אָסוּר לִרְחוֹץ כָּל גּוּפוֹ אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ רֹב גּוּפוֹ בְּמַיִם חַמִּים, אֲפִלּוּ הוּחֲמוּ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת. וַאֲפִלּוּ לִרְחוֹץ שֶׁלֹּא בְּפַעַם אַחַת, אֶלָּא אֵבֶר אֵבֶר, אָסוּר בְּרֹב גּוּפוֹ. וַאֲפִלּוּ לִכָּנֵס לַמֶּרְחָץ רַק לְהַזִּיעַ, גַּם כֵּן אָסוּר. אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִרְחוֹץ פָּנָיו יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו בְּחַמִּין שֶׁהוּחֲמוּ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת. It is forbidden to wash your entire body, or even most of your body with hot water, even if it was heated on Friday.1This is a Rabbinic prohibition, lest you heat the water on Shabbos. Even to wash one limb at a time, is forbidden when the majority of the body [will be washed]. Even to enter a bathhouse solely for the purpose of sweating is also forbidden. But you may wash your face, hands and feet2Or any limbs, provided they do not constitute most of the body. [v. Rema 326: 1] with hot water that was heated on Friday.3If you experience great discomfort, some rule that you may bathe in water heated Friday. [Biur Halachah, Rabbi Akiva Eiger] Others disagree. [Minchas Shabbos, Tehilla Ledavid, Magein Avraham 261: 12]
הַמַּיִם שֶׁהֵם מִמְּקוֹרָם נוֹבְעִים חַמִּים, כְּמוֹ חַמֵּי טְבֶרְיָה וְכַדּוֹמֶה, אִם הֵם בַּקַּרְקַע וְאֵין הַמָּקוֹם מְקוֹרֶה, מֻתָּר לִרְחוֹץ בָּהֶם אֲפִלּוּ כָּל גּוּפוֹ. אֲבָל אִם הֵם בִּכְלִי אוֹ שֶׁהַמָּקוֹם מְקוֹרֶה אָסוּר. וַאֲפִלּוּ לִכָּנֵס לְבֵית הַמֶּרְחָץ רַק לְהַזִּיעַ, אָסוּר. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, דְּכָל שֶׁהֵם בַּקַּרְקַע, אֲפִלּוּ הַמָּקוֹם מְקֹרֶה, מֻתָּר לִרְחֹץ בָּהֶם. Water that flows hot from its source such as the hot springs of Tiberias and the like, if [the waters] are in the ground and there is no roof over them, you may wash even your entire body4Only water heated by fire is prohibited. [Maseches Shabbos 40] in them. But, if [the water] is in a vessel5In such a case, the hot water may be confused with water heated by fire. or the place is covered with a roof, it is forbidden.6The roof increases the heat of the room, making it akin to a “shvitz” (sauna room) which may not be used on Shabbos. The Mishnah Berurah, however, (citing Shulchan Aruch 326: 22) rules that you may use heat from hot springs for sweating since even bathing is permitted there. Even to enter a bathhouse solely for the purpose of sweating, is forbidden.7Because some who are unscrupulous may go to bathe and claim that they are going only to sweat.
The words of the author imply that merely passing through a bathhouse is permitted which is the opinion of Shulchan Aruch (326: 12). However, Rema (from Rashi and Tur) rules that even just passing through without intention to sweat is prohibited. There are those who say that as long as [the water] is in the ground even if the place has a roof, you may bathe in it.
מֻתָּר לִטְבֹּל כָּל גּוּפוֹ בְּצוֹנֵן. אֲבָל לֹא יַעֲמֹד אַחַר כָּךְ נֶגֶד הַתַּנּוּר לְהִתְחַמֵּם, מִשּׁוּם דַּהֲוֵי כְּרוֹחֵץ בְּחַמִּין. וַאֲפִלּוּ רָחַץ רַק יָדָיו בְּמַיִם צוֹנְנִים לֹא יְחַמְּמֵן אֵצֶל הַתַּנּוּר בְּעוֹדָן לַחוֹת, מִשּׁוּם דַּהֲוֵי כְּרוֹחֵץ בְּמַיִם שֶׁהוּחֲמוּ הַיּוֹם, דְּאָסוּר לִרְחוֹץ בָּהֶם אֲפִלּוּ אֵבֶר אֶחָד, אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לְנַגְּבָן תְּחִלָה יָפֶה. וְעַיֵּן לְעֵיל סִימָן פּ' סָעִיף ל"ב, שֶׁיְשַׁפְשְׁפֵן קֹדֶם הַנִּגּוּב, שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁאֵר עֲלֵיהֶן רַק מְעַט מָיִם (שב שכו). You may immerse your entire body in cold water.8It is customary not to wash even in cold water so as not to squeeze the water from your hair. [Mishnah Berurah 326: 21 from Magein Avraham and poskim] V. paragraph 4.
Some poskim, however, do permit immersing in a warm mikveh on Shabbos. However, you may not stand afterwards in front of an oven in order to warm yourself, because that amounts to washing in hot water. Even if you washed only your hands in cold water, do not warm them near the oven while they are still wet, because it is considered as if you washed with water that was warmed today [Shabbos], for such water is prohibited for washing even one limb.9Even if the water is only lukewarm. [Mishnah Berurah] You must first dry them well and as stated in Chapter 80, paragraph 32, you must rub them well before drying them so that only a little water remains on them.
הָרוֹחֵץ צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִסְחוֹט שְׂעָרוֹ. וְכֵן צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לָשׁוּט, כִּי אָסוּר לָשׁוּט בַּשַׁבָּת וּבְיוֹם טוֹב. וְכֵן אָסוּר לְהָשִׁיט אֵיזֶה דָּבָר, כְּגוֹן הַקִּסְמִין שֶׁעַל הַמָּיִם. וְאִם רוֹחֵץ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֲסוּרִין לְטַלְטֵל, צָרִיךְ עוֹד לִזָּהֵר, שֶׁקֹּדֶם צֵאתוֹ יָסִיר תְּחִלָּה הַמַּיִם שֶׁעַל גּוּפוֹ וְשַׂעֲרוֹתָיו, וִינַגְּבֵם יָפֶה שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁאֲרוּ עָלָיו מַיִם וְיוֹצִיאֵם מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת. וְגַם בַּנָּהָר עַצְמוֹ צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר, שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׂא אֶת הַמַּיִם שֶׁעָלָיו, אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, כִּי הַנָּהָר הוּא כַּרְמְלִית. וּלְפִי שֶׁאֵין כֻּלָּם יוֹדְעִים לִזָּהֵר, עַל כֵּן נִתְפַּשֵּׁט הַמִּנְהָג בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ, שֶׁלֹּא לִרְחוֹץ כְּלָל בַּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ בְּצוֹנֵן, כִּי אִם לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, כְּגוֹן אִשָּׁה נִדָּה (כִּדְלְקַמָּן סִימָן קס"ב סָעִיף ז') וְאִישׁ לְקִרְיוֹ. If you bathe, be careful not to squeeze your hair.10Washing itself is permitted because squeezing water from the hair is only a derabanan prohibition, since you have no need for the water squeezed from the hair. [Mishnah Berurah 326: 25–28, see also Igros Moshe o.c. 133] Drying the hair is also permitted. [v. Minchas Shabbos] Avnei Neizer (o.c. 157) rules not to wash hair with your hands lest you inadvertently pull out some hairs. [v. Shemiras Shabbos Kehilchasah, Ketzos Hashulchan] Also take care not to swim because it is prohibited to swim on Shabbos and Yom Tov.11[Maseches Beitzah 36, Shulchan Aruch 339: 1] The author later writes that it is the custom not to bathe in an ocean or pool even without swimming. [v. Mishnah Berurah 326: 21] It is also forbidden to make things float, such as wood chips, on top of the water.12[Yerushalmi, Shulchan Aruch 339: 6] This prohibition applies only in a river, lake or ocean, but in a tub or pool it is permitted. [Bach, Magein Avraham, Mishnah Berurah] If you bathe in a place where it is forbidden to carry, you must also take care before leaving [the water], to first remove the water from your body and hair, and dry yourself well, so that no water remains on you, which you would be carrying from one domain into another.13[Maseches Shabbos 141] Similarly, care must be taken not to carry the water four amos in a karmelis. [Shulchan Aruch 326: 7] Similarly, in the river itself, you must take care not to carry the water which is on you four amos, because the river is considered a karmelis.14Peri Megadim, Mishnah Berurah 326: 22. Some argue that the Shulchan Aruch does not agree and allows walking within the river because the water on your body is considered one with the water in the river and is not considered as being carried from one place to another. [Minchas Pittim] Also, your intent while walking is not to carry the water and is, therefore, permitted. Also, the amount on your body is negligible (less than a revi’is) which Meiri permits even out of the water. [Eretz Tzvi 72] Since not everyone knows to be careful, therefore, it has become the prevailing custom in these regions not to bathe at all on Shabbos even in cold water, except for the purpose of a mitzvah, such as a woman after menstruation, (as discussed further, Chapter 162, paragraph 7) or a man after a nocturnal emission.
מֻתָּר לַעֲמֹד עַל שְׂפַת הַנָּהָר וְלִרְחוֹץ יָדָיו בַּנָּהָר, וָאֵין זֶה אִסּוּר בְּמָה שֶׁהוּא מוֹצִיא אֶת הַמַּיִם שֶׁעַל יָדָיו מִן הַנָּהָר עַל שְׂפָתוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁהַנָּהָר הוּא כַּרְמְלִית וּשְׂפַת הַנָּהָר הוּא גַּם כֵּן כַּרְמְלִית, וּמֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיא מִכַּרְמְלִית לְכַרְמְלִית בְּפָחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר לְנַגֵּב יָדָיו הֵיטֵב קֹדֶם שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת You may stand at the river bank and wash your hands in the river; and it is not forbidden to remove the water on your hands from the river onto the bank, because the river is [considered] a karmelis and the bank is also a karmelis, and it is permitted to carry from one karmelis to another less than four amos, provided that you take care to dry your hands thoroughly before walking four amos.
מֻתָּר לָשׁוּף יָדָיו בְּמֻרְסָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַיָּדַיִם רְטֻבוֹת, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִתֵּן אֶת הַמַּיִם עַל הַמֻּרְסָן מַמָּשׁ. אֲבָל אָסוּר לָשׁוּף יָדָיו בְּמֶלַח וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן בְּבוֹרִית [סַבּוֹן] (זייף) מִשּׁוּם דְּנִמּוֹחַ (שכ"ו). You may clean your hands by rubbing them with crushed grain [or bran] although your hands may be wet,15This does not constitute לִישָׁה (kneading) because: 1) it is not the usual manner of kneading, and 2) it is not your intent to knead. provided you don't put the water directly on the crushed grain. But it is forbidden to rub your wet hands with salt, and, certainly, not with soap because it liquefies.16And takes on a new form. This constitutes the prohibition of נוֹלַד (nolad). [Rema 326: 10] The Mishnah Berurah adds that the author is referring to very hard soap and it is, therefore, only a derabanan prohibition. Use of our softer soaps would be a de’oraisa prohibition of מְמַחֵק (smoothing). [Mishnah Berurah 326: 30, Tiferes Yisrael]
מַיִם שֶׁאֵין הַדֶּרֶךְ לִרְחוֹץ בָּהֶם אֶלָּא לִרְפוּאָה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהֵם רָעִים אוֹ מְאוּסִים, אָסוּר לִרְחוֹץ בָּהֶם בַּשַׁבָּת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא מְכַוֵּן לִרְפוּאָה (עַיֵן לְקַמָּן סִימָן צ"א). בְּמַה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹהֶה בָּהֶם. אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ שׁוֹהֶה בָּהֶם, מֻתָּר, שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה אֶלָּא כִּמֵקַר. וּבְחַמֵּי טְבֶרְיָא וְכַדּוֹמֶה, אִם אֵין הַדֶּרֶךְ לִרְחוֹץ בָּהֶם אֶלָּא לִרְפוּאָה, אָסוּר לִרְחוֹץ בָּהֶם בַּשַׁבָּת לִרְפוּאָה, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ שׁוֹהֶה בָּהֶם. Water that is not usually used for washing, but, rather, for medicinal purposes, such as malodorous or noxious [water], is forbidden to be used for washing on Shabbos, since it is obvious that it is being used as a cure, (see below, Chapter 91).17The laws concerning medicine are discussed there. This applies only if you linger in [the water], but, if you do not linger, it is permissible, because [then] it appears [that your purpose is] only to cool off.18Shulchan Aruch 328: 44. Concerning the hot springs of Tiberias and the like: if the normal practice is to bathe in them only for health reasons, it is forbidden to bathe in them on Shabbos for health reasons, even if you do not linger in them.19The prohibition applies only where the purpose of the bath is only to alleviate slight discomfort. When one is actually ill (even where no danger is involved) he may bathe in the hot springs. [Mishnah Berurah 328: 140]