Machzor Rosh Hashanah Ashkenaz Linear
Annullment of Vows התרת נדרים

The Talmud (Maseches Nedarim) says, “Whoever does not want his vows, made during the year, to remain in force, should declare: “Any vows that I make during the coming year are hereby nullified.” The Tur writes that it has become a widespread custom to recite the “Kol Nidrei” before Yom Kippur for the purpose of nullifying all such vows. He further writes that since זְרִיזִין מַקְדִימִין לְמִצְוֹת, the diligent come early to perform their religious duties. It is commendable to invalidate one’s vows before Rosh Hashana with the declaration contained in the “הַתָּרַת נְדָרִים,” the Annulment of Vows.

The Talmud and Halachic sources explain that the annulment of vows or oaths, applies only to those which one imposed on himself, such as, “I will eat” or “I will not eat”; “I will sleep” or “I will not sleep,” and other such vows or oaths. But for that which one vows or swears to his fellow, or if someone places him under oath, regardless of that person’s nationality or religion, no annulment, invalidation or absolvement is ever possible.

One should therefore stand before a minimum of three adult males and declare:

שִׁמְעוּ נָא רַבּוֹתַי,

Listen my masters,

דַּיָּנִים מֻמְחִים,

expert judges!

כָּל נֶדֶר, אוֹ שְׁבוּעָה, אוֹ אִסָּר,

Any vow, oath, or prohibition,

אוֹ קוֹנָם, אוֹ חֵרֶם,

konom-vow,1According to the Talmud, a vow is when one says that such is forbidden to me as is—a קָרְבָּן, a sacrifice. In place of the word korban, the word konom was frequently used. There is a dispute in Maseches Nedarim as to the origin of the word. or consecration,

שֶׁנָּדַרְתִּי, אוֹ נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי

that I have vowed or sworn,

בְּהָקִיץ, אוֹ בַחֲלוֹם,

while awake or [even] in a dream,

אוֹ נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי

or which I swore [using]

בְּשֵׁמוֹת הַקְּדוֹשִׁים

any of the hallowed Names [of God],

שֶׁאֵינָם נִמְחָקִים,

[those] which are forbidden to be erased,

וּבְשֵׁם הוי"ה בּ"ה,

or in the Ineffible Name of God, blessed is He;

וְכָל מִינֵי נְזִירוּת

or any form of abstinence

שֶׁקִּבַּלְתִּי עָלַי,

that I have accepted upon myself,

(וַאֲפִלּוּ נְזִּירוּת שִׁמְשׁוֹן)

even the nazirite abstinence of Shimshon,

וְכָל שׁוּם אִסּוּר,

or any prohibition;

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִסּוּר הֲנָאָה

even a prohibition to derive benefit,

שֶׁאָסַרְתִּי עָלַי

which I have imposed upon myself

אוֹ עַל אֲחֵֽרִים,

or upon others,

בְּכָל לָשׁוֹן שֶׁל אִסּוּר,

by any expression of prohibition,

בֵּין בִּלְשׁוֹן אִסּוּר

whether as an expression of prohibition,

אוֹ חֵרֶם אוֹ קוֹנָם

consecration or konom-vow,

וְכָל שׁוּם קַבָּלָה

or any type of commitment,

אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל מִצְוָה שֶׁקִּבַּלְתִּי עָלַי,

even a commitment to perform a “mitzvah”

בֵּין בִּלְשׁוֹן נֶדֶר,

whether in the form of a vow

בֵּין בִּלְשׁוֹן נְדָבָה,

or as a free-will option,

בֵּין בִּלְשׁוֹן שְׁבוּעָה

as an oath

בֵּין בִּלְשׁוֹן נְזִירוּת,

or abstinence,

בֵּין בְּכָל לָשׁוֹן,

or in any other form;

וְגַם הַנַּעֲשֶׂה

and also such commitments

בִּתְקִיעַת כָּף,

which were confirmed with a hand-shake;

בֵּין כָּל נֶדֶר וּבֵין כָּל נְדָבָה,

any vow or free-will option

וּבֵין שׁוּם מִנְהָג שֶׁל מִצְוָה

and any customs based on commandments

שֶׁנָּהַגְתִּי אֶת עַצְמִי

which I have already practiced,

וְכָל מוֹצָא שְׂפָתַי שֶׁיָּצָא מִפִּי.

and any expression I may have uttered,

אוֹ שֶׁנָּדַרְתִּי וְגָמַרְתִּי בְלִבִּי

vowed or resolved in my heart,

לַעֲשׂוֹת שׁוּם מִצְוָה מֵהַמִּצְוֹת,

even to perform a certain commandment,

אוֹ אֵיזוֹ הַנְהָגָה טוֹבָה,

or any good practice,

אוֹ אֵיזֶה דָבָר טוֹב,

or any worthwhile endeavor,

שֶׁנָּהַגְתִּי שָׁלשׁ פְּעָמִים

which I performed three times

וְלֹא הִתְנֵיתִי

but did not expressly state

שֶׁיְהֵא

that I am doing so

בְּלִי נֶדֶר.

without the imposition of a vow,

הֵן דָּבָר שֶׁעָשִׂיתִי

whether it is a commitment

הֵן עַל עַצְמִי

concerning myself,

הֵן עַל אֲחֵרִים,

or concerning others,

הֵן אוֹתָם הַיְדוּעִים לִי,

both those which are known to me

הֵן אוֹתָם שֶׁכְּבָר נִשְׁכְּחוּ מִמֶּנִּי,

or those which I have already forgotten—

בְּכֻלְּהוֹן

regarding all of these—

אִתְחֲרַטְנָא בְהוֹן מֵעִקָּרָא,

I regret them in retrospect.

וְשׁוֹאֵל וּמְבַקֵּשׁ אֲנִי מִמַּעֲלַתְכֶם

And now I ask and request your excellencies

הַתָּרָה עֲלֵיהֶם

for nullification for them,

כִּי יָרֵאתִי

because I am afraid

פֶּן אֶכָּשֵׁל וְנִלְכַּדְתִּי

that I might stumble and become entangled

ח"ו

God forbid,

בַּעֲו‍ֹן נְדָרִים וּשְׁבוּעוֹת

in the sin of [violating] vows, oaths,

וּנְזִירוּת וַחֲרָמוֹת

consecrations,

וְאִסּוּרִין וְקוֹנָמוֹת וְהַסְכָּמוֹת.

prohibitions, konom-vows, or agreements.

וְאֵין אֲנִי תוֹהֵא ח"ו

I do not regret, God forbid,

עַל קִיּוּם הַמַּעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים הָהֵם

the performance of good deeds

שֶׁעָשִׂיתִי,

which I have done,

רַק אֲנִי מִתְחָרֵט

but I regret only

עַל קַבָּלַת הָעִנְיָנִים

my commitment to do these things

בִּלְשׁוֹן נֶדֶר, אוֹ שְׁבוּעָה,

in the form of a vow, oath,

אוּ נְזִירוּת, אוֹ אִסּוּר, אוֹ חֵרֶם,

abstinence, prohibition, consecration;

אוֹ קוֹנָם, אוֹ הַסְכָּמָה,

konom-vow, agreement,

אוֹ קַבָּלָה בְּלֵב,

or resolutions.

וּמִתְחָרֵט אֲנִי עַל זֶה

I regret therefore

שֶׁלֹּא אָמַרְתִּי

that I did not explicitly state,

הִנְנִי עוֹשֶׂה דָבָר זֶה

“I will do this thing

בְּלִי נֶדֶר

without assuming the obligation of a vow,

וּשְׁבוּעָה וּנְזִירוּת וְחֵרֶם

oath, abstinence, consecration,

וְאִסּוּר וְקוֹנָם וְקַבָּלָה בְּלֵב.

prohibition, konom-vow, or resolution.

לָכֵן אֲנִי שׁוֹאֵל הַתָּרָה.

Therefore, I ask for annulment;

בְכֻלְּהוֹן אֲנִי מִתְחָרֵט

I regret all of them,

עַל כָּל הַנִּזְכָּר,

all that was previously enumerated—

בֵּין אִם הָיוּ הַמַּעֲשִׂים

whether these were things

מִדְּבָרִים הַנּוֹגְעִים בְּמָמוֹן,

that concerned financial matters,

בֵּין מֵהַדְּבָרִים הַנּוֹגְעִים בְּגוּף,

physical matters,

בֵּין מֵהַדְּבָרִים

or

הַנּוֹגְעִים אֶל הַנְּשָׁמָה.

spiritual matters.

בְּכֻלְּהוֹן

Regarding all of them—

אֲנִי מִתְחָרֵט עַל לְשׁוֹן נֶדֶר

I regret using the expression of a vow,

וּשְׁבוּעָה וּנְזִירוּת וְאִסּוּר

of an oath, of abstinence, of prohibition,

וְחֵרֶם וְקוֹנָם

of consecration, of konom-vow,

וְקַבָּלָה בְּלֵב.

or resolution.

וְהִנֵּה מִצַּד הַדִּין,

Now, according to the law,

הַמִּתְחָרֵט

one who regrets [his vows, oaths etc.]

הַמְּבַקֵּשׁ הַתָּרָה

and seeks annulment,

צָרִיךְ לִפְרוֹט הַנֶּדֶר,

must state the particulars of the vow,

אַךְ דְּעוּ נָא רַבּוֹתַי

however, please realize, my masters,

כִּי אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְפוֹרְטָם,

that it is impossible to specify them

כִּי רַבִּים הֵם.

for they are many—

וְאֵין אֲנִי מְבַקֵּשׁ הַתָּרָה

and I do not request annulment

עַל אוֹתָם הַנְּדָרִים

for those vows

שֶׁאֵין לְהַתִּיר אוֹתָם,

which cannot be annulled—

עַל כֵּן

therefore

יִהְיוּ נָא בְעֵינֵיכֶם

let them be considered, in your eyes,

כְּאִלּוּ הָיִיתִי פוֹרְטָם:

as though I had specified them.


Those who participate in the annulment respond with the following declaration which they repeat three times:

הַכֹּל יִהְיוּ מֻתָּרִים לָךְ.

They shall all be annulled for you,

הַכֹּל מְחוּלִים לָךְ.

they shall all be absolved for you,

הַכֹּל שְׁרוּיִם לָךְ.

they shall all be permitted to you.

אֵין כַּאן לֹא נֶדֶר

There is no vow,

וְלֹא שְׁבוּעָה, וְלֹא נְזִירוּת

no oath, no abstinence,

וְלֹא חֵרֶם וְלֹא אִסּוּר

no consecration, no prohibition,

וְלֹא קוֹנָם וְלֹא נִדּוּי

no konom-vow, no excommunication,

וְלֹא שַׁמְתָּא וְלֹא אָרוּר,

no banishment, and no damnation;

אֲבָל יֶשׁ כַּאן מְחִילָה וּסְלִיחָה

but there is forgiveness, pardon,

וְכַפָּרָה.

and atonement.

וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁמַּתִּירִים

Just as annulment is granted

הַבֵּית דִּין שֶׁל מַטָּה,

by [us] the court here on earth,

כַּךְ יִהְיוּ מֻתָּרִים

so shall annulment be granted

מִבֵּית דִּין שֶׁל מַעְלָה:

by the Heavenly Court.


He who has asked for annulment then makes this public declaration:

הֲרֵי אֲנִי מוֹסֵר מוֹדָעָה לִפְנֵיכֶם

I hereby declare before you,

וַאֲנִי מְבַטֵּל מִכַּאן וּלְהַבָּא,

that I nullify from now on

כָּל הַנְּדָּרִים וְכָל שְׁבוּעוֹת

all vows, all oaths,

וּנְזִירוֹת וְאִסּוּרִין וְקוֹנָמוֹת

abstinences, prohibitions, konom-vows,

וַחֲרָמוֹת וְהַסְכָּמוֹת וְקַבָּלָה בְּלֵב

consecrations, agreements and resolutions

שֶׁאֲקַבֵּל עָלַי בְּעַצְמִי,

that I might accept upon myself,

הֵן בְּהָקִיץ, הֵן בַּחֲלוֹם,

while awake or [even] in a dream;

חוּץ מִנִּדְרֵי תַּעֲנִית

except the vows to fast

בִּשְׁעַת מִנְחָה,

which are made at the Mincha prayer.2The vow to fast is made at the Mincha service of the day preceding the fast day.

וּבְאִם שֶׁאֶשְׁכַּח

And should I forget

לִתְנַאי מוֹדָעָה הַזֹּאת

the stipulations of this declaration

וְאֶדּוֹר מֵהַיּוֹם עוֹד,

and make any vow from this day on,

מֵעַתָּה אֲנִי מִתְחָרֵט עֲלֵיהֶם

from this moment I regret them,

וּמַתְנֶה עֲלֵיהֶם

and stipulate

שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כֻּלָּן בְּטֵלִין וּמְבֻטָּלִין,

that they are all null and void;

לָא שְׁרִירִין וְלָא קַיָּמִין,

they are not binding or lasting,

וְלָא יְהוֹן חָלִין כְּלָל וּכְלָל.

and they have no effect whatsoever;

בְּכֻלָּן אִתְחֲרַטְנָא בְהוֹן

regarding all of them—I regret them,

מֵעַתָּה וְעַד עוֹלָם:

from now, forever.