מָר סָבַר: אִם שָׁהָה כְּדֵי לִגְמוֹר אֶת כּוּלָּהּ — חוֹזֵר לָרֹאשׁ. וּמַר סָבַר: לְמָקוֹם שֶׁפָּסַק.
One Sage held that, as a rule, if one interrupted his prayer and delayed continuing his prayer for an interval sufficient to complete the entire prayer, he returns to the beginning of the prayer. And one Sage held: He returns to the place in the prayer where he stopped.
אָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי: הַאי ״אִם שָׁהָה״, אִם לֹא שָׁהָה מִיבְּעֵי לֵיהּ! אֶלָּא, דְּכוּלֵּי עָלְמָא אִם שָׁהָה כְּדֵי לִגְמוֹר אֶת כּוּלָּהּ — חוֹזֵר לָרֹאשׁ, וְהָתָם בִּדְלֹא שָׁהָה קָמִיפַּלְגִי, דְּמָר סָבַר גַּבְרָא דְחוּיָא הוּא, וְאֵין רָאוּי, וְאֵין תְּפִלָּתוֹ תְּפִלָּה. וּמַר סָבַר גַּבְרָא חַזְיָא הוּא, וּתְפִלָּתוֹ תְּפִלָּה.
Rejecting this possibility, Rav Ashi said: If that was the crux of their dispute, they should have discussed the element of: If he delayed, and: If he did not delay. Nowhere in their dispute do they mention the matter of how long the delay was for. Rather, everyone, both Rav Ḥisda and Rav Hamnuna, agrees that if one delayed continuing his prayer for an interval sufficient to complete the entire prayer, he returns to the beginning of the prayer. And there, in the dispute under discussion, they disagree with regard to one who did not delay that long. The dispute centers on the status of the one praying in this particular case. As one Sage holds that since he evidently needed to urinate before starting his prayer, he is a man who was disqualified, and unfit for prayer, and his prayer is not a valid prayer; therefore he must repeat it in its entirety. And one Sage holds he is a man who was fit for prayer and his prayer is a valid prayer.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: הַנִּצְרָךְ לִנְקָבָיו — אַל יִתְפַּלֵּל, וְאִם הִתְפַּלֵּל — תְּפִלָּתוֹ תּוֹעֵבָה. אָמַר רַב זְבִיד וְאִיתֵּימָא רַב יְהוּדָה: לֹא שָׁנוּ אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִשְׁהוֹת בְּעַצְמוֹ, אֲבָל אִם יָכוֹל לִשְׁהוֹת בְּעַצְמוֹ — תְּפִלָּתוֹ תְּפִלָּה.
The Sages taught in a baraita: One who needs to relieve himself may not pray, and if he prayed, his prayer is an abomination. Rav Zevid and some say Rav Yehuda said in qualifying this statement: They only taught this halakha in a case where one cannot restrain himself. But, if he can restrain himself, his prayer is a valid prayer as he is not tarnished by his need to relieve himself.
וְעַד כַּמָּה? אָמַר רַב שֵׁשֶׁת: עַד פַּרְסָה. אִיכָּא דְּמַתְנֵי לַהּ אַמַּתְנִיתָא: בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים — כְּשֶׁאֵין יָכוֹל לַעֲמוֹד עַל עַצְמוֹ. אֲבָל אִם יָכוֹל לַעֲמוֹד עַל עַצְמוֹ — תְּפִלָּתוֹ תְּפִלָּה. וְעַד כַּמָּה? אָמַר רַב זְבִיד: עַד פַּרְסָה.
The Gemara asks: And for how long must he be able to restrain himself? Rav Sheshet said: For as long as it takes to walk one parasang. Some teach this halakha directly on what was taught in the baraita: In what case is this statement said? Where he is unable to restrain himself, but if he is able to restrain himself, his prayer is a valid prayer. And for how long? Rav Zevid said: For as long as it takes to walk one parasang.
אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן: הַנִּצְרָךְ לִנְקָבָיו — הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִתְפַּלֵּל, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״הִכּוֹן לִקְרַאת אֱלֹהֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל״.
Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: One who needs to relieve himself may not pray, because it is stated: “Prepare to greet your God, O Israel” (Amos 4:12), and one must clear his mind of all distractions to prepare to receive the Lord during prayer.
וְאָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן: מַאי דִּכְתִיב: ״שְׁמוֹר רַגְלְךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר תֵּלֵךְ אֶל בֵּית הָאֱלֹהִים״? שְׁמוֹר עַצְמְךָ שֶׁלֹּא תֶּחְטָא, וְאִם תֶּחְטָא — הָבֵא קׇרְבָּן לְפָנַי. ״וְקָרוֹב לִשְׁמֹעַ דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים״, אָמַר רָבָא: הֱוֵי קָרוֹב לִשְׁמוֹעַ דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים, שֶׁאִם חוֹטְאִים מְבִיאִים קׇרְבָּן וְעוֹשִׂים תְּשׁוּבָה. ״מִתֵּת הַכְּסִילִים זָבַח״ — אַל תְּהִי כַּכְּסִילִים שֶׁחוֹטְאִים וּמְבִיאִים קׇרְבָּן, וְאֵין עוֹשִׂים תְּשׁוּבָה.
In this context, the Gemara cites an additional statement, which Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Guard your foot when you go to the house of God, and prepare to listen; it is better than when fools offer sacrifices, as they know not to do evil” (Ecclesiastes 4:17)? It means: When you enter the house of the Lord, guard yourself from transgression, and if you commit a transgression, bring a sacrifice before Me in atonement. The verse continues: “And draw near and listen to the words of the wise.” Rava said: Be prepared to hearken to the words of the wise, who, if they commit a transgression, they bring a sacrifice and repent. He interprets the next part of the verse: “It is better than when fools give sacrifices,” that one should not act like the fools who commit a transgression and bring a sacrifice but do not repent.
״כִּי אֵינָם יוֹדְעִים לַעֲשׂוֹת רָע״ אִי הָכִי צַדִּיקִים נִינְהוּ! אֶלָּא, אַל תְּהִי כַּכְּסִילִים שֶׁחוֹטְאִים וּמְבִיאִים קׇרְבָּן, וְאֵינָם יוֹדְעִים אִם עַל הַטּוֹבָה הֵם מְבִיאִים, אִם עַל הָרָעָה הֵם מְבִיאִים. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא: בֵּין טוֹב לְרַע אֵינָן מַבְחִינִים, וְהֵם מְבִיאִים קׇרְבָּן לְפָנַי?!
Regarding the end of the verse: “As they know not to do evil,” the Gemara asks: If so, they are righteous. Rather it must be understood: Do not be like the fools who commit a transgression and bring a sacrifice, but are unaware whether they are bringing it as a thanks-offering for the good, or as an offering of atonement for the evil. This is the meaning of the verse: “As they know not to do evil”; they know not if and when their actions are evil. With regard to those individuals, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: They cannot distinguish between good and evil and yet they bring a sacrifice before me?
רַב אָשֵׁי וְאִיתֵּימָא רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר פָּפָּא אָמַר: שְׁמוֹר נְקָבֶיךָ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאַתָּה עוֹמֵד בִּתְפִלָּה לְפָנַי.
Rav Ashi and some say Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said: Mind your orifices when you stand before me in prayer.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: הַנִּכְנָס לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא, חוֹלֵץ תְּפִילָּיו בְּרִחוּק אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, וְנִכְנָס. אָמַר רַב אַחָא בַּר רַב הוּנָא אָמַר רַב שֵׁשֶׁת: לֹא שָׁנוּ אֶלָּא בֵּית הַכִּסֵּא קָבוּעַ, אֲבָל בֵּית הַכִּסֵּא עֲרַאי — חוֹלֵץ, וְנִפְנֶה לְאַלְתַּר. וּכְשֶׁהוּא יוֹצֵא — מַרְחִיק אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, וּמַנִּיחָן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעֲשָׂאוֹ בֵּית הַכִּסֵּא קָבוּעַ.
The Sages taught: One who enters a bathroom must remove his phylacteries at a distance of four cubits and enter. Rav Aḥa bar Rav Huna said that Rav Sheshet said: This was only taught with regard to one entering a regular bathroom, but one who enters a makeshift bathroom may remove his phylacteries and defecate immediately. But when one exits from a makeshift bathroom, he must distance himself four cubits before donning his phylacteries because he has now rendered that place a regular bathroom.
אִיבַּעְיָא לְהוּ: מַהוּ שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס אָדָם בִּתְפִילִּין לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא קָבוּעַ לְהַשְׁתִּין מַיִם? רָבִינָא שָׁרֵי, רַב אַדָּא בַּר מַתְנָא אָסַר. אֲתוֹ שַׁיְילוּהּ לְרָבָא, אָמַר לְהוּ: אָסוּר — חָיְישִׁינַן שֶׁמָּא יִפָּנֶה בָּהֶן. וְאָמְרִי לַהּ, שֶׁמָּא יָפִיחַ בָּהֶן.
A dilemma was raised before the Sages in the yeshiva: What is the halakha; may one enter a regular bathroom wearing his phylacteries in order to urinate? The Sages disagreed: Ravina permitted to do so while Rav Adda bar Mattana prohibited it. They came and asked this of Rava. He said to them: It is forbidden because we are concerned lest he will come to defecate with them still on. Others say that this halakha is because we are concerned that, since he is already in the bathroom, he might forget that his phylacteries are on his head and will break wind with them still on him.
תַּנְיָא אִידַּךְ: הַנִּכְנָס לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא קָבוּעַ חוֹלֵץ תְּפִילָּיו בְּרִחוּק אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, וּמַנִּיחָן בַּחַלּוֹן הַסָּמוּךְ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְנִכְנָס. וּכְשֶׁהוּא יוֹצֵא — מַרְחִיק אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, וּמַנִּיחָן, דִּבְרֵי בֵּית שַׁמַּאי. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים: אוֹחֲזָן בְּיָדוֹ, וְנִכְנָס. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר: אוֹחֲזָן בְּבִגְדוֹ, וְנִכְנָס.
It was taught in another baraita: One who enters a regular bathroom must remove his phylacteries at a distance of four cubits, place them in the window in the wall of the bathroom adjacent to the public domain, and then enter. And when he exits, he must distance himself four cubits before donning them. This is the statement of Beit Shammai. Beit Hillel say: He must remove his phylacteries but he holds them in his hand and enters. Rabbi Akiva says: He holds them in his garment and enters.
בְּבִגְדוֹ סָלְקָא דַעְתָּךְ?! זִימְנִין מִישְׁתְּלֵי לְהוּ וְנָפְלִי! אֶלָּא אֵימָא: אוֹחֲזָן בְּבִגְדוֹ וּבְיָדוֹ, וְנִכְנָס.
The Gemara wonders: Does it enter your mind to say in his garment? There is room for concern because sometimes he forgets them and they fall. Rather, say: He holds them with his garment and in his hand and enters the bathroom. He holds the phylacteries in his hand and covers it with the garment.
וּמַנִּיחָם בַּחוֹרִין הַסְּמוּכִים לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא, וְלֹא יַנִּיחֵם בַּחוֹרִין הַסְּמוּכִים לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, שֶׁמָּא יִטְּלוּ אוֹתָם עוֹבְרֵי דְרָכִים, וְיָבֹא לִידֵי חֲשָׁד.
It was established in the baraita: And if there is room to place them, he places them in the holes adjacent to the bathroom, but he does not place them in the holes adjacent to the public domain, lest the phylacteries will be taken by passersby and he will come to be suspect.
וּמַעֲשֶׂה בְּתַלְמִיד אֶחָד שֶׁהִנִּיחַ תְּפִילָּיו בַּחוֹרִין הַסְּמוּכִים לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וּבָאת זוֹנָה אַחַת, וּנְטָלָתַן, וּבָאת לְבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ וְאָמְרָה: רָאוּ מַה נָּתַן לִי פְּלוֹנִי בִּשְׂכָרִי! כֵּיוָן שֶׁשָּׁמַע אוֹתוֹ תַּלְמִיד כָּךְ, עָלָה לְרֹאשׁ הַגָּג וְנָפַל וָמֵת. בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁיְּהֵא אוֹחֲזָן בְּבִגְדוֹ וּבְיָדוֹ, וְנִכְנָס.
And an incident occurred involving a student who placed his phylacteries in the holes adjacent to the public domain, and a prostitute passed by and took the phylacteries. She came to the study hall and said: See what so-and-so gave me as my payment. When that student heard this, he ascended to the rooftop and fell and died. At that moment they instituted that one should hold them with his garment and in his hand and enter to avoid situations of that kind.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ מַנִּיחִין תְּפִילִּין בַּחוֹרִין הַסְּמוּכִים לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא, וּבָאִין עַכְבָּרִים וְנוֹטְלִין אוֹתָן. הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁיְּהוּ מַנִּיחִין אוֹתָן בַּחַלּוֹנוֹת הַסְּמוּכוֹת לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים; וּבָאִין עוֹבְרֵי דְרָכִים וְנוֹטְלִין אוֹתָן. הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁיְּהֵא אוֹחֲזָן בְּיָדוֹ וְנִכְנָס.
The Sages taught in a baraita on this topic: At first, they would place the phylacteries in the holes adjacent to the bathroom, and mice would come and take them or gnaw upon them. Therefore, they instituted that they should place them in the holes adjacent to the public domain, where there were no mice. However, passersby would come and take the phylacteries. Ultimately, they instituted that one should hold the phylacteries in his hand and enter.
אָמַר רַבִּי מְיָאשָׁא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי: הֲלָכָה, גּוֹלְלָן כְּמִין סֵפֶר, וְאוֹחֲזָן בִּימִינוֹ כְּנֶגֶד לִבּוֹ. אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף בַּר מִנְיוֹמֵי אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן: וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא תְּהֵא רְצוּעָה יוֹצֵאת מִתַּחַת יָדוֹ טֶפַח.
On this topic, Rabbi Meyasha, son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, said: The halakha in this case is that one rolls up the phylacteries in their straps like a scroll, and holds them in his hand opposite his heart. Rav Yosef bar Manyumi said that Rav Naḥman said: This is provided that the strap of the phylacteries does not emerge more than a handbreadth below his hand.
אָמַר רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר אַחָא אָמַר רַבִּי זֵירָא: לֹא שָׁנוּ אֶלָּא שֶׁיֵּשׁ שְׁהוּת בְּיוֹם לְלׇבְשָׁן, אֲבָל אֵין שְׁהוּת בְּיוֹם לְלׇבְשָׁן — עוֹשֶׂה לָהֶן כְּמִין כִּיס טֶפַח, וּמַנִּיחָן.
Rabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa said that Rabbi Zeira said: It was only taught that one rolls up his phylacteries when there is still time left in the day to don them. If there is not time left in the day to don them before nightfall, when phylacteries are not donned, he makes a one-handbreadth pouch of sorts for them and he places them in it.
אָמַר רַבָּה בַּר בַּר חָנָה אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: בַּיּוֹם גּוֹלְלָן כְּמִין סֵפֶר וּמַנִּיחָן בְּיָדוֹ כְּנֶגֶד לִבּוֹ, וּבַלַּיְלָה עוֹשֶׂה לָהֶן כְּמִין כִּיס טֶפַח, וּמַנִּיחָן.
Similarly, Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: During the day one rolls up the phylacteries like a scroll and places them in his hand opposite his heart, and at night he makes a one-handbreadth pouch of sorts for them and he places them in it.
אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: לֹא שָׁנוּ אֶלָּא בִּכְלִי שֶׁהוּא כִּלְיָין, אֲבָל בִּכְלִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ כִּלְיָין, אֲפִילּוּ פָּחוֹת מִטֶּפַח.
Abaye said: They only taught that it must be a one-handbreadth pouch with regard to a vessel that is the phylacteries’ regular vessel, but in a vessel that is not their regular vessel, he may place the phylacteries in it, even if it is less than a handbreadth.
אָמַר מָר זוּטְרָא, וְאִיתֵּימָא רַב אָשֵׁי: תֵּדַע שֶׁהֲרֵי פַּכִּין קְטַנִּים מַצִּילִין בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת.
Mar Zutra and, some say, Rav Ashi, said as proof for that distinction: The laws of impurity state that only a space of at least a handbreadth can serve as a barrier to prevent the spread of impurity imparted by a corpse. Nevertheless, small sealed vessels less than a handbreadth in size protect their contents from ritual impurity even if they are inside a tent over a corpse. This proves that even a space smaller than a handbreadth can serve as a barrier before impurity.
אָמַר רַבָּה בַּר בַּר חָנָה: כִּי הֲוָה אָזְלִינַן בָּתְרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, כִּי הֲוָה בָּעֵי לְמֵיעַל לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא כִּי הֲוָה נָקֵיט סִפְרָא דְאַגָּדְתָּא — הֲוָה יָהֵיב לַן, כִּי הֲוָה נָקֵיט תְּפִילִּין — לָא הֲוָה יָהֵיב לַן, אָמַר: הוֹאִיל וּשְׁרוֹנְהוּ רַבָּנַן —
Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: When we would walk after Rabbi Yoḥanan, we would see that when he sought to enter the bathroom while holding a book of aggada, he would give it to us. When he was holding phylacteries, he would not give them to us, as he said: Since the Sages permitted to hold them,