אֵין בֵּין הַמֻּדָּר הֲנָאָה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ לַמֻּדָּר הֵימֶנּוּ מַאֲכָל אֶלָּא דְרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל וְכֵלִים שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין בָּהֶן אֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁ. הַמֻּדָּר מַאֲכָל מֵחֲבֵרוֹ, לֹא יַשְׁאִילֶנּוּ נָפָה וּכְבָרָה וְרֵחַיִם וְתַנּוּר, אֲבָל מַשְׁאִיל לוֹ חָלוּק וְטַבַּעַת וְטַלִּית וּנְזָמִים, וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין בּוֹ אֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁ. מְקוֹם שֶׁמַּשְׂכִּירִין כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן, אָסוּר: The difference between one for whom benefit from another is forbidden by vow [hamuddar hana’a meḥaveiro] and one for whom benefit from his food is forbidden by vow concerns only setting foot on the other person’s property and borrowing from that person utensils that one does not use in preparation of food but for other purposes. Those two benefits are forbidden to the former but permitted to the latter. Therefore, with regard to one for whom benefit from another’s food is forbidden by vow, that person may not lend him utensils used in the preparation of food, e.g., a sieve, or a strainer, or a millstone, or an oven. However, he may lend him a garment, or a finger ring, or a cloak, or nose rings, as these are not used in the preparation of food. However, he may not lend them to one for whom benefit from him is forbidden by vow. And with regard to any item that one does not use in the preparation of food, in a place where one rents items of that kind, that item is forbidden. Meaning, one for whom benefit from another is forbidden by vow is prohibited from borrowing this type of item from the one who vowed and imposed the prohibition. This is because one can use the money saved by borrowing the item rather than renting it to purchase food.
הַמֻּדָּר הֲנָאָה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ, שׁוֹקֵל אֶת שִׁקְלוֹ, וּפוֹרֵעַ אֶת חוֹבוֹ, וּמַחֲזִיר לוֹ אֶת אֲבֵדָתוֹ. מְקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹטְלִין עָלֶיהָ שָׂכָר, תִּפֹּל הֲנָאָה לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ: With regard to one prohibited by vow from deriving benefit from another, if that other person chooses, he may contribute the half-shekel to the Temple on his behalf, and repay his debt, and return his lost item to him, and the one prohibited from benefiting is not considered to have benefited from him. In a place where one takes payment for returning a lost item, that benefit should fall into the category of consecrated Temple property.
וְתוֹרֵם אֶת תְּרוּמָתוֹ וּמַעַשְׂרוֹתָיו לְדַעְתּוֹ. וּמַקְרִיב עָלָיו קִנֵּי זָבִין, קִנֵּי זָבוֹת, קִנֵּי יוֹלְדוֹת, חַטָּאוֹת וַאֲשָׁמוֹת, וּמְלַמְּדוֹ מִדְרָשׁ, הֲלָכוֹת וְאַגָּדוֹת, אֲבָל לֹא יְלַמְּדֶנּוּ מִקְרָא. אֲבָל מְלַמֵּד הוּא אֶת בָּנָיו וְאֶת בְּנוֹתָיו מִקְרָא, וְזָן אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת בָּנָיו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב בִּמְזוֹנוֹתֵיהֶם. וְלֹא יָזוּן אֶת בְּהֶמְתּוֹ, בֵּין טְמֵאָה בֵּין טְהוֹרָה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, זָן אֶת הַטְּמֵאָה, וְאֵינוֹ זָן אֶת הַטְּהוֹרָה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מַה בֵּין טְמֵאָה לִטְהוֹרָה. אָמַר לָהֶן, שֶׁהַטְּהוֹרָה נַפְשָׁהּ לַשָּׁמַיִם וְגוּפָהּ שֶׁלּוֹ, וּטְמֵאָה נַפְשָׁהּ וְגוּפָהּ לַשָּׁמָיִם. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אַף הַטְּמֵאָה נַפְשָׁהּ לַשָּׁמַיִם וְגוּפָהּ שֶׁלּוֹ, שֶׁאִם יִרְצֶה, הֲרֵי הוּא מוֹכְרָהּ לְגוֹיִם אוֹ מַאֲכִילָהּ לִכְלָבִים: The mishna proceeds to list other tasks that one may perform for someone who is prohibited by vow from benefiting from him. And he separates his teruma and his tithes, provided that it is with the knowledge and consent of the owner of the produce. And he sacrifices for him the bird nests, i.e., pairs of birds, pigeons and turtledoves, of zavin (see Leviticus 15:13–15); the bird nests of zavot (see Leviticus 15:28–30); the bird nests of women after childbirth (see Leviticus 12:6–8); sin-offerings; and guilt-offerings. And he teaches him midrash, halakhot, and aggadot, but he may not teach him Bible. However, he may teach his sons and daughters Bible. And with regard to one for whom benefit from another is forbidden by vow, that other person may feed his wife and children, although the one who is bound by the vow is obligated in their support and benefits when another supports them. And he may not feed his animal, whether it is a kosher animal or whether it is a non-kosher animal. Rabbi Eliezer says: He may feed the non-kosher animal, and he may not feed the kosher animal. The Rabbis said to him: What is the difference between kosher and non-kosher animals in this respect? Rabbi Eliezer said to them: The kosher animal’s being belongs to Heaven, and the animal’s body is the property of its owner, as he can eat it. Therefore, the owner benefits directly when another feeds his animal. And a non-kosher animal, both its being and its body belong to Heaven, as it is prohibited for its owner to eat its meat. The Rabbis said to him: The non-kosher animal too, its being belongs to Heaven, and its body is the property of its owner, because if the owner chooses, he sells it to gentiles or feeds it to dogs.
הַמֻּדָּר הֲנָאָה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ וְנִכְנַס לְבַקְּרוֹ, עוֹמֵד, אֲבָל לֹא יוֹשֵׁב. וּמְרַפְּאֵהוּ רְפוּאַת נֶפֶשׁ, אֲבָל לֹא רְפוּאַת מָמוֹן. וְרוֹחֵץ עִמּוֹ בְאַמְבַּטִיָא גְדוֹלָה, אֲבָל לֹא בִקְטַנָּה. וְיָשֵׁן עִמּוֹ בְמִטָּה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה, אֲבָל לֹא בִימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְהַנֵּהוּ. וּמֵסֵב עִמּוֹ עַל הַמִּטָּה, וְאוֹכֵל עִמּוֹ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, אֲבָל לֹא מִן הַתַּמְחוּי, אֲבָל אוֹכֵל הוּא עִמּוֹ מִן הַתַּמְחוּי הַחוֹזֵר. לֹא יֹאכַל עִמּוֹ מִן הָאֵבוּס שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַפּוֹעֲלִים, וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂה עִמּוֹ בְאֻמָּן, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, עוֹשֶׂה הוּא בְרִחוּק מִמֶּנּוּ: In the case of one for whom benefit from another is forbidden by vow and he enters his house to visit him, he stands there but does not sit. And that other person heals him with a cure of the nefesh but not a cure of mamon. And with regard to another person who is prohibited from deriving benefit from him, one may bathe with him in a large bath [ambati], in which his presence does not affect the other person. However, he may not bathe with him in a small bath, as his presence moderates the temperature of water if it is too hot or too cold, thereby benefiting the other person. And he may sleep with him in one bed. Rabbi Yehuda says: That is permitted during the days of summer, but he may not sleep with him in one bed during the rainy season, i.e., the winter, because he benefits him by warming the bed. And he may recline with him on a divan even during the rainy season, as no benefit is involved. And he may eat with him at the same table, but not from a common platter from which several people eat, as if one leaves food on the platter, the other derives benefit from him. However, he may eat with him from a platter that returns to the host, as everyone takes a small portion and leaves food on the platter. No benefit is derived. Since there is enough food for everyone, none of the diners receives part of another’s portion. One may neither eat with him from the large vessel of food placed before the laborers, nor may he work with him in the same row in a vineyard; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: He may work in the same row with him provided that he is at a distance from him. If he is close, the other would derive forbidden benefit from him.
הַמֻּדָּר הֲנָאָה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ לִפְנֵי שְׁבִיעִית, לֹא יוֹרֵד לְתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ, וְאֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל מִן הַנּוֹטוֹת. וּבַשְּׁבִיעִית אֵינוֹ יוֹרֵד לְתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ, אֲבָל אוֹכֵל הוּא מִן הַנּוֹטוֹת. נָדַר הֵימֶנּוּ מַאֲכָל לִפְנֵי שְׁבִיעִית, יוֹרֵד לְתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ, וְאֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל מִן הַפֵּרוֹת. וּבַשְּׁבִיעִית, יוֹרֵד וְאוֹכֵל: In the case of one for whom benefit from another is forbidden, before, i.e., a year other than the Sabbatical Year, he may neither enter the field of that other person, nor eat from the produce that leans out of the field, even if he does not enter the field. And during the Sabbatical Year, when the produce of the trees is ownerless, he may not enter his field; however, he may eat from the growths that lean out of the field, as the produce does not belong to the other person. If one vowed before the Sabbatical Year that benefit from another’s food is forbidden for him, he may enter his field; however, he may not eat of the produce. And during the Sabbatical Year, he may enter the field and may eat the produce.
הַמֻּדָּר הֲנָאָה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ, לֹא יַשְׁאִילֶנּוּ וְלֹא יִשְׁאַל מִמֶּנּוּ, לֹא יַלְוֶנּוּ וְלֹא יִלְוֶה מִמֶּנּוּ, וְלֹא יִמְכֹּר לוֹ וְלֹא יִקַּח מִמֶּנּוּ. אָמַר לוֹ, הַשְׁאִילֵנִי פָרָתֶךָ. אָמַר לוֹ, אֵינָהּ פְּנוּיָה. אָמַר קוֹנָם שָׂדִי שֶׁאֲנִי חוֹרֵשׁ בָּהּ לְעוֹלָם, אִם הָיָה דַרְכּוֹ לַחֲרֹשׁ, הוּא אָסוּר וְכָל אָדָם מֻתָּרִין. אִם אֵין דַּרְכּוֹ לַחֲרֹשׁ, הוּא וְכָל אָדָם אֲסוּרִין: In the case of one for whom benefit from another is forbidden by vow, that other person may neither lend an item to him nor borrow an item from him. Similarly, he may neither lend money to him nor borrow money from him. And he may neither sell an item to him nor purchase an item from him. One said to another: Lend me your cow. The other person said to him: My cow is not available. The one seeking to borrow the cow responded angrily: Plowing my field with this cow is konam forever. If it was his typical manner to plow the field himself, then it is prohibited for him to plow his field with that cow but it is permitted for every other person. If it is not his typical manner to plow the field himself, and he has others plow for him, it is prohibited for him and for every other person to plow his field with that cow, because his intent was to render benefit from plowing with this cow forbidden.
הַמֻּדָּר הֲנָאָה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ וְאֵין לוֹ מַה יֹּאכַל, הוֹלֵךְ אֵצֶל הַחֶנְוָנִי וְאוֹמֵר, אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי מֻדָּר מִמֶּנִּי הֲנָאָה וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה, וְהוּא נוֹתֵן לוֹ וּבָא וְנוֹטֵל מִזֶּה. הָיָה בֵיתוֹ לִבְנוֹת, גְּדֵרוֹ לִגְדֹּר, שָׂדֵהוּ לִקְצֹר, הוֹלֵךְ אֵצֶל הַפּוֹעֲלִים וְאוֹמֵר, אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי מֻדָּר מִמֶּנִּי הֲנָאָה וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה. הֵם עוֹשִׂין עִמּוֹ, וּבָאִין וְנוֹטְלִין שָׂכָר מִזֶּה: In the case of one for whom benefit from another is forbidden by vow and who does not have anything to eat, the one from whom benefit is forbidden goes to the shopkeeper and says to him: So-and-so vowed that benefit from me is forbidden for him and I do not know what I will do. After grasping his intent, the shopkeeper gives food to the one for whom benefit is forbidden, and then the shopkeeper comes and takes payment for the food from that one who spoke to him. Similarly, if the house of one for whom benefit is forbidden by a vow was to be built, his fence to be erected, or his field to be harvested, and laborers were required but he had no money to hire them, the one from whom benefit is forbidden goes to the laborers and says to them: Benefit from me is forbidden by vow to so-and-so and I do not know what I will do. And the laborers perform those tasks with him, and come and take payment for their labor from that person who approached them.
הָיוּ מְהַלְּכִין בַּדֶּרֶךְ, וְאֵין לוֹ מַה יֹּאכַל, נוֹתֵן לְאַחֵר לְשׁוּם מַתָּנָה וְהַלָּה מֻתָּר בָּהּ. אִם אֵין עִמָּהֶם אַחֵר, מַנִּיחַ עַל הַסֶּלַע אוֹ עַל הַגָּדֵר וְאוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי הֵן מֻפְקָרִים לְכָל מִי שֶׁיַּחְפֹּץ, וְהַלָּה נוֹטֵל וְאוֹכֵל. וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹסֵר: If the one who vowed to render benefit from him forbidden and the one for whom benefit is forbidden were traveling together along the road and the one for whom benefit is forbidden does not have anything to eat, the one who from whom benefit is forbidden gives food to one other person as a gift, and it is permitted for that person for whom benefit is forbidden to eat the food because it no longer belongs to the one from whom benefit is forbidden. If there is no other person with them, the one who vowed places the food on the nearest rock or on the nearest fence and says: These food items are hereby rendered ownerless and are available to anyone who wants them. Then that person for whom benefit is forbidden takes and eats the food. Rabbi Yosei prohibits doing so.