3ג׳
1 א

בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בְּכֹהֵן נִמְלָךְ. אֲבָל בְּכֹהֵן שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִמְלָךְ, אַחַת לָזוֹ וְאַחַת לָזוֹ, שְׁתַּיִם לָזוֹ וּשְׁתַּיִם לָזוֹ, שָׁלשׁ לָזוֹ וְשָׁלשׁ לָזוֹ, עָשָׂה כֻלָּן לְמַעְלָה, מֶחֱצָה כָשֵׁר וּמֶחֱצָה פָסוּל. כֻּלָּן לְמַטָּן, מֶחֱצָה כָשֵׁר וּמֶחֱצָה פָסוּל. חֶצְיָם לְמַעְלָה וְחֶצְיָם לְמַטָּה, אֶת שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה, מֶחֱצָה כָשֵׁר וּמֶחֱצָה פָסוּל, וְאֶת שֶׁלְּמַטָּה, מֶחֱצָה כָשֵׁר וּמֶחֱצָה פָסוּל:

When are these words said? When the priest asks advice. But in the case of a priest who does not seek advice, and one [pair] belongs to one [woman] and one to another, or two [pairs] to one and two to another, or three [pairs] to one and three to another, and he offered all of them above [the red line], then half are valid and half are invalid. [Similarly], if [he offered] all of them below, half are valid and half are invalid. If [he offered] half of them above and half of them below, then of those [offered] above, half are valid and half are invalid, and also of those [offered] below, half are valid and half are invalid.

2 ב

אַחַת לָזוֹ, וּשְׁתַּיִם לָזוֹ, וְשָׁלשׁ לָזוֹ, וְעֶשֶׂר לָזוֹ, וּמֵאָה לָזוֹ, עָשָׂה כֻלָּן לְמַעְלָה, מֶחֱצָה כָשֵׁר וּמֶחֱצָה פָסוּל. כֻּלָּן לְמַטָּן, מֶחֱצָה כָשֵׁר וּמֶחֱצָה פָסוּל. חֶצְיָן לְמַעְלָן וְחֶצְיָן לְמַטָּן, הַמְרֻבֶּה כָשֵׁר. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאַתָּה יָכוֹל לַחֲלֹק אֶת הַקִּנִּין וְלֹא יְהוּ מִשֶּׁל אִשָּׁה אַחַת, בֵּין מִלְמַעְלָן בֵּין מִלְּמַטָּן, מֶחֱצָה כָשֵׁר וּמֶחֱצָה פָסוּל. כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין אַתָּה יָכוֹל לַחֲלֹק אֶת הַקִּנִּין עַד שֶׁיְּהוּ מִשֶּׁל אִשָּׁה אַחַת, בֵּין מִלְמַעְלָן בֵּין מִלְּמַטָּן, הַמְרֻבֶּה כָשֵׁר:

If one [pair] belonged to one woman and two [pairs] to another, or [even] three [pairs] to another, or [ten] pairs to another or a hundred to another, and he offered all of them above, then half are valid and half are invalid. [Similarly], if he offered all of them below, half are valid and half are invalid. [If he offered] half of them above and half below, then the [number of birds as there is in the] larger part are valid. This is the general principle: whenever you can divide the pairs [of birds] so that those belonging to one woman need not have part of them [offered] above and part [offered] below, then half of them are valid and half are invalid; But whenever you cannot divide the pairs [of birds] without some of those belonging to one woman being [offered] above and some below, then [the number as there is in] the larger part are valid.

3 ג

חַטָּאת לָזוֹ, וְעוֹלָה לָזוֹ, עָשָׂה כֻלָּן לְמַעְלָן, מֶחֱצָה כָשֵׁר וּמֶחֱצָה פָסוּל. כֻּלָּן לְמַטָּן, מֱחֱצָה כָשֵׁר וּמֶחֱצָה פָסוּל. חֶצְיָן לְמַעְלָן וְחֶצְיָן לְמַטָּן, שְׁתֵּיהֶן פָּסוּל, שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר, חַטָּאת קְרֵבָה לְמַעְלָן וְעוֹלָה לְמַטָּן:

If the hatats belonged to one and the olot to another, and the priest offered them all above, then half are valid and half disqualified. If he offered them all below, half are valid and half disqualified. If he offered half of them above and half below, then all of them are disqualified, because I can argue that the hatats were offered above and the olot below.

4 ד

חַטָּאת וְעוֹלָה וּסְתוּמָה וּמְפֹרֶשֶׁת, עָשָׂה כֻלָּן לְמַעְלָן, מֶחֱצָה כָשֵׁר וּמֶחֱצָה פָסוּל. כֻּלָּן לְמַטָּה, מֶחֱצָה כָשֵׁר וּמֶחֱצָה פָסוּל. חֶצְיָן לְמַעְלָן וְחֶצְיָן לְמַטָּן, אֵין כָּשֵׁר אֶלָּא סְתוּמָה, וְהִיא מִתְחַלֶּקֶת בֵּינֵיהֶן:

If a hatat, an olah, an unassigned pair of birds and an assigned pair [became mixed up], and he offered them all above, then half are valid and half are invalid. [Similarly] if he offered all of them below, half are valid and half are invalid. If he offered half of them above and half below, none is valid except the unassigned pair, and that must be divided between them.

5 ה

חַטָּאת שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בְחוֹבָה, אֵין כָּשֵׁר אֶלָּא מִנְיַן חַטָּאת שֶׁבַּחוֹבָה. חוֹבָה שְׁנַיִם בְּחַטָּאת, מֶחֱצָה כָשֵׁר וּמֶחֱצָה פָסוּל. וְחַטָּאת שְׁנַיִם בְּחוֹבָה, הַמִּנְיָן שֶׁבַּחוֹבָה כָּשֵׁר. וְכֵן עוֹלָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בְחוֹבָה, אֵין כָּשֵׁר אֶלָּא מִנְיַן עוֹלוֹת שֶׁבַּחוֹבָה. חוֹבָה שְׁנַיִם בְּעוֹלָה, מֶחֱצָה כָשֵׁר וּמֶחֱצָה פָסוּל. עוֹלָה שְׁנַיִם בְּחוֹבָה, הַמִּנְיָן שֶׁבַּחוֹבָה כָּשֵׁר:

If hataot birds were mixed up with [unassigned birds that were] obligatory offerings, only the number of hataot among the obligatory offerings are valid. If the [unassigned] obligatory offerings are twice as many as the hataot, then half are valid and half invalid; But if the hataot are twice as many as the [unassigned] obligatory offerings, then the number [of hataot] among the obligatory offerings are valid. So, too, if [birds assigned as] olot were mixed up with [unassigned] obligatory offerings, only the number of olot among the obligatory offerings are valid. If the [unassigned] obligatory offerings are twice as many as the olot, then half are valid and half invalid. But if the olot are twice as many as the [unassigned] obligatory offerings, then the number [of olot] among the obligatory offerings are valid.

6 ו

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁאָמְרָה, הֲרֵי עָלַי קֵן כְּשֶׁאֵלֵד זָכָר, יָלְדָה זָכָר, מְבִיאָה שְׁתֵּי קִנִּים, אַחַת לְנִדְרָהּ וְאַחַת לְחוֹבָתָהּ. נְתָנָתַם לַכֹּהֵן, וְהַכֹּהֵן צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת שָׁלשׁ פְּרִידִים מִלְמַעְלָן וְאַחַת מִלְּמַטָּן. לֹא עָשָׂה כֵן, אֶלָּא עָשָׂה שְׁתַּיִם לְמַעְלָן וּשְׁתַּיִם לְמַטָּן וְלֹא נִמְלַךְ, צְרִיכָה לְהָבִיא עוֹד פְּרִידָה אַחַת, וְיַקְרִיבֶנָּה לְמַעְלָן, מִמִּין אֶחָד. מִשְּׁנֵי מִינִין, תָּבִיא שְׁתַּיִם. פֵּרְשָׁה נִדְרָהּ, צְרִיכָה לְהָבִיא עוֹד שָׁלשׁ פְּרִידִים, מִמִּין אֶחָד. מִשְּׁנֵי מִינִין, תָּבִיא אַרְבַּע. קָבְעָה נִדְרָהּ, צְרִיכָה לְהָבִיא עוֹד חָמֵשׁ פְּרִידִים, מִמִּין אֶחָד. מִשְּׁנֵי מִינִין, תָּבִיא שֵׁשׁ. נְתָנָתַם לַכֹּהֵן וְאֵין יָדוּעַ מַה נָּתְנָה, הָלַךְ הַכֹּהֵן וְעָשָׂה וְאֵין יָדוּעַ מֶה עָשָׂה, צְרִיכָה לְהָבִיא עוֹד אַרְבַּע פְּרִידִים לְנִדְרָהּ, וּשְׁתַּיִם לְחוֹבָתָהּ, וְחַטָּאת אֶחָת. בֶּן עַזַּאי אוֹמֵר, שְׁתֵּי חַטָּאוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, זֶה הוּא שֶׁאָמְרוּ, כְּשֶׁהוּא חַי קוֹלוֹ אֶחָד, וּכְשֶׁהוּא מֵת קוֹלוֹ שִׁבְעָה. כֵּיצַד קוֹלוֹ שִׁבְעָה. שְׁתֵּי קַרְנָיו, שְׁתֵּי חֲצוֹצְרוֹת. שְׁתֵּי שׁוֹקָיו, שְׁנֵי חֲלִילִין. עוֹרוֹ, לְתֹף. מֵעָיו, לִנְבָלִים. בְּנֵי מֵעָיו, לְכִנּוֹרוֹת. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, אַף צַמְרוֹ לִתְכֵלֶת. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן עֲקַשְׁיָא אוֹמֵר, זִקְנֵי עַם הָאָרֶץ, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁמַּזְקִינִין, דַּעְתָּן מִטָּרֶפֶת עֲלֵיהֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב יב), מֵסִיר שָׂפָה לְנֶאֱמָנִים וְטַעַם זְקֵנִים יִקָּח. אֲבָל זִקְנֵי תוֹרָה אֵינָן כֵן, אֶלָּא כָל זְמַן שֶׁמַּזְקִינִין, דַּעְתָּן מִתְיַשֶּׁבֶת עֲלֵיהֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם), בִּישִׁישִׁים חָכְמָה וְאֹרֶךְ יָמִים תְּבוּנָה:

If a woman says: "I vow a pair of birds if I give birth to a male child," and she does give birth to a male child, then she must offer up two pairs one for her vow and one for her obligation. If [before she assigned them] she gave them to the priest, and the priest who ought to offer three birds above and one below does not do so, but offers two above and two below, and does not seek guidance, she must she bring another bird and offer that above. This is so if the birds were of the same kind. If they were of two kinds, then must she bring two others. If she had expressly defined her vow, then must she bring three other birds. This is so if the birds were of the same kind. If they were of two kinds, then must she bring four others. If she made a definite fixture at the time of her vow, then must she bring another five birds. This is so if the birds were of the same kind. If they were of two kinds, then must she bring six others. If she gave them to the priest and it is not known what she gave, and the priest performed the sacrifice, but it is not known how he performed it, then she must bring four other birds for her vow, and two for her obligation and one for her hatat. Ben Azzai says: [she must bring] two hatats. Rabbi Joshua said: This is what it meant when they said: "When [the beast] is alive it possesses one sound, but when it is dead its sound is sevenfold." In what way is its sound sevenfold? Its two horns [are made into] two trumpets, its two leg-bones into two flutes, its hide into a drum, its entrails for lyres and its large intestines for harp strings; and there are some who add that its wool is used for the blue [pomegranates.] Rabbi Shimon ben Akashiah says: ignorant old people, the older they become, the more their intellect gets befuddled, as it is said: "He removes the speech of men of trust and takes away the sense of the elders." But when it comes to aged scholars, it is not so. On the contrary, the older they get, the more their mind becomes composed, as it is said: "With aged men comes wisdom, and understanding in length of days."