Mishnah Bava Batra
1א׳
1 א

הַשֻּׁתָּפִין שֶׁרָצוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְחִצָּה בֶּחָצֵר, בּוֹנִין אֶת הַכֹּתֶל בָּאֶמְצַע. מְקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לִבְנוֹת גָּוִיל, גָּזִית, כְּפִיסִין, לְבֵנִים, בּוֹנִים, הַכֹּל כְּמִנְהַג הַמְּדִינָה. בְּגָוִיל, זֶה נוֹתֵן שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים, וְזֶה נוֹתֵן שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. בְּגָזִית, זֶה נוֹתֵן טְפָחַיִם וּמֶחֱצָה, וְזֶה נוֹתֵן טְפָחַיִם וּמֶחֱצָה. בִּכְפִיסִין, זֶה נוֹתֵן טְפָחַיִם, וְזֶה נוֹתֵן טְפָחַיִם. בִּלְבֵנִים, זֶה נוֹתֵן טֶפַח וּמֶחֱצָה, וְזֶה נוֹתֵן טֶפַח וּמֶחֱצָה. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נָפַל הַכֹּתֶל, הַמָּקוֹם וְהָאֲבָנִים שֶׁל שְׁנֵיהֶם:

If two partners wish to make a partition in a courtyard they build the wall in the middle. In a place where the custom is to build of unshaped stones, or of hewn stones, or of half-bricks, or of whole bricks, so they should build it everything is according to local custom. [If the wall is made of] unshaped stones this one supplies [from his property] three handbreadths, and this one supplies [from his property] three handbreadths. [If the wall is made of] hewn stones this one supplies [from his property] one and a half handbreadths, and this one supplies [from his property] one and a half handbreadths. [If the wall is made of] half-bricks this one supplies [from his property] two handbreadths, and this one supplies [from his property] two handbreadths. [If the wall is made of] whole bricks this one supplies [from his property] one and a half handbreadths, and this one supplies [from his property] one and a half handbreadths.

2 ב

וְכֵן בְּגִנָּה, מְקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לִגְדֹּר מְחַיְּבִין אוֹתוֹ. אֲבָל בְּבִקְעָה, מְקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לִגְדֹּר אֵין מְחַיְּבִין אוֹתוֹ, אֶלָּא אִם רוֹצֶה כּוֹנֵס לְתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ וּבוֹנֶה, וְעוֹשֶׂה חֲזִית מִבַּחוּץ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נָפַל הַכֹּתֶל, הַמָּקוֹם וְהָאֲבָנִים שֶׁלּוֹ. אִם עָשׂוּ מִדַּעַת שְׁנֵיהֶן, בּוֹנִין אֶת הַכֹּתֶל בָּאֶמְצַע, וְעוֹשִׂין חָזִית מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נָפַל הַכֹּתֶל, הַמָּקוֹם וְהָאֲבָנִים שֶׁל שְׁנֵיהֶם:

The same is true with a garden: in a place where the custom is to build a fence, they can obligate him to do so. However, in a valley, where it is not customary to build a fence, they cannot obligate him to do so. But if he wants to [build a fence] he must gather into his own portion and build, and he puts a finishing on the outside of the wall. Therefore if the wall falls, the place and the stones belong to him. If they acted with each other’s consent, they should build the wall in the middle and put a finishing on both sides. Therefore if the wall falls, the place and the stones belong to them both.

3 ג

הַמַּקִּיף אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ מִשְּׁלשׁ רוּחוֹתָיו, וְגָדַר אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְאֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה וְאֶת הַשְּׁלִישִׁית, אֵין מְחַיְּבִין אוֹתוֹ. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אִם עָמַד וְגָדַר אֶת הָרְבִיעִית, מְגַלְגְּלִין עָלָיו אֶת הַכֹּל:

If a man’s land surrounded his fellow’s land on three sides, and he fenced it on the first and the second and the third sides, they do not obligate him [to share in the costs]. Rabbi Yose says: “If he rose a built a fence on the fourth side, they obligate him to share in all of the costs.”

4 ד

כֹּתֶל חָצֵר שֶׁנָּפַל, מְחַיְּבִין אוֹתוֹ לִבְנוֹתוֹ עַד אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁנָּתַן, עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁלֹּא נָתָן. מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וּלְמַעְלָה, אֵין מְחַיְּבִין אוֹתוֹ. סָמַךְ לוֹ כֹתֶל אַחֵר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן עָלָיו אֶת הַתִּקְרָה, מְגַלְגְּלִין עָלָיו אֶת הַכֹּל, בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן, עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁנָּתָן:

If the wall of a courtyard fell down they obligate each of the partners to help in building it up to a height of four cubits. He is presumed to have paid [his share] unless the other brings proof that he has not paid. [If the fence was built] four cubits or higher, they do not obligate him [to help in building it.] If [the one who did not contribute] built another wall near it, even if he did not put a roof upon it, they obligate him to share in all of the costs. He is presumed not to have paid [his share] unless he brings proof that he has.

5 ה

כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לִבְנוֹת בֵּית שַׁעַר וְדֶלֶת לֶחָצֵר. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, לֹא כָל הַחֲצֵרוֹת רְאוּיוֹת לְבֵית שָׁעַר. כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לִבְנוֹת לָעִיר חוֹמָה וּדְלָתַיִם וּבְרִיחַ. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, לֹא כָל הָעֲיָרוֹת רְאוּיוֹת לְחוֹמָה. כַּמָּה יְהֵא בָעִיר וִיהֵא כְאַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר, שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. קָנָה בָהּ בֵּית דִּירָה, הֲרֵי הוּא כְאַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר מִיָּד:

They compel [a partner in a courtyard to contribute to] the building of a gate-house and a door for the courtyard. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: “Not all courtyards are fit for a gate-house.” They compel [a resident of the town to contribute to] the building of a wall for the town and double doors and a bolt. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: “Not every town is fit for a wall.” How long must a man dwell in a town to count as one of the men of the town? Twelve months. If he has purchased a dwelling place he immediately counts as one of the men of the town.

6 ו

אֵין חוֹלְקִין אֶת הֶחָצֵר, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת לָזֶה וְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת לָזֶה. וְלֹא אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא בָהּ תִּשְׁעָה קַבִּין לָזֶה וְתִשְׁעָה קַבִּין לָזֶה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא בָהּ תִּשְׁעַת חֲצָאֵי קַבִּין לָזֶה וְתִשְׁעַת חֲצָאֵי קַבִּין לָזֶה. וְלֹא אֶת הַגִּנָּה, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא בָהּ חֲצִי קַב לָזֶה וַחֲצִי קַב לָזֶה. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, בֵּית רֹבַע. וְלֹא אֶת הַטְּרַקְלִין, וְלֹא אֶת הַמּוֹרָן, וְלֹא אֶת הַשּׁוֹבָךְ, וְלֹא אֶת הַטַּלִּית, וְלֹא אֶת הַמֶּרְחָץ, וְלֹא אֶת בֵּית הַבַּד, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא בָהֶן כְּדֵי לָזֶה וּכְדֵי לָזֶה. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל שֶׁיֵּחָלֵק וּשְׁמוֹ עָלָיו, חוֹלְקִין. וְאִם לָאו, אֵין חוֹלְקִין. אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵין שְׁנֵיהֶם רוֹצִים. אֲבָל בִּזְמַן שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם רוֹצִים, אֲפִלּוּ בְפָחוֹת מִכָּאן, יַחֲלֹקוּ. וְכִתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם רוֹצִים, לֹא יַחֲלֹקוּ:

They do not divide a courtyard until there is four cubits for this [partner] and four cubits for this [partner]. Nor [do they divide up] a field until it has nine kavs for this [partner] and nine kavs for this [partner]. Rabbi Judah says: “Until it has nine half-kavs for this [partner] and nine half-kavs for this [partner]. Nor [do they divide up] a garden until it has a half-kav for this [partner] and a half-kav for this [partner]. Rabbi Akiva says: “A quarter-kav.” Nor [do they divide up] an eating hall, a watch-tower, a dovecote, a cloak, a bathhouse, or an olive-press until there is sufficient for this [partner] and for this [partner]. This is the general rule: whatever can be divided and still be called by the same name, they divide; otherwise they do not divide. When is this so? When they do not both wish [to divide the property]. However, if both wish they can divide it even if it is smaller. And with regards to the Sacred Books, they may not be divided even if both are willing.