוֹ, לָאו. וְהִתִּירוֹ רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל. בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה בָּכָה רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל וְאָמַר, בְּנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל נָאוֹת הֵן, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָעֲנִיּוּת מְנַוַּלְתָּן. וּכְשֶׁמֵּת רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל, הָיוּ בְנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל נוֹשְׂאוֹת קִינָה וְאוֹמְרוֹת, בְּנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּכֶינָה. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּשָׁאוּל (שמואל ב א) בְּנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל שָׁאוּל בְּכֶינָה:

Konam that I will not marry that ugly woman,” and she turns out to be beautiful; “That black-skinned woman,” and she turns out to be light-skinned; “That short woman,” and she turns out to be tall, he is permitted to marry her; not because she was ugly, and became beautiful, or black and became light-skinned, short and grew tall, but because the vow was in error. And it happened with one who vowed not to benefit from his sister’s daughter, and she was taken into Rabbi Ishmael’s house and they made her beautiful. Rabbi Ishmael said to him, “My son! Did you vow not to marry his one?” He said, “No,” and Rabbi Ishmael permitted her [to him]. In that hour Rabbi Ishmael wept and said, “The daughters of Israel are beautiful, but poverty disfigures them.” And when Rabbi Ishmael died, the daughters of Israel raised a lament, saying, “Daughters of Israel weep for Rabbi Ishmael.” And thus it is said too of Saul, “Daughters of Israel, weep for Saul” (II Samuel 1:24).