וכולהו כתיבי באדרעיה:
in the phylacteries of the head, where there are four separate compartments. And all of the verses are written together on one parchment in the phylacteries of the arm, which has only one compartment.
אמר רבין בר רב אדא אמר רבי יצחק כל הרגיל לבא לבית הכנסת ולא בא יום אחד הקדוש ברוך הוא משאיל בו שנאמר מי בכם ירא ה׳ שמע בקול עבדו אשר הלך חשכים ואין נגה לו
Additionally, Ravin bar Rav Adda said that Rabbi Yitzḥak said: One who is accustomed to come to the synagogue and did not come one day, the Holy One, Blessed be He, asks about him, as it were, to determine what happened to him, as it is stated: “Who among you fears the Lord? Who hears the voice of His servant? Though he walks in darkness and has no light, let him trust in the name of the Lord, and rely upon his God” (Isaiah 50:10). In other words, God asks, who among you fears the Lord yet did not come to hear the voice of His servant the prayer leader, who engages in the service of God? He who went out before dawn and walks in darkness before prayer.
אם לדבר מצוה הלך נוגה לו ואם לדבר הרשות הלך אין נוגה לו
If it is for a matter involving a mitzva that he went and absented himself from prayer in the synagogue, then, despite the darkness, there is light for him, the aura of his mitzva will protect him. But if it is for an optional matter, some mundane purpose, that he went and absented himself from prayer in the synagogue, then, even once the day begins, there is no light for him (Maharsha).
יבטח בשם ה׳ מאי טעמא משום דהוה ליה לבטוח בשם ה׳ ולא בטח:
The verse continues: “Let him trust in the name of the Lord.” The Gemara asks: What is the reason that God is so exacting with this person? The Gemara answers: Because he should have relied on the name of the Lord, and trusted that he would not incur any loss if he postponed dealing with his mundane matters until after prayer in the synagogue, and he did not rely on God.
אמר רבי יוחנן בשעה שהקדוש ברוך הוא בא בבית הכנסת ולא מצא בה עשרה מיד הוא כועס שנאמר מדוע באתי ואין איש קראתי ואין עונה
On this same topic, Rabbi Yoḥanan said: When the Holy One, Blessed be He, enters a synagogue and does not find ten people there, He immediately becomes angry, as it is stated: “Why, when I came, was there no one? When I called, there was no one to answer…Behold, with My rebuke I dry up the sea, I make the rivers a wilderness” (Isaiah 50:2).
אמר רבי חלבו אמר רב הונא כל הקובע מקום לתפלתו אלהי אברהם בעזרו
Concerning another aspect of the constancy of prayer, Rabbi Ḥelbo said that Rav Huna said: One who sets a fixed place for his prayer, the God of Abraham assists him. Since prayer parallels the Temple service, it is a sign of respect to set a fixed place for this sacred rite (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto). The God of Abraham assists him because this pious custom evokes Abraham’s conduct.
וכשמת אומרים לו אי עניו אי חסיד מתלמידיו של אברהם אבינו
When he dies, those who eulogize one who set a fixed place for his prayer say about him: “Where is the humble one, where is the pious one, of the disciples of our father Abraham?” Presumably, one who sets a fixed place for prayer is a disciple of Abraham in every respect, including humility and piety (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto).
ואברהם אבינו מנא לן דקבע מקום דכתיב וישכם אברהם בבקר אל המקום אשר עמד שם ואין עמידה אלא תפלה שנאמר ויעמד פינחס ויפלל:
The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that Abraham our father set a fixed place for his prayer? The Gemara answers: As it is written: “And Abraham rose in the morning to the place where he had stood before God” (Genesis 19:27), and the verb “standing” means nothing other than prayer, as it is stated: “And Pinehas stood and prayed” (Psalms 106:30).
אמר רבי חלבו אמר רב הונא היוצא מבית הכנסת אל יפסיע פסיעה גסה אמר אביי לא אמרן אלא למיפק אבל למיעל מצוה למרהט שנאמר נרדפה לדעת את ה׳
Rabbi Ḥelbo said that Rav Huna said: One who leaves the synagogue should not take large strides because it creates the impression that he is eager to leave. Abaye explained Rav Huna’s statement and said: This halakha was only said with regard to leaving the synagogue, where large strides seem particularly disrespectful. However, with regard to entering a synagogue, it is a mitzva to run and one is permitted to rush and take large strides (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto). As it is said: “And let us know, eagerly strive to know the Lord” (Hosea 6:3). One who eagerly enters a synagogue displays his enthusiasm to follow the path of God.
אמר רבי זירא מריש כי הוה חזינא להו לרבנן דקא רהטי לפרקא בשבתא אמינא קא מחליין רבנן שבתא כיון דשמענא להא דרבי תנחום אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי לעולם ירוץ אדם לדבר הלכה ואפילו בשבת שנאמר אחרי ה׳ ילכו כאריה ישאג וגו׳ אנא נמי רהיטנא:
Rabbi Zeira said: Initially, when I saw the Sages running to the Rabbi’s lecture on Shabbat, I said: These Sages are desecrating Shabbat. One is prohibited from running on Shabbat in deference to the sanctity of the day. Once I heard that which Rabbi Tanḥum said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One should always run for a matter of halakha, even on Shabbat, as it is stated: “They shall walk after the Lord, who will roar like a lion” (Hosea 11:10). In other words, one should rush as though he were chased by a lion (Birkat Hashem), I too run.
אמר רבי זירא אגרא דפרקא רהטא
Rabbi Zeira said: The reward for attending the lecture is for running. Since most individuals attending the lecture did not fully understand the material taught, the primary reward for attendance was given for their intention to hear the Torah being taught, as evidenced by their rush to arrive.
אמר אביי אגרא דכלה דוחקא
Similarly, Abaye said: The reward for attending the kalla is for the crowding. Due to the large crowd, study was difficult, so the primary reward was given for their effort to hear and understand some part of the lecture.
אמר רבא אגרא דשמעתא סברא
Similarly, Rava said: The reward for learning the halakhic traditions of the amora’im is for the logical analysis, as the primary reward for studying Talmud was not given for knowing the halakhic conclusions, but for the logical reasoning that led to those conclusions.
אמר רב פפא אגרא דבי טמיא שתיקותא
Rav Pappa said: The primary reward for attending a house of mourning [bei tammaya] is for the silence, which is the optimal manner for those consoling the mourners to express their empathy.
אמר מר זוטרא אגרא דתעניתא צדקתא
Mar Zutra said: The primary reward for fasting is for the charity given to the poor on the fast day (see Isaiah 58).
אמר רב ששת אגרא דהספדא דלויי
Rav Sheshet said: The primary reward for delivering a eulogy is for causing those in attendance to raise their voices and cry, as that increases the grief over the deceased.
אמר רב אשי אגרא דבי הלולי מילי:
Rav Ashi said: The primary reward for participating in a wedding is for the words, i.e., the good wishes with which the guests regale the bride and groom.
אמר רב הונא כל המתפלל אחורי בית הכנסת נקרא רשע שנאמר סביב רשעים יתהלכון
Back to the topic of deference for a synagogue, the Gemara records that Rav Huna said: One who prays behind the synagogue is called wicked, as while the entire congregation is facing one direction to pray, he faces the opposite direction creating the impression that he is treating the synagogue and its congregation with contempt. As it is stated: “The wicked walk round about, when vileness is exalted among the sons of men” (Psalms 12:9). In other words, only the wicked walk round about the synagogue in order to pray.
אמר אביי לא אמרן אלא דלא מהדר אפיה לבי כנישתא אבל מהדר אפיה לבי כנישתא לית לן בה
Abaye said: This halakha was said only in a case where one does not turn his face toward the synagogue. But where he turns his face toward the synagogue and prays we have no prohibition in that case.
ההוא גברא דקא מצלי אחורי בי כנישתא ולא מהדר אפיה לבי כנישתא חלף אליהו חזייה אידמי ליה כטייעא אמר ליה כדו בר קיימת קמי מרך שלף ספסרא וקטליה
To reinforce the gravity of this prohibition, the Gemara relates: A certain individual prayed behind the synagogue and did not turn to face the synagogue. Elijah the Prophet passed by and appeared to him as an Arab [taya’a]. Elijah said: “This is how [kadu bar] you stand before your Master?” Elijah drew a sword and killed him.
אמר ליה ההוא מרבנן לרב ביבי בר אביי ואמרי לה רב ביבי לרב נחמן בר יצחק מאי כרם זלת לבני אדם
Rav Huna already explained the beginning of the verse, “The wicked walk round about.” The Gemara explains the end of the verse: “When vileness is exalted among the sons of men.” One of the Sages said to Rav Beivai bar Abaye, and some say Rav Beivai said to Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak: What is the meaning of: “When vileness is exalted among the sons of men”?
אמר ליה אלו דברים שעומדים ברומו של עולם ובני אדם מזלזלין בהן
He replied to: These are matters of utmost importance, exalted, i.e., mitzvot or prayer, which people nonetheless treat with contempt, vileness among the sons of men.
רבי יוחנן ורבי אלעזר דאמרי תרוייהו כיון שנצטרך אדם לבריות פניו משתנות ככרום שנאמר כרם זלת לבני אדם
Rabbi Yoḥanan and his student, Rabbi Elazar, both said an alternative explanation of this verse: Once a person needs the help of others and loses dignity in their eyes, vileness among the sons of men, his face changes and becomes like a kerum, as it is stated: “When [kerum] vileness is exalted among the sons of men.”
מאי כרום כי אתא רב דימי אמר עוף אחד יש בכרכי הים וכרום שמו וכיון שחמה זורחת מתהפך לכמה גוונין
What is kerum referred to by Rabbi Yoḥanan and Rabbi Elazar? When Rav Dimi came to Babylonia from Eretz Yisrael he said: There is a bird in the cities by the sea called kerum and when the sun rises, the bird changes several colors. Similarly, one who becomes dependent upon others blushes in embarrassment.
רבי אמי ורבי אסי דאמרי תרוייהו כאלו נדון בשני דינים אש ומים שנאמר הרכבת אנוש לראשנו באנו באש ובמים:
Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi both said: One who becomes dependent upon others, it is as if he was punished with two punishments: Fire and water. As it is stated: “You have caused men to ride over our heads; we have gone through fire and water” (Psalms 66:12).
ואמר רבי חלבו אמר רב הונא לעולם יהא אדם זהיר בתפלת המנחה שהרי אליהו לא נענה אלא בתפלת המנחה שנאמר ויהי בעלות המנחה ויגש אליהו הנביא ויאמר וגו׳ ענני ה׳ ענני
And Rabbi Ḥelbo said that Rav Huna said: One must always be vigilant with regard to the afternoon prayer, as Elijah’s prayer was only answered in the afternoon prayer, as it is stated: “And it was at the time of the afternoon offering that Elijah the Prophet came near, and he said: Lord, God of Abraham, Isaac and Israel, let it be known on this day that You are God in Israel, and that I am Your servant, and that I have done all these things at Your word. Answer me, Lord, answer me, that this people will know that You, Lord, are God” (I Kings 18:36–37). Because Elijah was answered in the afternoon prayer, it has particular significance.
ענני שתרד אש מן השמים וענני שלא יאמרו מעשה כשפים הם
In passing, the Gemara explains why it was necessary for Elijah to repeat, “answer me, Lord, answer me”: The first answer me was the request that fire descend from the heavens, while the second answer me was the request that Israel should accept complete faith in God and not say that the fire descending from the heavens was an act of sorcery.
רבי יוחנן אמר אף בתפלת ערבית שנאמר תכון תפלתי קטרת לפניך משאת כפי מנחת ערב רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר אף תפלת שחרית שנאמר ה׳ בקר תשמע קולי בקר אערך לך ואצפה:
Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One must be vigilant with regard to the evening prayer as well, as it is stated: “Let my prayer come forth as incense before You, the lifting of my hands as the evening offering” (Psalms 141:2).
Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: One must be vigilant with regard to the morning prayer as well, as it is stated: “Lord, in the morning You shall hear my voice; in the morning I will order my prayer unto You and will look forward” (Psalms 5:4).
ואמר רבי חלבו אמר רב הונא כל הנהנה מסעדת חתן ואינו משמחו עובר בחמשה קולות שנאמר קול ששון וקול שמחה קול חתן וקול כלה קול אומרים הודו את ה׳ צבאות
And Rabbi Ḥelbo said that Rav Huna said: Anyone who benefits from the feast of a groom but does not cause him to rejoice violates the five voices mentioned in this verse, as it is stated: “The voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the groom and the voice of the bride, and the voice of those who say: Give thanks to the Lord of hosts, for the Lord is good, for His mercy lasts forever, even of those who bring a thanks-offering to the house of the Lord. For I will restore the captivity of the land as it was in the beginning, says the Lord” (Jeremiah 33:11). These five voices in the context of a bride and groom correspond to the five voices mentioned in the context of the revelation at Sinai, as in Song of Songs, the day of the revelation at Sinai is alluded to by the phrase: His wedding day (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto, Maharsha).
ואם משמחו מה שכרו אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי זוכה לתורה שנתנה בחמשה קולות שנאמר ויהי ביום השלישי בהית הבקר ויהי קלת וברקים וענן כבד על ההר וקל שופר וגו׳ ויהי קול השפר וגו׳ והאלהים יעננו בקול
What is his reward if he causes the groom to rejoice? He is privileged to acquire the Torah, which was given with five voices, as it is stated: “And it was on the third day, when it was morning, there were sounds [kolot], and lightning and a thick cloud upon the mountain, and the voice of the shofar” (Exodus 19:16). The plural kolot indicates at least two sounds, while “the voice of the shofar” is one more. The passage continues: “And when the voice of the shofar grew louder and louder, Moses spoke and God answered him by a voice” (Exodus 19:19). Along with the three previous voices, the second shofar and the voice with which God answered Moses amount to a total of five voices at the revelation at Sinai.
איני והא כתיב וכל העם רואים את הקולות
The Gemara asks: Is this so? Isn’t it also written: “And the whole nation saw the voices and the torches and the sound of the shofar” (Exodus 20:15)? Clearly more than five voices are mentioned with regard to the revelation at Sinai.
אותן קולות דקודם מתן תורה הוו
The Gemara answers: Those voices were sounded prior to the giving of the Torah, so they are not included in this calculation of voices.
רבי אבהו אמר כאילו הקריב תודה שנאמר מבאים תודה בית ה׳ רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר כאילו בנה אחת מחורבות ירושלים שנאמר כי אשיב את שבות הארץ כבראשונה אמר ה׳:
Rabbi Abbahu said: The reward for causing a groom to rejoice is the same as if one had offered a thanks-offering in the Temple, for as it is stated later in the previously cited verse from Jeremiah: “Those who bring a thanks-offering to the house of the Lord.”
And Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The reward for causing a groom to rejoice is the same as if one rebuilt one of Jerusalem’s ruins, as it is stated later in the same verse: “For I will restore the captivity of the land as it was in the beginning.”
ואמר רבי חלבו אמר רב הונא כל אדם שיש בו יראת שמים דבריו נשמעין שנאמר סוף דבר הכל נשמע את האלהים ירא וגו׳
And Rabbi Ḥelbo said that Rav Huna said: Any person who has the fear of Heaven, his words are heeded, as it is stated: “The end of the matter, all having been heard: Fear God, and keep His commandments; for this is all of man” (Ecclesiastes 12:13). The Gemara explains: “The end of the matter, all having been heard,” refers to the words of one “who keeps His commandments; for this is all of man.”
מאי כי זה כל האדם אמר רבי אלעזר אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא כל העולם כלו לא נברא אלא בשביל זה
With regard to the end of this verse, the Gemara asks: What is meant by, “for this is all of man”? Rabbi Elazar said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said about him: The entire world was created only for this person. This is the ultimate person for which all of man was created.
רבי אבא בר כהנא אמר שקול זה כנגד כל העולם כולו רבי שמעון בן עזאי אומר ואמרי לה רבי שמעון בן זומא אומר כל העולם כולו לא נברא אלא לצוות לזה:
Rabbi Abba bar Kahana said: The end of this verse teaches that this is equivalent to the entire world, all of man.
Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai, and some say Rabbi Shimon ben Zoma, says: Not only is he the equivalent of the entire world, but the entire world was created to serve as companions for him, so that he would have a society in which to live and with which to interact.
ואמר רבי חלבו אמר רב הונא כל שיודע בחברו שהוא רגיל ליתן לו שלום יקדים לו שלום שנאמר בקש שלום ורדפהו ואם נתן לו ולא החזיר נקרא גזלן שנאמר ואתם בערתם הכרם גזלת העני בבתיכם:
And Rabbi Ḥelbo said that Rav Huna said: One who is aware that another person is accustomed to greet him is not only obligated to return his greeting, but he must greet him first, as it is stated: “Seek peace and pursue it” (Psalms 34:15). If the other person extended his greeting to him and he did not respond, he is called a robber, as it is stated: “It is you who have eaten up the vineyard, the spoils of the poor is in your houses” (Isaiah 3:14). The only way to steal from a pauper who owns nothing is to rob him of his dignity by refusing to return his greeting.