5ה׳
1 א

כֶּרֶם רְבָעִי, מְצַיְּנִין אוֹתוֹ בְּקוֹזְזוֹת אֲדָמָה, וְשֶׁל עָרְלָה בְּחַרְסִית, וְשֶׁל קְבָרוֹת בְּסִיד, וּמְמַחֶה וְשׁוֹפֵךְ. אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בַּשְּׁבִיעִית. וְהַצְּנוּעִים מַנִּיחִין אֶת הַמָּעוֹת וְאוֹמְרִים, כָּל הַנִּלְקָט מִזֶּה, יְהֵא מְחֻלָּל עַל הַמָּעוֹת הָאֵלּוּ:

A vineyard in its fourth year, they mark it with clods of earth, and of orlah with potter's clay, and graves with lime which is dissolved and poured on. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel said: When does this apply? In the seventh year. The conscientious used to put down money and say: any fruit gathered from this vineyard may be exchanged for this money.

2 ב

כֶּרֶם רְבָעִי הָיָה עוֹלֶה לִירוּשָׁלַיִם מַהֲלַךְ יוֹם אֶחָד לְכָל צָד. וְאֵיזוֹ הִיא תְחוּמָהּ, אֵילַת מִן הַדָּרוֹם וְעַקְרַבַּת מִן הַצָּפוֹן, לוֹד מִן הַמַּעֲרָב וְהַיַּרְדֵּן מִן הַמִּזְרָח. וּמִשֶּׁרַבּוּ הַפֵּרוֹת, הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁיְּהֵא נִפְדֶּה סָמוּךְ לַחוֹמָה. וּתְנַאי הָיָה הַדָּבָר, שֶׁאֵימָתַי שֶׁיִּרְצוּ, יַחֲזֹר הַדָּבָר לִכְמוֹת שֶׁהָיָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, הָיָה הַתְּנַאי הַזֶּה. וּתְנַאי הָיָה, אֵימָתַי שֶׁיִּבָּנֶה בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, יַחֲזֹר הַדָּבָר לִכְמוֹת שֶׁהָיָה:

[The produce of] a vineyard in its fourth year was brought up to Jerusalem within a distance of one day’s journey on each side. And what is the border [of a day’s journey on each side]? Eilat to the south, Akrabat on the north, Lod to the west, and the Jordan [river] to the east. When produce increased, it was decreed that it can be redeemed even if the vineyard was close to the wall. And there was a stipulation on this matter, that whenever it was so desired, the arrangement would be restored as it had been before. Rabbi Yose says: this was the stipulation after the Temple was destroyed, and the stipulation was that when the Temple should be rebuilt the arrangement would be restored as it had been before.

3 ג

כֶּרֶם רְבָעִי, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, אֵין לוֹ חֹמֶשׁ וְאֵין לוֹ בִעוּר. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, יֶשׁ לוֹ. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, יֶשׁ לוֹ פֶרֶט וְיֶשׁ לוֹ עוֹלְלוֹת, וְהָעֲנִיִּים פּוֹדִין לְעַצְמָן. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, כֻּלּוֹ לַגָּת:

[The grapes of] a vineyard in its fourth year:Bet Shammai says: the laws of the added fifth and removal do not apply to them; But Bet Hillel says: they do. Bet Shammai says: the laws of peret and the defective clusters apply to them, and the poor can redeem the grapes for themselves. But Bet Hillel says: all [of them] go to the wine-press.

4 ד

כֵּיצַד פּוֹדִין נֶטַע רְבָעִי, מַנִּיחַ אֶת הַסַּל עַל פִּי שְׁלֹשָׁה, וְאוֹמֵר, כַּמָּה אָדָם רוֹצֶה לִפְדּוֹת לוֹ בְסֶלַע עַל מְנָת לְהוֹצִיא יְצִיאוֹת מִבֵּיתוֹ. וּמַנִּיחַ אֶת הַמָּעוֹת, וְאוֹמֵר, כָּל הַנִּלְקָט מִזֶּה, מְחֻלָּל עַל הַמָּעוֹת הָאֵלּוּ בְּכָךְ וְכָךְ סַלִּים בְּסָלַע:

How does one redeem the fruit of a plant in its fourth year? The owner puts down a basket in the presence of three [people] and says: “How many such baskets would a man wish to redeem for himself for a sela on condition that the costs [to produce the fruit] shall be on his house? And then he puts down the money and says: “Whatever shall be picked from this plant may it be exchanged for this money at the price of so many baskets for a sela.”

5 ה

וּבַשְּׁבִיעִית, פּוֹדֵהוּ בְשָׁוְיוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה הַכֹּל מֻפְקָר, אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא שְׂכַר לְקִיטָה. הַפּוֹדֶה נֶטַע רְבָעִי שֶׁלּוֹ, מוֹסִיף עָלָיו חֲמִשִּׁיתוֹ, בֵּין שֶׁהוּא שֶׁלּוֹ וּבֵין שֶׁנִּתַּן לוֹ בְּמַתָּנָה:

But in the seventh year he must redeem it for its full value. If [in other years] it had all been made ownerless property, the person [who redeems it] can only claim the cost of picking it. One who redeems his own plant in its fourth year, he must add a fifth of its value, whether the fruit was his own or was given him as a gift.

6 ו

עֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל פֶּסַח שֶׁל רְבִיעִית וְשֶׁל שְׁבִיעִית, הָיָה בִעוּר. כֵּיצַד הָיָה בִעוּר, נוֹתְנִין תְּרוּמָה וּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר לַבְּעָלִים, וּמַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן לִבְעָלָיו, וּמַעֲשַׂר עָנִי לִבְעָלָיו. וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהַבִּכּוּרִים מִתְבַּעֲרִים בְּכָל מָקוֹם. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, הַבִּכּוּרִים נִתָּנִין לַכֹּהֲנִים כַּתְּרוּמָה. הַתַּבְשִׁיל, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, צָרִיךְ לְבַעֵר. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, הֲרֵי הוּא כִּמְבֹעָר:

On the eve of the first [others read “last”] festival-day of Pesah in the fourth and in the seventh [years of the sabbatical cycle] the removal was performed. Terumah and the terumah of tithe were given to their owners, the first tithe was given to its owner, the tithe of the poor to its owner, and maaser sheni and first-fruits were removed in every place. Rabbi Shimon says: first-fruits were given to the priests like terumah. As for a cooked dish [with maaser sheni in it]: Bet Shammai says: it must be removed. But Bet Hillel say: lo, it may be considered as already removed.

7 ז

מִי שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ פֵרוֹת בַּזְּמָן הַזֶּה וְהִגִּיעָה שְׁעַת הַבִּעוּר, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, צָרִיךְ לְחַלְּלָן עַל הַכֶּסֶף. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֶחָד שֶׁהֵן כֶּסֶף וְאֶחָד שֶׁהֵן פֵּרוֹת:

One who had produce at this time and the time of removal arrived:Bet Shammai says: he must exchange it for money. But Bet Hillel says: it is all the same whether it becomes money or it remains fruit.

8 ח

אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ שׁוֹלְחִין אֵצֶל בַּעֲלֵי בָתִּים שֶׁבַּמְּדִינוֹת, מַהֲרוּ וְהַתְקִינוּ אֶת פֵּרוֹתֵיכֶם עַד שֶׁלֹּא תַגִּיעַ שְׁעַת הַבִּעוּר. עַד שֶׁבָּא רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא וְלִמֵּד, שֶׁכָּל הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁלֹּא בָאוּ לְעוֹנַת הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, פְּטוּרִים מִן הַבִּעוּר:

Rabbi Judah said: in early times they used to send to householders in the provinces [saying:] “Hasten to set right your produce before the time of removal arrives,” until Rabbi Akiva came and taught that all produce which has not reached the time of tithing is exempt from the removal.

9 ט

מִי שֶׁהָיוּ פֵרוֹתָיו רְחוֹקִים מִמֶּנּוּ, צָרִיךְ לִקְרוֹא לָהֶם שֵׁם. מַעֲשֶׂה בְרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל וְהַזְּקֵנִים שֶׁהָיוּ בָאִין בִּסְפִינָה, אָמַר רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, עִשּׂוּר שֶׁאֲנִי עָתִיד לָמוֹד, נָתוּן לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ, וּמְקוֹמוֹ מֻשְׂכָּר לוֹ. עִשּׂוּר אַחֵר שֶׁאֲנִי עָתִיד לָמֹד, נָתוּן לַעֲקִיבָא בֶן יוֹסֵף שֶׁיִּזְכֶּה בוֹ לָעֲנִיִּים, וּמְקוֹמוֹ מֻשְׂכָּר לוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, עִשּׂוּר שֶׁאֲנִי עָתִיד לָמוֹד נָתוּן לְאֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, וּמְקוֹמוֹ מֻשְׂכָּר לוֹ. וְנִתְקַבְּלוּ זֶה מִזֶּה שָׂכָר:

One whose produce was far away from him, he must call it by name. Once it happened that Rabban Gamaliel and the elders were traveling by ship, and Rabban Gamaliel said: “The tithe which I shall measure out in the future is given to Joshua, and the place which it is in is leased to him. The other tithe which I shall measure out in the future is given to Akiva ben Joseph that he may hold it for the poor, and the place which it is in is leased to him.” Rabbi Joshua said: “The tithe [taken from terumah] which I shall measure out is given to Elazar ben Azariah, and the place which it is in is leased to him,” and they each received rent one from another.

10 י

בַּמִּנְחָה בְיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן הָיוּ מִתְוַדִּין. כֵּיצַד הָיָה הַוִּדּוּי, בִּעַרְתִּי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִן הַבַּיִת (דברים כו), זֶה מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְנֶטַע רְבָעִי. נְתַתִּיו לַלֵּוִי, זֶה מַעְשַׂר לֵוִי. וְגַם נְתַתִּיו, זוֹ תְּרוּמָה וּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר. לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה, זֶה מַעֲשַׂר עָנִי, הַלֶּקֶט וְהַשִּׁכְחָה וְהַפֵּאָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן מְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַוִּדּוּי. מִן הַבַּיִת, זוֹ חַלָּה:

At minhah on the last festival day they would make the confession. How was the confession made? “I have cleared out the holy portion from the house” this refers to maaser sheni and the fruit of plants in their fourth year. “I have given them to the Levite” this refers to the tithe of the levites. “And also I have given them” this refers to terumah and the terumah of tithe. “To the stranger, to the orphans, and to the widow” this refers to the tithe of the poor, gleanings, forgotten sheaves, and the corners of the field, even though these do not prevent [one from making] the confession. “Out of the house” this refers to hallah.

11 יא

כְּכָל מִצְוָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתָנִי (שם), הָא אִם הִקְדִּים מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי לָרִאשׁוֹן, אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהִתְוַדּוֹת. לֹא עָבַרְתִּי מִמִּצְוֹתֶיךָ, לֹא הִפְרַשְׁתִּי מִמִּין עַל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ, וְלֹא מִן הַתָּלוּשׁ עַל הַמְחֻבָּר, וְלֹא מִן הַמְחֻבָּר עַל הַתָּלוּשׁ, וְלֹא מִן הֶחָדָשׁ עַל הַיָּשָׁן, וְלֹא מִן הַיָּשָׁן עַל הֶחָדָשׁ. וְלֹא שָׁכָחְתִּי, לֹא שָׁכַחְתִּי מִלְּבָרֶכְךָ וּמִלְּהַזְכִּיר שִׁמְךָ עָלָיו:

“According to all Your commandments which You have commanded me,” thus, if he took out maaser sheni before the first tithe he cannot make the confession. “I have not transgressed any of Your commandments” I have not set apart [tithes] from one kind for a different kind, nor from plucked [produce] for [produce still] joined [to the soil], nor from new [produce] for old [produce], nor from old [produce] for new. “Neither have I forgotten” I have not forgotten to bless You, nor to make mention of You name over it.

12 יב

לֹא אָכַלְתִּי בְאֹנִי מִמֶּנּוּ (שם), הָא אִם אֲכָלוֹ בַאֲנִינָה אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהִתְוַדּוֹת. וְלֹא בִעַרְתִּי מִמֶּנּוּ בְּטָמֵא, הָא אִם הִפְרִישׁוֹ בְטֻמְאָה אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהִתְוַדּוֹת. וְלֹא נָתַתִּי מִמֶּנּוּ לְמֵת, לֹא לָקַחְתִּי מִמֶּנּוּ אָרוֹן וְתַכְרִיכִים לְמֵת, וְלֹא נְתַתִּיו לְאוֹנְנִים אֲחֵרִים. שָׁמַעְתִּי בְקוֹל ה' אֱלֹהָי, הֲבֵאתִיו לְבֵית הַבְּחִירָה. עָשִׂיתִי כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתָנִי, שָׂמַחְתִּי וְשִׂמַּחְתִּי בוֹ:

“I have not eaten from it in my mourning” thus, if he had eaten it in his mourning (aninut), he cannot make the confession. “Neither have I removed any of it when unclean” thus, if he had removed it in uncleanness he cannot make the confession. “And I have not given any of it to the dead” I have not used any of it for a coffin or shrouds for the dead, and I have not given any of it to other mourners. “I have listened to the voice of the Lord my God” I have brought it to the chosen house. “I have done just as you commanded me I have rejoiced and made others rejoice.

13 יג

הַשְׁקִיפָה מִמְּעוֹן קָדְשְׁךָ מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם (דברים כו, טו), עָשִׂינוּ מַה שֶׁגָּזַרְתָּ עָלֵינוּ, אַף אַתָּה עֲשֵׂה מַה שֶׁהִבְטַחְתָּנוּ, הַשְׁקִיפָה מִמְּעוֹן קָדְשְׁךָ מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבָרֵךְ אֶת עַמְּךָ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּבָנִים וּבְבָנוֹת. וְאֵת הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה לָנוּ, בְּטַל וּבְמָטָר וּבְוַלְדוֹת בְּהֵמָה. כַּאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתָּ לַאֲבוֹתֵינוּ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ, כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּתֵּן טַעַם בַּפֵּרוֹת:

“Look down from Your holy abode, from heaven” We have done what You decreed upon us, You too do what You have promised us. “Look down from Your holy abode, from heaven, and bless Your people Israel” with sons and daughters. “And the land which You have given us” with dew and rain and with offspring of cattle. “As You swore to our fathers, a land flowing with milk and honey” that You may give a good taste to the produce.

14 יד

מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ, יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמַמְזֵרִים מִתְוַדִּים, אֲבָל לֹא גֵרִים וְלֹא עֲבָדִים מְשֻׁחְרָרִים, שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק בָּאָרֶץ. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אַף לֹא כֹהֲנִים וּלְוִיִּם, שֶׁלֹּא נָטְלוּ חֵלֶק בָּאָרֶץ. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, יֵשׁ לָהֶם עָרֵי מִגְרָשׁ:

From here they said that Israelites and mamzerim may make the confession, but not converts, nor freed slaves, since they have no inheritance in the land. Rabbi Meir says: neither do priests and Levites since they did not take a share of the land. Rabbi Yose says: they have the Levitical cities.

15 טו

יוֹחָנָן כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל הֶעֱבִיר הוֹדָיוֹת הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. אַף הוּא בִּטֵּל אֶת הַמְעוֹרְרִים, וְאֶת הַנּוֹקְפִים. וְעַד יָמָיו הָיָה פַטִּישׁ מַכֶּה בִירוּשָׁלָיִם, וּבְיָמָיו אֵין אָדָם צָרִיךְ לִשְׁאוֹל עַל הַדְּמָאי:

Yohanan the high priest stopped [the recitation] of the confession of the tithes. He also abolished the “wakers” and the “strikers.” Until his days the hammer used to beat in Jerusalem. And in his days one did not have to ask about demai.