Kiddushin 39aקידושין ל״ט א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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39aל״ט א

ניתני או זה וזה יורד ולוקח או זה וזה יורד ולוקט האמר ליה שמואל לרב ענן תני או זה וזה יורד ולוקח או זה וזה יורד ולוקט מר בריה דרבנא מתני ליה לקולא זה וזה יורד ולוקט ובלבד שלא ילקוט ביד

let the mishna teach in the same manner in both cases, either by stating in both this case and that case that one may go down and purchase the produce, or by stating in both this case and that case that one may go down and gather the produce. The Gemara answers: Didn’t Shmuel say to Rav Anan that one should teach it either as stating in both this case and that case that one may go down and purchase the produce, or in both this case and that case that one may go down and gather the produce? Mar, son of Rabbana, taught this mishna according to the following lenient version: In both this case and that case one may go down and gather the produce, provided that he does not gather it with his own hand.

אמר ליה לוי לשמואל אריוך ספק לי ואנא איכול רב אויא ורבה בר רב חנן מספקו ספוקי להדדי אמרי חריפי דפומבדיתא אין ערלה בחוצה לארץ

§ With regard to the prohibition of orla outside of Eretz Yisrael, the Gemara relates that Levi said to Shmuel: Aryokh, Shmuel’s nickname, supply me with such food, as I will not pick it on my own, and if you do so I will eat it. There is no reason for concern with regard to orla outside of Eretz Yisrael. Rav Avya and Rabba bar Rav Ḥanan would supply produce whose orla status was uncertain for each other, as it is forbidden only if one takes the orla on his own. The sharp Sages of Pumbedita said: The prohibition of orla does not apply at all outside of Eretz Yisrael.

שלחה רב יהודה לקמיה דרבי יוחנן שלח ליה סתום ספיקא ואבד ודאה והכרז על פירותיהן שטעונים גניזה וכל האומר אין ערלה בח"ל לא יהא לו נין ונכד (מיכה ב, ה) משליך חבל בגורל בקהל ה'

Rav Yehuda sent a question to Rabbi Yoḥanan concerning the halakha with regard to orla outside of Eretz Yisrael. Rabbi Yoḥanan sent him the following response: Conceal, i.e., do not publicize, the halakha that produce whose orla status is uncertain is permitted; and destroy, i.e., prohibit entirely, produce whose orla status is certain; and with regard to the produce of those who are lenient in this halakha, declare that it requires interment, as it is prohibited to derive benefit from such produce. And whoever says that there is no prohibition of orla outside of Eretz Yisrael will have neither a child nor a grandchild “who shall cast the line by lot in the congregation of the Lord” (Micah 2:5).

ואינהו כמאן סברוה כי הא דתניא רבי אלעזר בר' יוסי אומר משום ר' יוסי בן דורמסקה שאמר משום רבי יוסי הגלילי שאמר משום רבי יוחנן בן נורי שאמר משום ר' אליעזר הגדול אין ערלה בח"ל

The Gemara asks: And in accordance with whose opinion do the sharp Sages of Pumbedita hold when they state this halakha? The Gemara answers: They hold in accordance with that which is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, says in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Durmaska, who said in the name of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili, who said in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri, who said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer the Great: The prohibition of orla does not apply outside of Eretz Yisrael.

ולא והאנן תנן רבי אליעזר אומר אף החדש תני חדש

The Gemara expresses surprise at this ruling: But does it not apply? Does Rabbi Eliezer maintain that the prohibition of orla does not apply outside of Eretz Yisrael? But didn’t we learn in the mishna that Rabbi Eliezer says: Even the new crop, which indicates that he agrees that orla and diverse kinds are forbidden outside of Eretz Yisrael? The Gemara answers that one should not teach that Rabbi Eliezer said: Even the new crop, but rather teach only the words: The new crop, i.e., Rabbi Eliezer maintains that only this prohibition applies outside of Eretz Yisrael.

אמר רבי אסי אמר ר' יוחנן ערלה בח"ל הלכה למשה מסיני א"ל ר' זירא לרבי אסי והתניא ספק ערלה בארץ אסור בסוריא מותר (בחוצה לארץ יורד ולוקט) אישתומם כשעה חדא א"ל אימא כך נאמר ספיקא מותר ודאה אסור

Rabbi Asi says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Orla is forbidden outside of Eretz Yisrael by a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. Rabbi Zeira said to Rabbi Asi: But isn’t it taught in a baraita: With regard to produce whose status concerning orla is uncertain, in Eretz Yisrael it is forbidden, in Syria it is permitted, and outside of Eretz Yisrael one goes down and gathers it? And if orla is forbidden outside of Eretz Yisrael by a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai, why is produce whose status concerning orla is uncertain permitted in Syria? Rabbi Zeira “was dismayed for a while” (Daniel 4:16), and then Rabbi Asi said to him: Say that it is stated like this, i.e., explain that the halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai was that outside of Eretz Yisrael produce whose status concerning orla is uncertain is permitted, and produce whose status concerning orla is certain is forbidden.

אמר רבי אסי אמר רבי יוחנן לוקין על הכלאים דבר תורה אמר ליה רבי אלעזר בר' יוסי והאנן תנן הכלאים מדברי סופרים לא קשיא כאן בכלאי הכרם כאן בהרכבת האילן

§ Rabbi Asi says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Offenders are flogged for transgressing the prohibition of diverse kinds outside of Eretz Yisrael by Torah law. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said to him: But didn’t we learn in the mishna (Orla 3:9) that the prohibition of diverse kinds applies by rabbinic law outside of Eretz Yisrael? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. The mishna here is referring to diverse kinds in a vineyard, which is prohibited outside of Eretz Yisrael by rabbinic law, whereas there, Rabbi Yoḥanan’s statement is referring to the grafting of a tree onto a different species.

כדשמואל דאמר שמואל (ויקרא יט, יט) את חקתי תשמורו חוקים שחקקתי לך כבר (ויקרא יט, יט) בהמתך לא תרביע כלאים שדך לא תזרע

The Gemara adds that this halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel. As Shmuel says: The verse states: “You shall keep My statutes” (Leviticus 19:19), which means that one must keep even the statutes that I have already instituted for you when you were merely descendants of Noah, before the giving of the Torah. Shmuel elaborates: This is referring to the prohibitions stated in that same verse: “You shall not let your cattle gender with a diverse kind; you shall not sow your field with two kinds of seed” (Leviticus 19:19).

מה בהמתך בהרבעה אף שדך בהרכבה ומה בהמתך נוהג בין בארץ בין בח"ל אף שדך נוהג בין בארץ בין בח"ל

Additionally, the juxtaposition of these prohibitions teaches that just as the prohibition of diverse kinds stated with regard to your animal applies only to mating one species with another, so too, the prohibition of diverse kinds with regard to your field is referring only to grafting one type of tree to another type, and it does not apply to planting two species together. Furthermore, just as the prohibition of diverse kinds with regard to your animal applies both in Eretz Yisrael and outside of Eretz Yisrael, as this prohibition does not relate to the land, so too, the prohibition against grafting your field applies both in Eretz Yisrael and outside of Eretz Yisrael.

ואלא הכתיב שדך ההוא למעוטי זרעים שבח"ל

The Gemara asks: But isn’t it written: “Your field,” which indicates that the field belongs to you in your portion of Eretz Yisrael? The Gemara answers: That verse serves to exclude the prohibition of diverse kinds of seeds, which does not apply outside of Eretz Yisrael. Planting different types of seeds together is prohibited only in Eretz Yisrael.

רב חנן ורב ענן הוו שקלי ואזלי באורחא חזיוהו לההוא גברא דקא זרע זרעים בהדי הדדי א"ל ניתי מר נשמתיה א"ל לא חווריתו

§ The Gemara relates: Rav Ḥanan and Rav Anan were once going together on a road outside of Eretz Yisrael and they saw a certain man planting seeds of diverse kinds together. One of them said to the other: Let the Master come and ostracize him, as he is performing a prohibited act. The other said to him: These halakhot are not understood by you.

ותו חזיוהו לההוא גברא דקא זרע חטי ושערי בי גופני א"ל ניתי מר נשמתיה א"ל לא צהריתו לא קיימא לן כרבי יאשיה דאמר עד שיזרע חטה ושעורה וחרצן במפולת יד

And furthermore, they also saw a certain man who was planting wheat and barley between grapevines. One of them said to the other: Let the Master come and ostracize him. He again said to him: These halakhot are not clear to you. He explained: Don’t we hold in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoshiya, who says: One who sows diverse kinds is not liable by Torah law until he sows wheat, and barley, and a grape seed with a single hand motion, i.e., by sowing in the vineyard he violates the prohibition of diverse kinds that applies to seeds and to the vineyard simultaneously. Since this man was not planting in that manner, he should not be ostracized.

רב יוסף מערב ביזרני וזרע א"ל אביי והאנן תנן הכלאים מדברי סופרים א"ל לא קשיא כאן בכלאי הכרם כאן בכלאי זרעים כלאי הכרם דבארץ אסורים בהנאה בח"ל נמי גזרו בהו רבנן כלאי זרעים דבארץ לא אסירי בהנאה בח"ל נמי לא גזרו בהו רבנן

The Gemara relates: Rav Yosef was mixing diverse seeds and planting them. Abaye said to him: But didn’t we learn in the mishna that mixing diverse kinds is prohibited outside of Eretz Yisrael by rabbinic law? Rav Yosef said to him: This is not difficult, as here, the mishna is referring to diverse kinds in a vineyard, and there, I am planting legally because I am planting only diverse kinds of seeds. The reason for the difference between these two cases is as follows: With regard to planting diverse kinds in a vineyard, which in Eretz Yisrael is prohibited even with regard to deriving benefit, the Sages issued a decree prohibiting this mixture outside of Eretz Yisrael as well. Conversely, with regard to planting diverse kinds of seeds, which in Eretz Yisrael is not prohibited with regard to deriving benefit, the Sages did not issue a decree prohibiting them outside of Eretz Yisrael.

הדר אמר רב יוסף לאו מלתא היא דאמרי דרב זרע גינתא דבי רב משארי משארי מאי טעמא לאו משום עירוב עירובי כלאים אמר ליה אביי בשלמא אי אשמעינן

Rav Yosef then said: The matter that I said, i.e., that diverse kinds of seeds are entirely permitted outside of Eretz Yisrael, is not so. The proof is that Rav planted the garden around the study hall in rows [mesharei] of different species. What is the reason that he did that rather than plant different species together? Is it not because he was concerned about mixtures of diverse kinds? Abaye said to him: That is not proof. Granted, if he taught us this halakha through his actions,