כָּל אִשָּׁה שֶנֶּעֶקְרָה מִּמְּקוֹרָהּ טִפַּת דָּם, אֲפִלּוּ כָּל שֶׁהִיא, יִהְיֶה בְאֵיזֶה אֹפֶן שֶׁיִהְיֶה, בֵּין בְּטִבְעָהּ, כְּדֶרֶךְ הַנָּשִׁים לִרְאוֹת בִּזְמַנִּים יְדוּעִים, אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בִזְמַנָּה וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵרַע לָהּ אֵיזֶה אֹנֶס, אֲשֶׁר מֵחֲמַת זֶה יָצָא מִמְּקוֹרָהּ דָּם, הֲרֵי הִיא טְמֵאָה נִדָּה, עַד שֶׁתִּסְפֹּר שִׁבְעָה נְקִיִים וְתִטְבֹּל כָּרָאוּי. וְכָל הַבָּא עָלֶיהָ בְּטֻמְאָתָהּ, חַיַב כָּרֵת, וְכֵן הִיא חַיֶבֶת כָּרֵת. וְעַל הַנְּגִיעָה דֶּרֶךְ חִבָּה, חַיָבִים מַלְקוּת. A woman from whose womb there issued a drop of blood, be it ever so small, regardless of the circumstances, whether it is in her nature, as some women, to have a regular period or an irregular period; even if she experienced some sort of accident which caused blood to issue from her womb, she is a niddah (menstrually unclean), until she counts seven clean days, and properly performs the ritual immersion. Anyone who cohabitates with her when she is menstrually unclean, receives the punishment of koras.1The koras for this sin includes shortening of the life span to sixty years, and some say to fifty years (see Tosafos Maseches Shabbos 25a and Tosafos Maseches Yevamos 2a). Also his children die during his lifetime (Tosafos Yevamos 2a). And if he has no children now, he will never have any later (Rashi on Leviticus 20:20). Also see Rambam on Maseches Sanhedrin Chapt. 9 that when one dies he also receives a punishment for koras in the next world, as death is not an atonement for it. She too receives the punishment, koras. For touching in an intimate manner, their punishment is flagellation.2This is de’oraisa according to the Rambam.
אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הִרְגִּשָׁה שֶׁיָצָא דָם מִמְּקוֹרָהּ, אֶלָּא שֶׁמָּצְאָה כֶּתֶם דָּם בִּבְשָׂרָהּ, אוֹ בַּחֲלוּקָהּ אוֹ בִּסְדִינָהּ אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר מָקוֹם, וְאֵין לָהּ לִתְלוֹת שֶׁבָּא מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר, אֶלָּא שֶׁבָּא מִמְּקוֹרָהּ, הֲרֵי הִיא טְמֵאָה. וְכָל אִשָּׁה שֶׁמָּצְאָה אֵיזֶה כֶּתֶם, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ אָדֹם מַמָּשׁ, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ לָבָן מַמָּשׁ, צְרִיכָה לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁאֵלַת חָכָם, כִּי יֵשׁ בָּזֶה הַרְבֵּה חִלּוּקֵי דִינִים בְּעִנְיַן גַּדְלוּת וְקַטְנוּת הַכֶּתֶם, וְגַם בְּעִנְיַן הַתְּלִיָה, בַּמֶּה יְכוֹלִין לִתְלוֹתוֹ וּבַמָּה אֵין יְכוֹלִין לִתְלוֹתוֹ, וְגַם יֵשׁ חִלּוּק בְּאֵיזֶה זְמַן שֶמָּצְאָה אוֹתוֹ, אִם בְּיָמִים שֶׁהִיא טְהוֹרָה אוֹ בַּיָמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים מִשִּבְעָה נְקִיִּים. Even if she did not feel the issue of blood from her womb, but found a stain of blood on her body, or garment, or sheet, or any other place, and she is unable to attribute its presence to any source other than from her womb, she is unclean.3This, however, is a Rabbinic Law. A woman who finds a stain that is not actually red, but is not actually white either,4From this we deduct that if it is actually white, she is always clean. This is according to the ruling of Taz 188 who says if she saw a thick white stain within three hours of a bath, she is clean. Bach and Pardes Rimonim say in such a case she must suspect it is blood that turned white because of her bath. must consult a competent Rav, for concerning this there are many divergent laws regarding the size of the stain. There are also many laws regarding to what it can be attributed and to what it cannot be attributed. There is also a distinction as to the time she found it, whether it was on her menstrually clean days or on the first days of her seven clean days.
אִֹשָׁה שֶׁהִרְגִישָׁה שֶׁנִּפְתַּח מְקוֹרָהּ, אֲפִלּוּ בָּדְקָה אֶת עַצְמָהּ מִיָד וְלֹא מָצְאָה כְלוּם, הֲרֵי הִיא טְמֵאָה. (וּצְרִיכִין לְהוֹדִיעַ זֹאת לַנָּשִׁים, כִּי הַרְבֵּה נָשִׁים אֵינָן יוֹדְעוֹת זֹאת). אֲבָל אִם מָצְאָה שֶׁיָצְאָה מִמֶּנָּה אֵיזוֹ לֵחָה לְבָנָה בְּלִי שׁוּם תַּעֲרֹבֶת אַדְמוּמִית, הֲרֵי הִיא טְהוֹרָה. If a woman senses that her womb has opened [i.e. she senses the beginning of mensruation], even if she examined herself immediately and found nothing, she is menstrually unclean.5This is the consensus of virtually all poskim except the Radvaz Responsa 149 and Ya’avetz vol. 2 Responsa 5. If this occurred during pregnancy, or if she is a nursing mother, when normally she would not experience a menstrual flow, if she checked and found nothing, many poskim rule that she is clean. Toras Hashlomim, Sidrei Taharah, Chochmas Adam and Shulchan Aruch Harav. But many poskim hold she is considered unclean. Nodah Beyehuda (Tinyana) Responsa 120, Chasam Sofer Resp. 168, Beis Lechem Yehuda, Rabbi Akiva Eiger. (It is necessary to let women know this, for many women do not know it.) But if she found a white secretion from her body without any reddish admixture, she is clean.
כְּתִיב, וְאֶלֹ אִשָּׁה בְּנִדַּת טֻמְאָתָהּ לֹא תִקְרָב, מִדִּכְתִיב לֹא תִקְרָב, דָּרְשֵׁינָן, שֶׁכָּל מִינֵי קְרִיבָה אֲסוּרִים, שֶלֹּא יִשְׂחוֹק וְלֹא יָקֵל רֹאשׁוֹ עִמָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ בִדְבָרִים, הַמַרְגִילִין לַעֲבֵרָה. אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהִתְיַחֵד עִמָּהּ, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר בָּא עָלֶיהָ, וְגַם יֵשׁ לָהּ הֶתֵּר לְאַחַר שֶׁתִּטְבֹּל, לָא תַקִיף יִצְרֵהּ, וְלָא חָיְשֵׁינָן שֶׁמָּא יָבוֹא עָלֶיהָ בְּאִיסּוּר. It is written, "And to a woman who is menstrually unclean, you shall not approach."6Leviticus 18:19. Since it is written "You shall not approach," it is explained, that any kind of approach is forbidden. You should not jest (with her), and should not indulge in levity with her, or even speak words that may lead to sin.7But they may give gifts to one another. Placey 195. However, you may be secluded with her, for since you have had marital relations with her, and she will be permitted to you after immersion, your impulse will not be that strong, and we are not concerned that you might cohabit with her when it is forbidden.
לֹא יִגַּע בָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶצְבַּע קְטַנָּה, וְלֹא יוֹשִׁיט מִיָדוֹ לְיָדָהּ אֲפִלּוּ דָבָר אָרֹךְ, וְכֵן לֹא יְקַבֵּל מִיָדָּהּ. וְכֵן זְרִיקָה מִיָדוֹ לְיָדָהּ אוֹ מִיָדָהּ לְיָדוֹ, אֲסוּרָה. You may not touch your wife (during that period) even on the small finger, and you may not hand her anything,8This is a Rabbinic injunction. This applies even if you pass it in an unusual manner (Bach) and even in public (Beis Yitzchok Resp. 18). Even if she is embarrassed that people may realize she is a niddah, it is still forbidden. (Igros Moshe vol. 2 Resp. 77). not even a long object, nor may you receive anything from her hand. Also, throwing anything from your hand into her hand or from her hand to yours is forbidden.
לֹא יֹאכַל עִמָּהּ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ אֵיזֶה שִׁנוּי, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיִהְיֶה אֵיזֶה דָבָר מַפְסִיק בֵּין קְעָרָה שֶׁלּוֹ לִקְעָרָה שֶׁלָּהּ, דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ לְהַנִּיחוֹ שָׁם בְּפַעַם אַחֶרֶת, אוֹ שֶׁתְּשַׁנֶה אֶת מְקוֹמָהּ. וְאִם דַּרְכָּן שֶׁכְּשֶׁהִיא טְהוֹרָה אוֹכְלִין מִתּוֹךְ קְעָרָה אַחַת, וְעַתָּה אוֹכְלִין כָּל אֶחָד מִתּוֹךְ קְעָרָה אַחֶרֶת, סַגֵּי בְּהָכִי. You may not eat with her at the table9If there is someone else eating at the table, the prevailing custom is to permit it without any changes. Massas Binyomin, Birkei Yosef Sha’arei Deah. unless you make a noticeable change; for example, separating your plate from her plate, with something you do not usually place there at other times, or she should change her place. If you are accustomed, when she is menstrually clean, to eat together from one plate, and now when she is unclean you eat from separate plates, this change is sufficient.10This is valid only if they are eating the same menu. If not, the change is not noticeable. (Sidrei Taharah 195—Maharashal)
לֹא יִשְׁתֶּה מִשִׁיוּרֵי הַכּוֹס שֶׁשָׁתְתָה הִיא. וְאִם הִפְסִיק אָדָם אַחֵר בֵּינֵיהֶם, אוֹ שֶׁהוּרַק אֶל כּוֹס אַחֵר, שָׁרֵי. וְאִם שָׁתְתָה וְהוּא אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ, וְרוֹצֶה לִשְׁתּוֹת מִכּוֹס זֶה, אֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְהַגִּיד לוֹ שֶׁשָׁתְתָה הִיא מִמֶּנוּ. (אֲבָל אִם יָדַע שֶׁשָׁתְתָה הִיא, אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא יָדַע שֶׁהִיא נִדָּה, כָּתַבְתִּי בְּסִפְרִי לֶחֶם וְשִׂמְלָה, כִּי נִרְאֶה דִּצְרִיכָה לְהַגִּיד לוֹ). הִיא מֻתֶּרֶת לִשְׁתּוֹת מִשִּׁיוּרֵי כּוֹס שֶלּוֹ. יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, דִּכְשֵׁם שֶׁאָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹת מִשִׁיּוּרֵי כּוֹס שֶׁלָּהּ, כָּךְ אָסוּר לֶאֱכוֹל מִשִׁיּוּרֵי מַאֲכָל שֶׁלָּהּ. You are not allowed to drink what she leaves over in her cup. But if someone else drank from the cup after her, or it has been poured into another cup you are permitted to drink it. If she drank from it and you are unaware of it, and you want to drink from that cup, she need not tell you that she drank from it. (But if you know she drank from it but do not know that she is a niddah, it would seem that she has to inform you). She is permitted to drink the leftovers from your cup. Some authorities maintain that just as you are forbidden to drink the leftovers from her cup so too you are forbidden11All the conditions that make it possible for you to drink her leftovers make it possible for you to eat her leftovers. to eat from her leftover food.12Only if it is one piece of food. But if there are two pieces on a plate and she eats one, the second one is not considered her leftover (Igros Moshe Resp. 92). If it is a food made up of many small pieces (like cut-up salads etc.) the whole salad is like one piece and is considered her leftover.
לֹא יִישַׁן עִמָּהּ בְמִטָּה אַחַת, אֲפִלּוּ אֵין הַמִּטָּה מְיֻחֶדֶת לָּהּ. וַאֲפִלּוּ כָּל אֶחָד בְּבִגְדוֹ וְאֵין נוֹגְעִין זֶה בָזֶה. וַאֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ שׁוֹכְבִים בִּשְׁתֵּי מִטּוֹת, וְהַמִּטּוֹת נוֹגְעוֹת זוֹ בָזוֹ, אָסוּר. וְאִם שׁוֹכְבִין עַל הָאָרֶץ, לֹא יִשְׁכְּבוּ פָּנִים כְּנֶגֶד פָּנִים, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ מֶרְחָק רַב בֵּינֵיהֶם. וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם יְשֵׁנִים בִּשְׁתֵּי מִטּוֹת סְמוּכוֹת זוֹ לָזוֹ בְּאָרְכָּן בְּאֹפֶן שֶׁלִפְעָמִים הֵם פָּנִים כְּנֶגֶד פָּנִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵשׁ הֶפְסֵק בֵּין הַמִּטּוֹת, יֵשׁ לֶאֱסֹר, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ מֶרְחָק רַב בֵּינֵיהֶם. וְאָסוּר לְבַּעַל אֲפִלּוּ לֵישֵׁב עַל הַמִּטָּה הַמְיֻחֶדֶת לָהּ, וַאֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא בְפָנֶיהָ. וְהִיא, אֲסוּרָה לִישֹׁן עַל הַמִּטָּה הַמְיֻחֶדֶת לוֹ. אֲבָל לֵישֵׁב עָלֶיהָ, אֵין לְהַחְמִיר. You may not sleep together in the same bed, even if the bed is not exclusively hers, and even if you are both fully clothed and do not touch one another, and even if each of you have a separate mattress. And even to lie on two separate beds, if the beds touch one another it is forbidden. If you both lie on the ground, you should not lie facing one another unless there is a sizable distance between you and her. The same applies if you sleep in two separate beds placed parallel to one another, whereby sometimes you face one another. Even though there is space between the beds, it is forbidden unless there is a sizable space between the beds.13The Kav Hayashar—Ariz’l says they have to be far enough apart that his blanket will not come in contact with his wife’s bed at any time throughout the night. The Taharas Yisroel says they have to be far enough apart that they will not touch one another while asleep. The husband is forbidden even to sit on the bed14Or pillows (Chochmas Adam) or linens (Pischei Teshuva). reserved for her, even when she is not present. She is forbidden to sleep on the bed reserved for her husband. But so far as her sitting on it, you need not be stringent.
אֲסוּרִין לֵישֵׁב עַל סַפְסָל אָרֹךְ שֶׁהוּא מִתְנַדְנֵד. וְאִם אָדָם אַחֵר מַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם, מֻתָּר. וְלֹא יֵלְכוּ בַּעֲגָלָה אַחַת אוֹ בִּסְפִינָה אַחַת, אִם הוֹלְכִין רַק דֶּרֶךְ טִיּוּל, כְּגוֹן לְגִנּוֹת וּלְפַרְדֵּסִים וְכַיוֹצֵא בָזֶה. אֲבָל אִם הוֹלְכִין מֵעִיר לְעִיר לְעִסְקֵיהֶם, מֻתָּר. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן לְבַדָּם, וּבִלְבַד שֶיֵשְׁבוּ בְאֹפֶן שֶׁלֹּא יִגְּעוּ זֶה בָזֶה. It is forbidden to sit together on a long bench, if it sways. If someone else sits15Even a baby. between you, it is permitted. You may not ride together in the same wagon or on the same boat, if it is just a pleasure trip, like riding through parks, orchards or similar excursions. But if you are travelling from city to city on business, it is permitted, even though you are by yourselves; provided you are seated in a way that you will not touch one another.
לֹא יִסְתַּכֵּל בְּשׁוּם מָקוֹם מִגּוּפָהּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶדַּרְכָּהּ לְכַסּוֹת. אֲבָל בַּמְּקוֹמוֹת הַגְלוּיִים, מֻתָּר לוֹ לְהִסְתַּכֵּל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא נֶהֱנֶה. אָסוּר לְהָרִיחַ בִּבְשָׂמִים הַמְיֻחָדִים לָהּ, וְאָסוּר לִשְׁמֹעַ קוֹל זֶמֶר שֶלָּהּ. You must not look at any part of her body that she usually keeps covered.16I.e. in the house. However, those parts of the body she keeps covered only when she is out of the house you are permitted to see since you are accustomed to seeing it. (Igros Moshe Vol. 2 Responsa 75) But on those parts that are usually not covered, you are permitted to look even if you derive pleasure from it. You are forbidden to scent her personal perfume, and you are forbidden to hear her sing.
רָאוּי שֶתְּיַחֵד לָהּ בְּגָדִים לִימֵי נִדָּתָהּ, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִהְיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם זוֹכְרִים תָּמִיד שֶׁהִיא נִדָּה. וּבְקשִׁי הִתִּירוּ לָהּ שֶׁתִּכְחֹל וְתִפְקֹס וְתִתְקַשֵּׁט בְּבִגְדֵי צִבְעוֹנִין בִּימֵי נִדָּתָהּ, אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִתְגַּנֶּה עַל בַּעְלָהּ. It is proper that she wear special clothes17One item is enough. Sidrei Taharah 195:8. on the days of her impurity, so that they will both always remember that she is menstrually unclean. With great halachic difficulty, the Sages permitted her to use cosmetics (rouge, lipstick etc.), and to dress in colorful (attractive) clothing18If her husband doesn’t mind, it is preferable that she does not do these things when she is a niddah. Gra—Avos D’Rabbi Nosson, Sha’arei Tohar. during her days of impurity, so that she will not become repulsive to her husband.
לֹא תִמְזֹג לוֹ כּוֹס יַיִן בְפָנָיו אוֹ לַהֲבִיאוֹ לוֹ וּלְהַנִּיחוֹ לְפָנָיו עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, וְלֹא תַצִּיעַ לוֹ מִטָּתוֹ בְפָנָיו. אֲבָל שֶלֹּא בְפָנָיו, הַכֹּל מֻתָּר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵע שֶהִיא עָשָׂתָה. וַאֲסוּרָה לִצּוֹק לוֹ מַיִם לִרְחוֹץ פָּנָיו יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו, וַאֲפִלּוּ מַיִם צוּנְנִים. She may not pour a cup of wine for you in your presence,19Rashba and Rav Hamaggid say that this rule applies only to wine and not to anything else. This is also the opinion of the Taz, Lechem V’Simla (author of the Kitzur) and Aruch Hashulchan. However the Bach and Shach say it applies to all food and beverage (except water). Chochmas Adam says it is best to be strict if possible. nor may she bring it and place it in front of you at the table;20If she does so in an unusual manner, such as placing it down with her left hand or placing it somewhat away from him so that he will have to move it himself, it is permitted. nor may she make your bed in your presence. But when not in your presence, all these things are permitted, even though you know that she did them. She is forbidden to pour water21Some poskim say this refers to pouring water on any part of you or into the tub in which are now washing yourself (Ramban, Ritvah, Tashbatz 3:230, and Taz). However, Rabbenu Yonah, Eshkol, Bach, and Shach say this refers also to just preparing the water for you to wash. This is the opinion of the Beis Meir, Chavos Da’as and Chochmas Adam. to wash your face and hands and feet, even if the water is cold.
כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהִיא אֲסוּרָה לִמְזֹג לוֹ אֶת הַכּוֹס, כָּךְ הוּא אָסוּר לִמְזֹג לָהּ. וְלֹא עוֹד, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ לִשְׁלֹחַ לָהּ כּוֹס יַיִן הַמְיֻחָד לָהּ, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא כּוֹס שֶל בְּרָכָה, אָסוּר. Just as she is forbidden to pour a cup of wine for you, so are you forbidden to pour wine for her.22These laws must also be observed at the seder on Pesach. Furthermore, even to send her a cup of wine specially for her, even if it is a cup over which a berachah has been pronounced, is forbidden.23With regard to wine from Kiddush, if you send her the cup you drank from, in an unusual manner, for instance, with your left hand; she is permitted to drink from it according to Prisha. However, Ya’avetz (Responsa 126) rules even if it is the cup you drank from and did not pour it specially for her, you are still not allowed to send it to her. The best thing to do is to leave the cup in front of you and let her take it herself.
אִם הוּא חוֹלֶה וְאֵין לוֹ מִי שֶׁיְשַׁמֵּשׁ אוֹתוֹ זוּלָתָהּ, מֻתֶּרֶת לְשַׁמְּשׁוֹ שִׁמּוּשׁ שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ נְגִיעָה, רַק עַל יְדֵי דָבָר אַחֵר, אֲפִלּוּ לַהֲקִימוֹ וּלְהַשְׁכִיבוֹ וּלְתָמְכוֹ, רַק שֶׁתִּזָהֵר בְּיוֹתֵר מֵהַרְחָצַת פָּנָיו יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וְהַצַּעַת הַמִּטָּה בְּפָנָיו. וְאִם הָאִשָּׁה חוֹלָה, אָסוּר לְבַעְלָהּ לְשַׁמְּשָׁהּ, אֲפִלּוּ בְּלֹא נְגִיעָה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בִּשְׁעַת דְּחָק גָּדוֹל, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְצֹא מִי שֶׁיְשַׁמְּשֶׁנָּה. וְאִם הַבַּעַל הוּא רוֹפֵא וְאֵין שָׁם רוֹפֵא אַחֵר מֻמְחֶה כָּמוֹהוּ, מֻתָּר לוֹ לְמַשֵּׁשׁ לָהּ אֶת הַדֹּפֶק, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה דֶּרֶךְ תַּאֲוָה וְחִבָּה. If you are sick and there is no one but her to attend you, she is permitted to attend you24Even if you are not dangerously ill. But if you just have a minor illness, it is not permitted. (Aruch Hashulchan) but without direct contact with your body,25If this is not possible, she may do it even if she touches you. but rather by means of some object. She may even raise you up, lay you down, and support you. But she must be very careful not to wash your face, hands, and feet, or make your bed in your presence. If the woman is sick (when she is a niddah), her husband is forbidden to attend her, even without touching her,26Shulchan Aruch 185:15, Beis Yosef. Trumas Hadeshen and Chochmas Adam rule that it is forbidden only if you touch her. The source of the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch is unknown. According to the Ramah, Chavos Da’as, Sidrei Taharah, and Chochmas Adam, this is permitted only if her illness is dangerous to her life (or limb). However, the Radvaz, Zerah Emess, and Lechem V’simla permit this even when such dangers are not involved. except in a case of extreme emergency, when it is impossible to find someone else to attend her. If the husband is a physician, and there is no other physician as competent as himself, he may feel her pulse, since he is not doing it out of desire or love.
בְּכָל הַהַרְחָקוֹת הַנִּזְכָּרוֹת, צְרִיכִין לִזָּהֵר גַּם בִּימֵי לִבּוּנָהּ, דְּהַיְנוּ בִּימֵי סְפִירַת שִׁבְעָה נְקִיִים, וְגַם אַחַר כָךְ, אִם נִתְאַחֲרָה מִלִּטְבֹּל בִּזְמַנָּהּ, אֲסוּרִים בְּכָל הַנִּזְכָּר עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁתִּטְבֹּל. All the foregoing precautionary measures must also be observed during the "white days," that is, the seven days after the flow has ceased, and even thereafter if she delays her immersion. They are forbidden in all that was mentioned previously, until after she immerses herself.
אִשָּׁה נִדָּה, בִּימֵי רְאִיָתָהּ קֹדֶם יְמֵי לִבּוּנָהּ, נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁאֵינָהּ נִכְנֶסֶת לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְאֵינָהּ מִתְפַּלֶּלֶת. אַךְ בַּיָמִים הַנּוֹרָאִים, דְּהַיְנוּ מִיּוֹם רִאשׁוֹן דִּסְלִיחוֹת וּלְהַלָּן שֶׁרַבִּים מִתְאַסְּפִים בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, וְיִהְיֶה לָּהּ עִצָּבוֹן גָּדוֹל אִם לֹא תֵלֵךְ, מֻתֶּרֶת לָלֶכֶת וּלְהִתְפַּלֵל. וְכֵן כְּשֶׁהִיא מַשִׂיאָה אֶת בְּנָהּ אוֹ אֶת בִּתָּה, אוֹ כְּשֶׁהִיא יוֹלֶדֶת שֶהִגִּיעַ זְמַנָּה לָלֶכֶת לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, וְכַיוֹצֵא בָזֶה, מֻתֶּרֶת. During the time a woman is a niddah, during her menstruation period before the white days, it is customary27Nowadays they are accustomed to go but should not look at the Seifer Torah when they raise it and show it to the congregants. Mishnah Berurah 88:7—Chayei Adam. for her not to enter a synagogue and not to pray. But on the Days of Awe, that is from the first day of Selichot when multitudes assemble at the synagogue, and she will be greatly distressed if she does not go, she is permitted to go and pray. Similarly at the marriage of her son, or daughter, or she has given birth and it is time for her to go to the synagogue, or for similar things, she is permitted to do so.