הַשֻּׁתָּפִין שֶׁרָצוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְחִצָּה בֶּחָצֵר, בּוֹנִין אֶת הַכֹּתֶל בָּאֶמְצַע. מְקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לִבְנוֹת גָּוִיל, גָּזִית, כְּפִיסִין, לְבֵנִים, בּוֹנִים, הַכֹּל כְּמִנְהַג הַמְּדִינָה. בְּגָוִיל, זֶה נוֹתֵן שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים, וְזֶה נוֹתֵן שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. בְּגָזִית, זֶה נוֹתֵן טְפָחַיִם וּמֶחֱצָה, וְזֶה נוֹתֵן טְפָחַיִם וּמֶחֱצָה. בִּכְפִיסִין, זֶה נוֹתֵן טְפָחַיִם, וְזֶה נוֹתֵן טְפָחַיִם. בִּלְבֵנִים, זֶה נוֹתֵן טֶפַח וּמֶחֱצָה, וְזֶה נוֹתֵן טֶפַח וּמֶחֱצָה. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נָפַל הַכֹּתֶל, הַמָּקוֹם וְהָאֲבָנִים שֶׁל שְׁנֵיהֶם:
Partners who wished to make a partition [meḥitza] in a jointly owned courtyard build the wall for the partition in the middle of the courtyard. What is this wall fashioned from? In a place where it is customary to build such a wall with non-chiseled stone [gevil], or chiseled stone [gazit], or small bricks [kefisin], or large bricks [leveinim], they must build the wall with that material. Everything is in accordance with the regional custom. If they build the wall with non-chiseled stone, this partner provides three handbreadths of his portion of the courtyard and that partner provides three handbreadths, since the thickness of such a wall is six handbreadths. If they build the wall with chiseled stone, this partner provides two and a half handbreadths and that partner provides two and a half handbreadths, since such a wall is five handbreadths thick. If they build the wall with small bricks, this one provides two handbreadths and that one provides two handbreadths, since the thickness of such a wall is four handbreadths. If they build with large bricks, this one provides one and a half handbreadths and that one provides one and a half handbreadths, since the thickness of such a wall is three handbreadths. Therefore, if the wall later falls, the assumption is that the space where the wall stood and the stones belong to both of them, to be divided equally.
וְכֵן בְּגִנָּה, מְקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לִגְדֹּר מְחַיְּבִין אוֹתוֹ. אֲבָל בְּבִקְעָה, מְקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לִגְדֹּר אֵין מְחַיְּבִין אוֹתוֹ, אֶלָּא אִם רוֹצֶה כּוֹנֵס לְתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ וּבוֹנֶה, וְעוֹשֶׂה חֲזִית מִבַּחוּץ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נָפַל הַכֹּתֶל, הַמָּקוֹם וְהָאֲבָנִים שֶׁלּוֹ. אִם עָשׂוּ מִדַּעַת שְׁנֵיהֶן, בּוֹנִין אֶת הַכֹּתֶל בָּאֶמְצַע, וְעוֹשִׂין חָזִית מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נָפַל הַכֹּתֶל, הַמָּקוֹם וְהָאֲבָנִים שֶׁל שְׁנֵיהֶם:
And similarly with regard to a garden, in a place where it is customary to build a partition in the middle of a garden jointly owned by two people, and one of them wishes to build such a partition, the court obligates his neighbor to join in building the partition. But with regard to an expanse of fields [babbika], in a place where it is customary not to build a partition between two people’s fields, and one person wishes to build a partition between his field and that of his neighbor, the court does not obligate his neighbor to build such a partition. Rather, if one person wishes to erect a partition, he must withdraw into his own field and build the partition there. And he makes a border mark on the outer side of the barrier facing his neighbor’s property, indicating that he built the entire structure of his own materials and on his own land. Therefore, if the wall later falls, the assumption is that the space where the wall stood and the stones belong only to him, as is indicated by the mark on the wall. Nevertheless, in a place where it is not customary to build a partition between two people’s fields, if they made such a partition with the agreement of the two of them, they build it in the middle, i.e., on the property line, and make a border mark on the one side and on the other side. Therefore, if the wall later falls, the assumption is that the space where the wall stood and the stones belong to both of them, to be divided equally.
הַמַּקִּיף אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ מִשְּׁלשׁ רוּחוֹתָיו, וְגָדַר אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְאֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה וְאֶת הַשְּׁלִישִׁית, אֵין מְחַיְּבִין אוֹתוֹ. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אִם עָמַד וְגָדַר אֶת הָרְבִיעִית, מְגַלְגְּלִין עָלָיו אֶת הַכֹּל:
With regard to one who surrounds another on three sides, that is, he owns parcels of land on three sides of the other person’s field, and he built a partition on the first, the second, and the third sides, the court does not obligate the neighbor who owns the inner field to contribute to the construction of the partition if he does not wish to do so. Rabbi Yosei says: If he arose and built a partition on the fourth side of the field, the court imposes upon the owner of the inner field the responsibility to pay his share for all of the partitions.
כֹּתֶל חָצֵר שֶׁנָּפַל, מְחַיְּבִין אוֹתוֹ לִבְנוֹתוֹ עַד אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁנָּתַן, עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁלֹּא נָתָן. מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וּלְמַעְלָה, אֵין מְחַיְּבִין אוֹתוֹ. סָמַךְ לוֹ כֹתֶל אַחֵר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן עָלָיו אֶת הַתִּקְרָה, מְגַלְגְּלִין עָלָיו אֶת הַכֹּל, בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן, עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁנָּתָן:
In the case of a dividing wall in a jointly owned courtyard that fell, if one of the owners wishes to rebuild the wall, the court obligates the other owner to build the wall with him up to a height of four cubits. If after the wall was built one of the neighbors claims he alone constructed it and the other did not participate in its building, the latter is nevertheless presumed to have given his share of the money, unless the claimant brings proof that the other did not give his part. The court does not obligate the reluctant neighbor to contribute to the building of the wall higher than four cubits. But if the reluctant neighbor built another wall close to the wall that had been built higher than four cubits, in order to set a roof over the room that was thereby created, the court imposes upon him the responsibility to pay his share for all of the rebuilt wall, even though he has not yet set a roof over it. Since he has demonstrated his desire to make use of what his neighbor built, he must participate in the cost of its construction. If the builder of the first wall later claims that he did not receive payment from his neighbor, the neighbor is presumed not to have given his share of the money, unless he brings proof that he did in fact give money for the building of the wall.
כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לִבְנוֹת בֵּית שַׁעַר וְדֶלֶת לֶחָצֵר. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, לֹא כָל הַחֲצֵרוֹת רְאוּיוֹת לְבֵית שָׁעַר. כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לִבְנוֹת לָעִיר חוֹמָה וּדְלָתַיִם וּבְרִיחַ. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, לֹא כָל הָעֲיָרוֹת רְאוּיוֹת לְחוֹמָה. כַּמָּה יְהֵא בָעִיר וִיהֵא כְאַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר, שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. קָנָה בָהּ בֵּית דִּירָה, הֲרֵי הוּא כְאַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר מִיָּד:
The residents of a courtyard can compel each inhabitant of that courtyard to financially participate in the building of a gatehouse and a door to the jointly owned courtyard. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel disagrees and says: Not all courtyards require a gatehouse, and each courtyard must be considered on its own in accordance with its specific needs. Similarly, the residents of a city can compel each inhabitant of that city to contribute to the building of a wall, double doors, and a crossbar for the city. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel disagrees and says: Not all towns require a wall. With regard to this latter obligation, the mishna asks: How long must one live in the city to be considered like one of the people of the city and therefore obligated to contribute to these expenses? Twelve months. But if he bought himself a residence in the city, he is immediately considered like one of the people of the city.
אֵין חוֹלְקִין אֶת הֶחָצֵר, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת לָזֶה וְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת לָזֶה. וְלֹא אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא בָהּ תִּשְׁעָה קַבִּין לָזֶה וְתִשְׁעָה קַבִּין לָזֶה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא בָהּ תִּשְׁעַת חֲצָאֵי קַבִּין לָזֶה וְתִשְׁעַת חֲצָאֵי קַבִּין לָזֶה. וְלֹא אֶת הַגִּנָּה, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא בָהּ חֲצִי קַב לָזֶה וַחֲצִי קַב לָזֶה. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, בֵּית רֹבַע. וְלֹא אֶת הַטְּרַקְלִין, וְלֹא אֶת הַמּוֹרָן, וְלֹא אֶת הַשּׁוֹבָךְ, וְלֹא אֶת הַטַּלִּית, וְלֹא אֶת הַמֶּרְחָץ, וְלֹא אֶת בֵּית הַבַּד, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא בָהֶן כְּדֵי לָזֶה וּכְדֵי לָזֶה. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל שֶׁיֵּחָלֵק וּשְׁמוֹ עָלָיו, חוֹלְקִין. וְאִם לָאו, אֵין חוֹלְקִין. אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵין שְׁנֵיהֶם רוֹצִים. אֲבָל בִּזְמַן שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם רוֹצִים, אֲפִלּוּ בְפָחוֹת מִכָּאן, יַחֲלֹקוּ. וְכִתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם רוֹצִים, לֹא יַחֲלֹקוּ:
The court does not divide a courtyard at the request of one of the joint owners unless there will be in it four by four cubits for this one and four by four cubits for that one, i.e., this minimum area for each of the joint owners. And the court does not divide a jointly owned field unless there is space in it to plant nine kav of seed for this one and nine kav of seed for that one. Rabbi Yehuda says: The court does not divide a field unless there is space in it to plant nine half-kav of seed for this one and nine half-kav of seed for that one. And the court does not divide a jointly owned garden unless there is space in it to plant a half-kav of seed for this one and a half-kav of seed for that one. Rabbi Akiva says that half that amount is sufficient, i.e., the area required for sowing a quarter-kav of seed [beit rova]. Similarly, the court does not divide a hall [hateraklin], a drawing room, a dovecote, a cloak, a bathhouse, an olive press, and an irrigated field unless there is enough for this one to use the property in the usual manner and enough for that one to use the property in the usual manner. This is the principle: Anything for which when it is divided, each of the parts is large enough to retain the name of the original item, the court divides it. But if the parts will not retain the original name, the court does not divide it. When does this rule apply? It applies when the joint owners do not both wish to divide the item; when only one of the owners wishes to divide the property, he cannot force the other to do so. But when both of them wish to divide the item, they may divide it, even if each of the owners will receive less than the amounts specified above. But in the case of sacred writings, i.e., a scroll of any of the twenty-four books of the Bible, that were inherited by two people, they may not divide them, even if both of them wish to do so, because it would be a show of disrespect to cut the scroll in half.