איש. טעם ואשר יתן ממנו על זר. שאינו ממשפחת אהרן. אמר הגאון ז"ל קבלה היתה ביד ישראל שנמשח דוד וזרעו משמן המשחה לא מלכים אחרים. והוצרך לפרש ככה בעבור שלקח צדוק משמן המשחה שהיה באהל מועד ומשח בו את שלמה. ויפת אמר כי על זר שלא מבני ישראל. ולא דבר נכונה כי הנה והזר הקרב יומת. ופירש למען אשר לא יקרב איש זר אשר לא מזרע אהרן הוא. ואחרים אמדו על שמן המשחה שעשה משה גם זה איננו נראה בעיני כי בתחלה כתיב שמן משחת קדש יהיה זה לי לדורותיכם ועוד איש אשר ירקח כמוהו ואשר יתן מאותו שהוא כמוהו על זר. והנה אין הפרש בין שמן המשחה שעשה משה ובין הנעשה אח"כ שהוא כמוהו וחוץ ממשפחת דוד איננו כתוב. ולפי דעתי כי כל המצות אמת הם לדורות ישראל כמו שלא יעלו עולה רק במקום הנבחר. והנה גדעון ושמואל גם אליהו בהר הכרמל העלו עולות. והזכרתי גדעון בעבור שהעלה עולות ואינו כהן. גם כן שמואל כי לא יועיל אם היה מבני קרח. והנה הכל הוראת שעה. גם ככה נוכל לאמר בדברי שלמה. כי על הוראת שעה ביד נתן הנביא או גד. נמשח בשמן המשחה: WHOSOEVER. The meaning of or whosoever putteth any of it on a stranger (zar) is: or whosoever putteth any of it on someone who is not of Aaron’s family.146In other words, zar refers to someone not of Aaron’s family. Saadiah Gaon, of blessed memory, says that Israel had a tradition that David and his seed should be anointed with the anointing oil. Other kings were not to be so anointed. The Gaon was compelled to explain thus because Zadok147The high priest. took some of the anointing oil that was in the tent of meeting and used it to anoint Solomon.148See I Kings 1:39. Solomon was not a descendant of Aaron. Thus anointing him apparently violated the dictates of our verse. Hence Saadiah’s interpretation. Yefet says that on a stranger means on someone who is not an Israelite.149Hence it was possible to anoint Solomon with the anointing oil. However, he was mistaken, for Scripture states, and the stranger150Translated literally. (zar) that draweth nigh shall be put to death (Num. 3:10). The meaning of the latter is: To the end that no stranger (zar), that is not of the seed of Aaron, draw near (Num. 17:5).151We thus see, contra Yefet, that zar refers to anyone not of Aaron’s family. Also translated literally. Others say152Keritot 5a. So too Rashi. that this law153Whosoever putteth any of it on a stranger, he shall be cut off from his people. refers only to the oil made by Moses. However, this also does not appear to me to be correct. For Scripture first states, This shall be a holy anointing oil unto Me throughout your generations (v. 31).154The meaning of which according to I.E. is, oil later made according to this composition. See I.E. on verse 31. Furthermore, the Pentateuch states (v. 33), Whosoever, compoundeth any like it,155Like it indicates that Scripture speaks of a duplicate, and not the original anointing oil made by Moses. or whosoever putteth any of “a similarly compounded oil”156“A similarly compounded oil” is I.E.’s paraphrase of “it.” upon a stranger. Thus there is no difference between the anointing oil made by Moses and its duplicate which was made later. Scripture157I.E. now takes issue with Saadiah, who claims that whosoever putteth any of it on a stranger does not apply to the Davidic dynasty. does not state, “except for the family of David.”158Scripture does not state whosoever putteth any of it on a stranger with the exception of the house of David shall be cut off from his people. I believe that all the commandments are obligatory on all the generations of Israel.159Thus the law prohibiting a stranger to use the anointing oil applied to the house of David. The law stating that no burnt offering should be offered in any but the chosen place160Deut. 12:13,14. is an example.161Of a law which is eternally binding. This law was in effect in all generations. Nevertheless, we find that Gideon,162Jud. 6:20-24. Samuel,163I Sam. 7:9. and also Elijah at Mount Carmel164I Kings 8:23. brought burnt offerings.165Even though this violated the law prohibiting offerings to be brought outside of the chosen place. I mentioned Gideon166Who lived before the temple was built and thus could not have violated the law against offering sacrifices in any but the chosen place. I.E. accepts the Rabbinic opinion that Elijah was a priest. Hence he was not bothered by Elijah’s offering sacrifices. because he offered burnt offerings even though he was not a priest.167And thus was prohibited from offering burnt offerings. The same is true of Samuel.168He too was mentioned by I.E. because he offered burnt offerings even though he was not a priest. The fact that he was descended from Korah169Who was a Levite. See I Chron. 6:1-23. is of no avail. These acts were all based on temporary [ad hoc] rulings.170Hebrew, hora’at sha’ah. According to I.E. a prophet may temporarily suspend a law. We can say the same also with regard to Solomon. Solomon was anointed with the anointing oil on the temporary ruling of the prophet Nathan or Gad.