לָא, לְעוֹלָם יְמָמָא הוּא, וְהַאי דְּקָרוּ לֵיהּ ״לֵילְיָא״ — דְּאִיכָּא אִינָשֵׁי דְּגָנוּ בְּהַהִיא שַׁעְתָּא.
The Gemara answers: No, there is no contradiction. Actually, the time just before sunrise is considered day and the fact that it is referred to here as night is because there are people who are still asleep at that time and, if the need arises, it can be characterized as beshokhbekha [when you lie down] despite the fact that it is already day.
אָמַר רַבִּי אַחָא בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי: הֲלָכָה כְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן שֶׁאָמַר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. אָמַר רַבִּי זֵירָא: וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר ״הַשְׁכִּיבֵנוּ״.
Rabbi Aḥa, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon who said it in the name of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Zeira said: As long as he will not recite: Help us lie down [hashkivenu] as well, after reciting the evening Shema before sunrise, as the blessing: Help us lie down, is a prayer that we sleep in peace, which is inappropriate in the morning.
כִּי אֲתָא רַב יִצְחָק בַּר יוֹסֵף, אֲמַר: הָא דְּרַבִּי אַחָא בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי, לָאו בְּפֵירוּשׁ אִיתְּמַר, אֶלָּא מִכְּלָלָא אִיתְּמַר.
That is how the halakha was taught in the study hall. However, when Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef came to Babylonia from Eretz Yisrael, where Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi lived, he said that this ruling that Rabbi Aḥa, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said, was not said explicitly by Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. Rather, it was stated that he held that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon who said it in the name of Rabbi Akiva based on inference.
דְּהָהוּא זוּגָא דְּרַבָּנַן דְּאִשְׁתַּכּוּר בְּהִלּוּלָא דִּבְרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי. אֲתוֹ לְקַמֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי, אֲמַר: כְּדַאי הוּא רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן לִסְמוֹךְ עָלָיו בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק.
The incident was as follows: This pair of Sages got drunk at the wedding of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s son and fell asleep before reciting the evening Shema. By the time they awoke, dawn had already passed. They came before Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi and asked him if they could still recite the evening Shema. He said to them: Rabbi Shimon is worthy to rely upon in exigent circumstances. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi did not rule in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, and, in a case where there are no exigent circumstances, one may not rely on this ruling.
מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁבָּאוּ בָּנָיו וְכוּ׳:
The mishna relates that there was an incident where Rabban Gamliel’s sons returned very late from a wedding hall and they asked their father if they were permitted to recite Shema after midnight.
וְעַד הַשְׁתָּא לָא שְׁמִיעַ לְהוּ הָא דְּרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל?!
The Gemara asks: And until now, had they not heard this halakha of Rabban Gamliel? Were they unaware that he held that one is permitted to recite the evening Shema after midnight?
הָכִי קָאָמְרִי לֵיהּ: רַבָּנַן פְּלִיגִי עִילָּווֹךְ, וְיָחִיד וְרַבִּים, הֲלָכָה כְּרַבִּים, אוֹ דִּלְמָא רַבָּנַן כְּווֹתָךְ סְבִירָא לְהוּ, וְהַאי דְּקָאָמְרִי ״עַד חֲצוֹת״ — כְּדֵי לְהַרְחִיק אָדָם מִן הָעֲבֵירָה. אָמַר לְהוּ: רַבָּנָן כְּווֹתִי סְבִירָא לְהוּ, וְחַיָּיבִין אַתֶּם. וְהַאי דְּקָאָמְרִי ״עַד חֲצוֹת״ — כְּדֵי לְהַרְחִיק אָדָם מִן הָעֲבֵירָה.
The Gemara answers that Rabban Gamliel’s sons did not ask him his opinion. Rather, they said to him as follows: Do the Rabbis fundamentally disagree with you concerning this halakha, holding that Shema may be recited only until midnight? If so, when there is a disagreement between an individual Sage and many Sages, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the many, in which case we must, in practice, follow the opinion of the Rabbis. Or perhaps, do the Rabbis hold in accordance with your opinion that the time of the evening Shema extends throughout the night, and that which they say that it may only be recited until midnight is in order to distance a person from transgression? If the latter is true, then, when there are extenuating circumstances, one may recite the evening Shema after midnight. Rabban Gamliel replied to his sons: The Rabbis agree with me and you are still obligated to recite Shema. The Rabbis say that Shema may only be recited until midnight in order to distance a person from transgression, but, after the fact, even the Rabbis permit recitation after midnight.
וְלֹא זוֹ בִּלְבַד אָמְרוּ, אֶלָּא וְכוּ׳:
We learned in the mishna that Rabban Gamliel told his sons: And that is not only with regard to the halakha of the recitation of Shema, but, rather, wherever the Rabbis say until midnight, the mitzva may be performed until dawn.
וְרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל מִי קָאָמַר ״עַד חֲצוֹת״ דְּקָתָנֵי ״וְלֹא זוֹ בִּלְבַד אָמְרוּ״?
The Gemara questions the formulation of the mishna: Does Rabban Gamliel say until midnight, that he teaches: And not only did they say? Rabban Gamliel does not restrict the time for the recitation of Shema until midnight, so why does he say, and not only do they say, implying that he agrees with that stringency?
הָכִי קָאָמַר לְהוּ רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל לִבְנֵיהּ: אֲפִילּוּ לְרַבָּנַן דְּקָאָמְרִי ״עַד חֲצוֹת״, מִצְוָתָהּ עַד שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר. וְהַאי דְּקָא אָמְרִי עַד חֲצוֹת — כְּדֵי לְהַרְחִיק אָדָם מִן הָעֲבֵירָה.
The Gemara explains that this is what Rabban Gamliel said to his sons: Even according to the Rabbis, who say that the mitzva may be performed only until midnight, the biblical obligation to perform the mitzva continues until dawn, and that which they say that it may only be recited until midnight is in order to distance a person from transgression.
הֶקְטֵר חֲלָבִים וְכוּ׳.
In the mishna, Rabban Gamliel cites several cases where a mitzva may be performed until dawn; among them, the burning of fats and limbs on the altar.
וְאִילּוּ אֲכִילַת פְּסָחִים לָא קָתָנֵי.
The Gemara notes: In our mishna, the eating of the Paschal lamb was not taught among those mitzvot that may be performed until dawn, indicating that the mitzva of eating the Paschal lamb does not extend until dawn.
וּרְמִינְהִי: קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע עַרְבִית, וְהַלֵּל בְּלֵילֵי פְּסָחִים, וַאֲכִילַת פֶּסַח, מִצְוָתָן עַד שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר!
The Gemara raises a contradiction to this conclusion based on a baraita: The mitzvot of the recitation of the evening Shema, the recitation of hallel on the nights of Passover accompanying the sacrifice of the Paschal lamb, as well as eating the Paschal lamb, may all be performed until dawn.
אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף: לָא קַשְׁיָא: הָא רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, הָא רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. דְּתַנְיָא: ״וְאָכְלוּ אֶת הַבָּשָׂר בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה״, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה אוֹמֵר: נֶאֱמַר כָּאן ״בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה״, וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן: ״וְעָבַרְתִּי בְאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה״, מַה לְּהַלָּן עַד חֲצוֹת, אַף כָּאן עַד חֲצוֹת.
Rav Yosef said: This is not difficult as these two sources reflect two conflicting opinions. This, our mishna, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya. While this, the baraita, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva. As it was taught in a baraita with regard to the verse discussing the mitzva to eat the Paschal lamb: “And they shall eat of the meat on that night; roasted over fire and matzot with bitter herbs shall they eat it” (Exodus 12:8); Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: Here it is stated: “On that night,” from which we cannot determine when night ends. The same expression is encountered later in the same chapter: “And I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night and I will strike every firstborn in the land of Egypt, from person to animal” (Exodus 12:12). We know when the firstborns were struck down based on the verse “Thus said the Lord: At about midnight, I will go out into the midst of Egypt and every firstborn in Egypt shall die” (Exodus 11:4–5). Therefore, just as in the verse below, the striking of the firstborns took place until midnight, as stated explicitly in the verse, so too in the verse here, the mitzva to eat the Paschal lamb continues until midnight.
אָמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא: וַהֲלֹא כְּבָר נֶאֱמַר ״בְּחִפָּזוֹן״, עַד שְׁעַת חִפָּזוֹן. אִם כֵּן מָה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר ״בַּלַּיְלָה״?
Rabbi Akiva said to him: Was it not already said, “Thus you shall eat it, with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, your staffs in your hands and you will eat it in haste for it is the Paschal offering for the Lord” (Exodus 12:11)? Therefore the Paschal lamb may be eaten until the time of haste. Since the time of haste is when Israel left Egypt, and it is said, “You will not leave, every man from his house, until the morning,” then the Paschal lamb may be eaten until dawn. If that is so, why does the verse state: On that night?
יָכוֹל יְהֵא נֶאֱכָל כְּקָדָשִׁים בַּיּוֹם תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר ״בַּלַּיְלָה״, בַּלַּיְלָה הוּא נֶאֱכָל, וְלֹא בַּיּוֹם.
The Gemara explains that the phrase on that night is necessary because without it I might have thought that the Paschal lamb is eaten during the day, like all other sacrifices, which must all be slaughtered and eaten during the day. Therefore, the verse states: On that night, to underscore that this particular sacrifice is eaten at night and not during the day.
Essentially, the difference between these two opinions revolves around which word they deemed significant. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya considered the word night as the key word, while Rabbi Akiva considered the word haste as the key word. The Gemara begins to analyze their statements.
בִּשְׁלָמָא לְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה דְּאִית לֵיהּ גְּזֵירָה שָׁוָה, אִצְטְרִיךְ לְמִכְתַּב לֵיהּ ״הַזֶּה״. אֶלָּא לְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא הַאי ״הַזֶּה״ מַאי עָבֵיד לֵיהּ?
Granted, according to Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, who has the tradition of a verbal analogy between the phrase, on that night, with regard to the eating of the Paschal lamb and the phrase, on that night, with regard to the striking of the firstborn in Egypt, it was necessary for the verse to write “that” in order to indicate that these times are parallel. However, according to Rabbi Akiva, who has no such tradition, what does he do with “that”? Why is it necessary to emphasize on that night?
לְמַעוֹטֵי לַיְלָה אַחֵר הוּא דַּאֲתָא, סָלְקָא דַּעְתָּךְ אָמֵינָא: הוֹאִיל וּפֶסַח קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים, וּשְׁלָמִים קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים, מָה שְּלָמִים נֶאֱכָלִין לִשְׁנֵי יָמִים וְלַיְלָה אֶחָד — אַף פֶּסַח נֶאֱכָל שְׁתֵּי לֵילוֹת בִּמְקוֹם שְׁנֵי יָמִים, וִיהֵא נֶאֱכָל לִשְׁנֵי לֵילוֹת וְיוֹם אֶחָד. קָמַשְׁמַע לָן ״בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה״, בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה הוּא נֶאֱכָל וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל בְּלַיְלָה אַחֵר.
The Gemara answers: On that night comes to exclude another night, as one might otherwise have concluded that the Paschal lamb may be eaten for two nights. It would have entered your mind to say: Since the Paschal lamb falls into the category of sacrifices of lesser sanctity, and peace-offerings are also sacrifices of lesser sanctity, just as peace-offerings may be eaten for two days and one night, i.e., the day that they are sacrificed through the following day, as we learned in the Torah, so too the Paschal lamb may be eaten for two nights instead of two days. In other words, one might otherwise mistakenly conclude from its parallel to peace-offerings, that the Paschal lamb is to be eaten for two nights and the day between them. Therefore, the verse teaches us specifically on that night, i.e., on that night it is eaten, and it is not eaten on another night.
וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה
The Gemara asks: If so, from where does Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya derive that the Paschal lamb cannot be eaten for two nights?
מִ״לֹּא תוֹתִירוּ עַד בֹּקֶר״ נָפְקָא.
The Gemara answers: Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya derives this conclusion from the verse: “It should not remain until the morning” (Exodus 12:10). If one is prohibited from leaving over any part of the sacrifice until the morning, he is certainly prohibited from leaving it over until the following night. Therefore, it is unnecessary to cite an additional source to teach that the Paschal lamb may only be eaten on the first night.
וְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא — אִי מֵהָתָם, הֲוָה אָמֵינָא מַאי ״בֹּקֶר״ — בֹּקֶר שֵׁנִי.
And why does Rabbi Akiva require “that” to derive that the Paschal lamb may not be eaten on the second night? According to Rabbi Akiva, if it was derived from the verse: “It should not remain until the morning,” I would have said: What is the meaning of morning? It means the second morning, as the Torah does not specify until which morning the Paschal lamb may not be left; until the first morning or the second morning. Therefore, the Torah needed to write on that night and no other.
וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר לָךְ: כָּל ״בֹּקֶר״ — בֹּקֶר רִאשׁוֹן הוּא.
And what would Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya respond? He could have said to you: If it is not otherwise noted, every unmodified mention of the word morning in the Bible refers to the first, i.e., the next, morning. If that were not the case, no biblical text could have any definite meaning.
וְהָנֵי תַּנָּאֵי כְּהָנֵי תַּנָּאֵי. דְּתַנְיָא, ״שָׁם תִּזְבַּח אֶת הַפֶּסַח בָּעָרֶב כְּבוֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ מוֹעֵד צֵאתְךָ מִמִּצְרָיִם״.
Concerning the tannaitic dispute between Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya regarding until when the Paschal lamb may be eaten, the Gemara remarks: The dispute between these tanna’im is parallel to the dispute between those tanna’im, who disagree over the same issue. As it was taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: “There you will offer the Paschal lamb, in the evening when the sun sets at the time when you left the land of Egypt” (Deuteronomy 16:6). Upon closer examination, it seems that this verse mentions three distinct times: In the evening, refers to the afternoon until sunset; when the sun sets, refers to the time of sunset itself; and the time when you left the land of Egypt refers to, as explained in Exodus, the early hours of the morning. Therefore it seems that these times parallel the different stages of the mitzva of the Paschal lamb, and it is regarding these details that the tanna’im disagree.
רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר: ״בָּעֶרֶב״ אַתָּה זוֹבֵחַ, וּ״כְבוֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ״ אַתָּה אוֹכֵל, וּ״מוֹעֵד צֵאתְךָ מִמִּצְרָיִם״ אַתָּה שׂוֹרֵף. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר ״בָּעֶרֶב״ אַתָּה זוֹבֵחַ ״כְּבוֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ״ אַתָּה אוֹכֵל וְעַד מָתַי אַתָּה אוֹכֵל וְהוֹלֵךְ — עַד ״מוֹעֵד צֵאתְךָ מִמִּצְרָיִם״.
Rabbi Eliezer says: In the evening, the afternoon, you slaughter the sacrifice, from when the sun sets until midnight you eat it, and at the time when you left the land of Egypt you burn what remains from the sacrifice, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya.
Rabbi Yehoshua says: In the evening, the afternoon, you slaughter the sacrifice, from when the sun sets, you eat it. And until when do you continue eating? Until the time when you left the land of Egypt, meaning until morning, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva.
אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא: הַכֹּל מוֹדִים כְּשֶׁנִּגְאֲלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם, לֹא נִגְאֲלוּ אֶלָּא בָּעֶרֶב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״הוֹצִיאֲךָ ה׳ אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִמִּצְרַיִם לָיְלָה״, וּכְשֶׁיָּצְאוּ — לֹא יָצְאוּ אֶלָּא בַּיּוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״מִמָּחֳרַת הַפֶּסַח יָצְאוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּיָד רָמָה״.
The Gemara cites an alternative explanation of the dispute between Rabbi Elazer ben Azarya and Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Abba said: Everyone agrees that when the children of Israel were redeemed from Egypt were given permission to leave, they were redeemed only in the evening, as it is stated: “In the spring the Lord, your God, took you out from Egypt at night” (Deuteronomy 16:1). And when they actually left, they left only during the day, as it is stated: “On the fifteenth of the first month, on the day after the offering of the Paschal lamb, the children of Israel went out with a high hand before the eyes of Egypt” (Numbers 33:3), indicating that they actually went out during the day.
עַל מָה נֶחְלְקוּ — עַל שְׁעַת חִפָּזוֹן, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה סָבַר: מַאי ״חִפָּזוֹן״ — חִפָּזוֹן דְּמִצְרַיִם.
However, with regard to what did they disagree? They disagreed with regard to the time of haste, as it is written: “You will eat it in haste for it is the Paschal offering for the Lord” (Exodus 12:11). Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya held: What is the meaning of haste? It is the haste of the Egyptians at midnight, as they hurried to the houses of the people of Israel to send them away, in fear of the plague of the firstborn.
וְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא סָבַר: מַאי ״חִפָּזוֹן״ — חִפָּזוֹן דְּיִשְׂרָאֵל.
And Rabbi Akiva held: What is the meaning of haste? It is the haste of Israel in the morning, as they rushed to leave Egypt.
תַּנְיָא נָמֵי הָכִי: ״הוֹצִיאֲךָ ה׳ אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִמִּצְרַיִם לָיְלָה״: וְכִי בַּלַּיְלָה יָצְאוּ? וַהֲלֹא לֹא יָצְאוּ אֶלָּא בַּיּוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״מִמָּחֳרַת הַפֶּסַח יָצְאוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּיָד רָמָה״! אֶלָּא, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהִתְחִילָה לָהֶם גְּאוּלָּה מִבָּעֶרֶב.
Similar to Rabbi Abba’s statement, it was also taught in a baraita, regarding the verse: “The Lord, your God, took you out from Egypt at night,” the question arises: Did they leave at night? Didn’t they leave during the day, as it is stated: “On the day after the offering of the Paschal lamb, the children of Israel went out with a high hand”? Rather, this teaches that the redemption began for them in the evening.
״דַּבֶּר נָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם״ וְגוֹ׳. אָמְרִי דְּבֵי רַבִּי יַנַּאי: אֵין ״נָא״ אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן בַּקָּשָׁה, אָמַר לֵיהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמֹשֶׁה: בְּבַקָּשָׁה מִמְּךָ, לֵךְ וֶאֱמוֹר לָהֶם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל: בְּבַקָּשָׁה מִכֶּם, שַׁאֲלוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם כְּלֵי כֶסֶף וּכְלֵי זָהָב, שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר
Since the last topic discussed in the Gemara revolved around the exodus from Egypt, the Gemara cites additional aggadic midrash on that subject. With regard to the verse: “Speak, please [na] in the ears of the people, and they should borrow, every man from his fellow and every woman from her fellow, silver and gold vessels” (Exodus 11:2), the word please [na] is unclear. The students of the school of Rabbi Yannai said: Please [na] is nothing more than an expression of supplication. Why would God employ an expression of supplication in approaching Israel? The Gemara explains that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: I beseech you, go and tell Israel: I beseech you; borrow vessels of silver and vessels of gold from the Egyptians in order to fulfill the promise I made to Abraham in the “Covenant between the Pieces,” so that