List of Abbreviations.

a. = and.

a. e. = and elsewhere.

a. fr. = and frequently.

a. l. = ad locum.

a. v. fr. = and very frequently.

Ab. = Aboth (Mishnah).

Ab. d’R. N. = Aboth d’Rabbi Nathan (a late Talmudic treatise).

Ab. Zar. = Abodah Zarah (Talmud).

abbrev. = abbreviated or abbreviation.

add. = additamenta (Hosafah to Pesik. R.)

adj. = adjective.

adv. = adverb.

Ag. Hatt. = Agadoth hat-Torah (quoted in Rabbinowicz Variæ Lectiones).

Alf. = Alfasi (Hilkhoth Rabbenu Alfasi).

Am. = Amos.

Ar. = Arukh (Talmudic Lexicon by R. Nathan Romi).

Ar. Compl. = Arukh Completum ed. Alexander Kohut, Vienna 1878-85.

Arakh. = Arakhin (Talmud).

art. = article.

B. Bath. = Baba Bathra (Talmud), v. Kel.

b. h. = Biblical Hebrew.

B. Kam. = Baba Ḳamma (Talmud), v. Kel.

B. Mets. = Baba M’tsiʿa (Talmud), v. Kel.

B. N. = Beth Nathan (quoted in Rabbinowicz Variæ Lectiones).

Bab. = Babli (Babylonian Talmud).

Bart. = Bartenora, Bertinora (commentary to Mishnah).

beg. = beginning.

Beitr. = Beiträge zur Sprach- und Alterthumsforschung, by Michael Sachs, Berlin 1852—54, 2 vols, v. Berl. a. Hildesh.

Bekh. = B’khoroth (Talmud).

Ber. = B’rakhoth (Talmud).

Berl. = Berliner (editor of Targum Onkelos).

Berl. Beitr. = Berliner Beiträge zur Geographie und Ethnographie Babyloniens, Berlin 1884.

Bets. = Betsah (Talmud).

B’ḥuck. = B’ḥuḳḳothay (a pericope).

Bicc. = Biccurim, Bikkurim (Mishnah and Tosefta).

bot. = bottom of page.

B’resh. = B’reshith (name of a pericope).

B’shall. = B’shallaḥ (name of a pericope).

c. = common gender.

Cant. = Canticum (Song of Songs).

Cant. R. = Canticum Rabbah (Midrash Shir hash-Shirim or Ḥazitha).

ch. = Chaldaic.

Ch. = Chaldaic.

Chron. = Chronicles, Book of.

cmp. = compare (mostly referring to association of ideas).

comment. = commentary or commentaries.

comp. = compound or composed.

contr. = contracted or contraction.

contrad. = contradistinguished.

corr. = correct.`

corr. acc. = correct accordingly.

corrupt. = corruption.

Curt. Griech. Etym. = Curtius Griechische Etymologie.

Dan. = Daniel, Book of.

Darkhe Mish. = Frankel, Hodegetica in Mishnam, Leipzig 1859 (Hebrew).

def. = defining or definition.

Del. = Delitzsch, Friedrich.

Del. Assyr. Handw. = Delitzsch Assyrisches Handwörterbuch, Leipzig 1896.

Del. Proleg. = Delitzsch Prolegomena eines neuen Hebräisch-Aramäischen Wörterbuchs &c.

Dem. = D’mai (Mishnah, Tosefta a. Y’rushalmi).

denom. = denominative.

Der. Er. = Derekh Erets (Ethics, a late Talmudic treatise, Rabbah [the great], Zuṭa [the small]).

Deut. = Deuteronomy, Book of.

Deut. R. = Deuteronomy Rabbah (Midrash Rabbah to Deut.).

diff. = different interpretation or differently interpreted.

differ. = different interpretation or differently interpreted.

dimin. = diminutive.

Du. = Dual.

ed. = edition or editions (current editions, opposed to manuscripts or especially quoted editions).

Ed. = Eduyoth (Mishnah and Tosefta).

ellipt. = elliptically.

Erub. = Erubin (Talmud).

esp. = especially.

Esth. = Esther, Book of.

Esth. R. = Esther Rabbah (Midrash Rabbah to Esther).

Ex. = Exodus, Book of.

Ex. R. = Exodus Rabbah (Midrash Rabbah to Sh’moth).

expl. = explained.

explan. = explanation.

Ez. = Ezekiel, Book of.

Fl. = Fleisher, appendix to Levy’s Targumic or Talmudic Lexicon.

foreg. = foregoing.

fr. = from.

freq. = frequently.

Fr. = Friedman (edition).

Frank. = Frankel, v. Darkhe, and M’bo.

Gem. = G’mara.

Gen. = Genesis, Book of.

gen. of = genitive of.

Gen. R. = Genesis Rabbah (Midrash Rabbah to B’reshith).

Ges. H. Dict. = Gesenius Hebrew Dictionary, 8 th German edition.

Gitt. = Giṭṭin.

Gloss. = Glossary.

Hab. = Habakkuk, Book of.

Hag. = Haggai, Book of.

Ḥag. = Ḥăgigah (Talmud).

Ḥall. = Ḥallah (Mishnah, Tosefta and Y’rushalmi).

Hif. = Hifil.

Hildesh. Beitr. = Hildesheimer Beiträge zur Geographie Palestinas, Berlin 1886.

Hithpa. = Hithpaël.

Hithpo. = Hithpolel.

Hor. = Horayoth (Talmud).

Hos. = Hosea, Book of.

Ḥuck. = Ḥuḳḳath (a pericope).

Ḥull. = Ḥullin (Talmud).

intens. = intensive.

introd. = introduction (פתיחתא).

Is. = Isaiah, Book of.

Isp. = Ispeel.

Ithpa. = Ithpaal.

Ithpe. = Ithpeel.

Jer. = Jeremiah, Book of.

Jon. = Jonah.

Jos. = Josephus.

Josh. = Joshua, Book of.

Jud. = Judices, Book of Judges.

K.A.T. = Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament by Schrader (second edition), Giessen 1883.

KAT = Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament by Schrader (second edition), Giessen 1883.

Kel. = Kelim (Mishnah and Tosefta, the latter divided into Baba Ḳamma, M’tsiʿa, and Bathra).

Ker. = K’rithoth (Talmud).

Keth. = K’thuboth (Talmud).

Kidd. = Ḳiddushin (Talmud).

Kil. = Kilayim (Mishnah, Tosefta and Talmud Y’rushalmi).

Kin. = Ḳinnim (Mishnah).

Koh. = Koheleth, Book of Ecclesiastes.

Koh. Ar. Compl. = Kohut in Aruch Completum.

Koh. R. = Koheleth Rabbah (Midrash Rabbah to Ecclesiastes).

l. c. = loco citato or locum citatum.

Lam. = Lamentations, Book of.

Lam. R. = Lamentations Rabbah (Midrash Rabbah to Lam.; Ekhah Rabbathi).

Lev. = Leviticus, Book of.

Lev. R. = Leviticus Rabbah (Midrash Rabbah to Leviticus, Vayyiḳra Rabbah).

M. Kat. = Moʿed Ḳaṭon (Talmud).

Maas. Sh. = Maʿǎser Sheni (Mishnah, Tosefta, and Talmud Y’rushalmi).

Maasr. = Maʿasroth (Mishnah, Tosefta, and Talmud Y’rushalmi).

Macc. = Maccoth, Makkoth (Talmud).

Maim. = Maimonides.

Makhsh. = Makhshirin (Mishnah and Tosefta).

Mal. = Malachi, Book of.

marg. vers. = marginal version.

Mass. = Massekheth (Treatise).

Mat. K. = Matt’noth K’hunnah (commentary to Midrash Rabbah).

M’bo = Frankel, Introductio in Talmud Hierosolymitanum. Breslau 1870 (Hebrew).

Meg. = M’gillah (Talmud).

Meil. = M’ʿilah (Talmud).

Mekh. = M’khilta (a Midrash to portions of Exodus).

Men. = M’naḥoth (Talmud).

Mic. = Micah, Book of.

Midd. = Middoth (Mishnah).

Midr. = Midrash.

Midr. Sam. = Midrash Samuel.

Midr. Till. = Midrash Tillim (Midrash to Psalms, Shoḥer Ṭob).

Mikv. = Miḳvaoth (Mishnah and Tosefta).

Mish. = Mishnah.

Mish. N. or Nap. = Mishnah, editio Napolis.

Mish. Pes. = Mishnah, editio Pesaro.

Mishp. = Mishpaṭim (name of a pericope).

Ms. = Manuscript.

Ms. F. = Manuscript Florence.

Ms. H. = Manuscript Hamburg.

Ms. K. = Manuscript Karlsruhe.

Ms. M. = Manuscript Munich.

Ms. O. = Manuscript Oxford.

Ms. R. = Manuscript Rome.

Mus. = Musafia (additamenta to Arukh).

Nah. = Nahum, Book of.

Naz. = Nazir (Talmud).

Neg. = N’gaʿim (Mishnah and Tosefta, also a subdivision in Sifra).

Neh. = Nehemiah, Book of.

Neub. Géogr. = Neubauer Géographie du Talmud, Paris 1868.

Ned. = N’darim (Talmud).

Nidd. = Niddah (Talmud).

Nif. = Nifal.

Nithpa. = Nithpaël.

Num. = Numeri, Book of (Numbers).

Num. R. = Numeri Rabbah (Midrash Rabbah to Numbers, B’midbar Rabbah).

Ob. = Obadiah, Book of.

Ohol. = Ohŏloth (Ahiloth, Mishnah and Tosefta).

onomatop. = onomatopoetic.

opin. = opinion.

opp. = opposed.

Orl. = ʿOrlah (Mishnah, Tosefta and Y’rushalmi).

oth. = other, another, others.

P. Sm. = Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus.

Par. = Parah (Mishnah and Tosefta).

Par. = Parashah, referring to Sifra.

part. = participle.

Perl. Et. St. = Perles Etymologische Studien, Breslau 1871.

pers. pron. = personal pronoun.

Pes. = P’saḥim (Talmud).

Pesik. = P’siḳta d’R. Kahăna, ed. Buber.

Pesik. R. = P’siḳta Rabbathi (ed. Friedman).

Pesik. Zutr. = P’siḳta Zuṭrathi, ed. Buber.

Pfl. = Löw, Aramäische Pflanzennamen, Leipzig 1881.

phraseol. = phraseology.

Pi. = Piël.

pl. = plural.

Pl. = plural.

pr. n. = proper noun.

pr. n. f. = proper noun of a female person.

pr. n. m. = proper noun of a male person.

pr. n. pl. = proper noun of a place.

preced. = preceding.

preced. art. = preceding article.

preced. w. = preceding word.

prep. = preposition.

prob. = probably.

pron. = pronoun.

prop. = properly.

prov. = a proverb.

Prov. = Proverbs, Book of.

Ps. = Psalms, Book of.

q. v. = quod vide.

r. = root or radix.

R. = Rab, Rabbi, or Rabbenu.

R. Hash. = Rosh hash-Shanah (Talmud).

R. S. = Rabbenu Shimshon (commentary to Mishnah).

Rabb. D. S. = Rabbinowicz Diḳduḳé Sof’rim (Variæ Lectiones &c., Munich 1867-84).

Rap. = Rapaport, ʿErekh Millin (Talmudic Cyclopedia, first and only volume).

ref. = referring, reference.

Ruth R. = Ruth Rabbah (Midrash Rabbah to Ruth).

S. = Sophocles, Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods, Boston 1870.

s. = section (Parashah).

s. v. = sub voce.

Sabb. = Sabbath (Talmud).

Sam. = Samuel, Book of.

Schr. = Schrader, v. KAT.

Sef. Yets = Sefer Y’tsirah (Book of Creation, a Cabalistic work).

Shebi. = Sh’biith (Mishnah, Tosefta, and Y’rushalmi).

Shebu. = Shʾbuoth (Talmud).

Shek. = Sh’ḳalim (Mishnah, Tosefta and Y’rushalmi, also a pericope in P’siḳta).

Sm. Ant. = Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, Third American Edition, New-York 1858.

S’maḥ. = S’maḥoth, Treatise (Abel Rabbathi).

Snh. = Sanhedrin (Talmud).

Sonc. = Soncino.

Sot. = Soṭah (Talmud).

sub. = subaudi.

Succ. = Succah (Talmud).

suppl. = supplement (Hosafah) to Pesikta Rabbathi.

Taan. = Taʿănith (Talmud).

Talm. = Talmud.

Tam. = Tamid (Talmud).

Tanḥ. = Midrash Tanḥuma.

Tanḥ. ed. Bub. = Midrash Tanḥuma (enlarged), edited, from manuscripts, by Buber, Wilna 1885.

Targ. = Targum.

Targ. O. = Targum Onkelos.

Targ. Y. = Targum Y’rushalmi (or Jonathan).

Targ. II = Targum Sheni (to Esther).

Tem. = T’murah (Talmud).

Ter. = T’rumoth (Mishnah, Tosefta and Y’rushalmi).

Toh. = Tohăroth (Mishnah and Tosefta).

Tosaf. = Tosafoth (Additamenta to Talmud Babli).

Tosef. = Tosefta.

Tosef. ed. Zuck. = Tosefta editio Zuckermandel, Pasewalk 1881.

Treat. = Treatise (tractatus, Massekheth, one of the appendices to Talmud Babli).

Trnsf. = Transferred.

trnsp. = transposed or transposition.

Ukts. = ʿUḳtsin (Mishnah and Tosefta).

usu. = usually.

v. = vide.

Var. = Variant.

var. lect. = variatio lectionis.

Ven. = Venice.

vers. = version.

Vien. = Vienna.

w. = word.

Wil. = Wilna.

ws. = words.

Y. = Y’rushalmi (Palestinean Talmud).

Yad. = Yadayim (Mishnah and Tosefta).

Yalk. = Yalḳuṭ (Collectanea from Talmudim, Midrashim &c.).

Yeb. = Y’bamoth (Talmud).

Y’lamd. = Y’lamdenu (a lost book, corresponding to Tanḥuma, quoted in Arukh).

Zab. = Zabim (Mishnah and Tosefta).

Zakh. = Zakhor (a pericope in P’siḳta).

Zeb. = Z’baḥim (Talmud).

Zech. = Zechariah, Book of.

Zeph. = Zephaniah, Book of.

Zuck. = Zuckermandel, v. Tosef.

Zuckerm. = Zuckermann Talmudische Münzen und Gewichte, Breslau 1862.

By the designation ( Talmud) are meant Mishnah, Tosefta and G’mara of Talmud Babli and, eventually, Talmud Y’rushalmi. By (Mishnah and Tosefta) or (Mishnah, Tosefta, and Y’rushalmi) is meant a Talmudic treatise in the collection of Mishnah &c., to which no discussions in either G’mara or respectively in the Babylonian are extant.