Mishnah Makhshirin
1א׳
1 א

כָּל מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁתְּחִלָּתוֹ לְרָצוֹן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין סוֹפוֹ לְרָצוֹן, אוֹ שֶׁסּוֹפוֹ לְרָצוֹן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין תְּחִלָּתוֹ לְרָצוֹן, הֲרֵי זֶה בְכִי יֻתַּן. מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִים מְטַמְּאִין לְרָצוֹן וְשֶׁלֹּא לְרָצוֹן:

Any liquid which was desired at the beginning though it was not desired at the end, or which was desired at the end though it was not desired at the beginning, comes under the law of "if water be put." Unclean liquids render unclean whether [their action] is desired or is not desired.

2 ב

הַמַּרְעִיד אֶת הָאִילָן לְהַשִּׁיר מִמֶּנּוּ אֳכָלִין אוֹ אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה, אֵינָן בְּכִי יֻתַּן. לְהַשִּׁיר מִמֶּנּוּ מַשְׁקִין, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, הַיּוֹצְאִין וְאֶת שֶׁבּוֹ, בְּכִי יֻתַּן. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, הַיּוֹצְאִין, בְּכִי יֻתַּן, וְאֶת שֶׁבּוֹ, אֵינָן בְּכִי יֻתַּן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ מִכֻּלּוֹ:

If one shook a tree in order to cause food or something unclean to fall down from it, [the rain water dropping down from it] does not come under the law of ‘if water be put.' If [he shook the tree] in order to cause liquids to fall down from it: Bet Shammai says: both [the liquids] that fall down and [the liquids] that remain [on the tree] come under the law of ‘if water be put.' But Bet Hillel say: [the liquids] that fall down come under the law of ‘if water be put’, but [the liquids] that remain [on the tree] do not come under the law of ‘if water be put,' because his intention was that [the liquids] should drop down from all the tree.

3 ג

הַמַּרְעִיד אֶת הָאִילָן וְנָפַל עַל חֲבֵרוֹ, אוֹ סוֹכָה וְנָפְלָה עַל חֲבֶרְתָּהּ, וְתַחְתֵּיהֶן זְרָעִים אוֹ יְרָקוֹת הַמְחֻבָּרִין לַקַּרְקַע, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, בְּכִי יֻתַּן. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵינָן בְּכִי יֻתַּן. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מִשּׁוּם אַבָּא יוֹסֵי חֲלֵי קוּפְרִי אִישׁ טִבְעוֹן, תְּמַהּ עַצְמְךָ אִם יֵשׁ מַשְׁקֶה טָמֵא בַתּוֹרָה, עַד שֶׁיִּתְכַּוֵּן וְיִתֵּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא), וְכִי יֻתַּן מַיִם עַל זֶרַע:

If one shook a tree and it fell on another tree, or a branch and it fell on another branch, and under them were seeds or vegetables [still] joined to the ground: Bet Shammai say: this comes under the law of ‘if water be put’. But Bet Hillel say: this does not come under the law of ‘if water be put’. R. Joshua said in the name of Abba Yose Holikofri a man of Tivon: Be surprised if there is any liquid that according to the Torah causes susceptibility to uncleanness except one put it on with intention, for it is said: "If water be put upon the seed."

4 ד

הַנּוֹעֵר אֲגֻדָּה שֶׁל יָרָק וְיָרְדוּ מִצַּד הָעֶלְיוֹן לַתַּחְתּוֹן, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, בְּכִי יֻתַּן. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵינָם בְּכִי יֻתַּן. אָמְרוּ בֵית הִלֵּל לְבֵית שַׁמַּאי, וַהֲלֹא הַנּוֹעֵר אֶת הַקֶּלַח, חוֹשְׁשִׁין אָנוּ שֶׁמָּא יָצְאוּ מִן הֶעָלֶה לֶעָלֶה. אָמְרוּ לָהֶן בֵּית שַׁמַּאי, שֶׁהַקֶּלַח אֶחָד, וַאֲגֻדָּה קְלָחִים הַרְבֵּה. אָמְרוּ לָהֶם בֵּית הִלֵּל, הֲרֵי הַמַּעֲלֶה שַׂק מָלֵא פֵרוֹת וּנְתָנוֹ עַל גַּב הַנָּהָר, חוֹשְׁשִׁין אָנוּ שֶׁמָּא יָרְדוּ מִצַּד הָעֶלְיוֹן לַתַּחְתּוֹן. אֲבָל אִם הֶעֱלָה שְׁנַיִם וּנְתָנָן זֶה עַל גַּב זֶה, הַתַּחְתּוֹן בְּכִי יֻתַּן. וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, הַתַּחְתּוֹן טָהוֹר:

If one shook a bundle of vegetables and [water] dropped down from the upper [side] to the lower [side]: Bet Shammai say: this comes under the law of ‘if water be put’. But Bet Hillel say: this does not come under the law of ‘if water be put’. Bet Hillel said to Bet Shammai: if one shakes a stalk, do we fear lest water drops from one leaf on the other leaf? Bet Shammai said to them: a stalk is only one, but a bundle has many stalks. Bet Hillel said to them: behold, if one lifted a sack full of produce and put it beside the river, do we fear lest water drops from the upper [side] to the lower [side]? But if he lifted two sacks and placed them one upon the other, the lower [sack] comes under the law of ‘if water be put’. Rabbi Yose says: the lower [sack] remains insusceptible to uncleanness.

5 ה

הַמְמַחֵק אֶת הַכְּרֵישָׁה, וְהַסּוֹחֵט שְׂעָרוֹ בִּכְסוּתוֹ, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, הַיּוֹצְאִין בְּכִי יֻתַּן, וְאֶת שֶׁבּוֹ אֵינָן בְּכִי יֻתַּן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ מִכֻּלּוֹ:

If one rubbed a leek or pressed his hair or his garment, Rabbi Yose says: the liquid which came out comes under the law of ‘if water be put’, but the liquid that remained does not come under the law of ‘if water be put’, because his intention was that the liquid should come out of all of it.

6 ו

הַנּוֹפֵחַ בַּעֲדָשִׁים לְבָדְקָן אִם יָפוֹת הֵן, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אֵינָן בְּכִי יֻתַּן. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בְּכִי יֻתַּן. וְהָאוֹכֵל שֻׁמְשְׁמִין בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ, מַשְׁקִין שֶׁעַל יָדוֹ, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אֵינָן בְּכִי יֻתַּן. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בְּכִי יֻתַּן. הַטּוֹמֵן פֵּרוֹתָיו בַּמַּיִם מִפְּנֵי הַגַּנָּבִים, אֵינָן בְּכִי יֻתַּן. מַעֲשֶׂה בְאַנְשֵׁי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם שֶׁטָּמְנוּ דְבֵלָתָן בַּמַּיִם מִפְּנֵי הַסִּיקָרִין, וְטִהֲרוּ לָהֶן חֲכָמִים. הַנּוֹתֵן פֵּרוֹתָיו בְּשִׁבֹּלֶת הַנָּהָר לַהֲבִיאָן עִמּוֹ, אֵינָן בְּכִי יֻתַּן:

If one blew on lentils in order to test whether they were good: Rabbi Shimon says: this does not come under the law of ‘if water be put’. But the sages say: this does come under the law of ‘if water be put’. If one ate sesame with his finger, with regard to the liquid that was on his hand: Rabbi Shimon says: this does not come under the law of ‘if water be put’. But the sages say: this does come under the law of ‘if water be put’. If one hid his fruit in water from thieves, it does not come under the law of ‘if water be put’. Once it happened that the men of Jerusalem hid their fig cakes in water from the robbers, and the sages declared that they were not susceptible to uncleanness. If one put his fruit in the stream of a river to make it come down with him, it does not come under the law of ‘if water be put’.