Berakhot 23aברכות כ״ג א
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23aכ״ג א

מר סבר אם שהה כדי לגמור את כולה חוזר לראש ומר סבר למקום שפסק

One Sage held that, as a rule, if one interrupted his prayer and delayed continuing his prayer for an interval sufficient to complete the entire prayer, he returns to the beginning of the prayer. And one Sage held: He returns to the place in the prayer where he stopped.

אמר רב אשי האי אם שהה אם לא שהה מיבעי ליה אלא דכולי עלמא אם שהה כדי לגמור את כולה חוזר לראש והתם בדלא שהה קמיפלגי דמר סבר גברא דחויא הוא ואין ראוי ואין תפלתו תפלה ומר סבר גברא חזיא הוא ותפלתו תפלה

Rejecting this possibility, Rav Ashi said: If that was the point of their dispute, they should not have simply issued a ruling in a case: If he delayed. They should have also addressed a case if he did not delay as well as discussing the length of the delay. Rather, everyone, both Rav Ḥisda and Rav Hamnuna, agrees that if one delayed continuing his prayer for an interval sufficient to complete the entire prayer, he returns to the beginning of the prayer. And there, in the dispute under discussion, they disagreed with regard to one who did not delay that long. The dispute deals with his particular predicament. As one Sage held: He is a man who is disqualified and unfit, and his prayer is not a valid prayer; therefore he must repeat it in its entirety. And one Sage held: He is a man who is fit and his prayer is a valid prayer.

תנו רבנן הנצרך לנקביו אל יתפלל ואם התפלל תפלתו תועבה אמר רב זביד ואיתימא רב יהודה לא שנו אלא שאינו יכול לשהות בעצמו אבל אם יכול לשהות בעצמו תפלתו תפלה

The Sages taught in a baraita: One who needs to relieve himself may not pray, and if he prayed, his prayer is an abomination. Rav Zevid and some say Rav Yehuda said in qualifying this statement: They only taught this halakha in a case where one cannot restrain himself. But, if he can restrain himself, his prayer is a valid prayer as he is not tarnished by his need to relieve himself.

ועד כמה אמר רב ששת עד פרסה איכא דמתני לה אמתניתא במה דברים אמורים כשאין יכול לעמוד על עצמו אבל אם יכול לעמוד על עצמו תפלתו תפלה ועד כמה אמר רב זביד עד פרסה

The Gemara asks: And for how long must he be able to restrain himself? Rav Sheshet said: For as long as it takes to walk one parasang. Some teach this halakha directly on what was taught in the baraita: In what case is this statement said? Where he is unable to restrain himself, but if he is able to restrain himself, his prayer is a valid prayer. And for how long? Rav Zevid said: For as long as it takes to walk one parasang.

אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן הנצרך לנקביו הרי זה לא יתפלל משום שנאמר הכון לקראת אלהיך ישראל

Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: One who needs to relieve himself may not pray, because it is stated: “Prepare to greet your God, O Israel” (Amos 4:12), and one must clear his mind of all distractions to prepare to receive the Lord during prayer.

ואמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מאי דכתיב שמור רגלך כאשר תלך אל בית האלהים שמור עצמך שלא תחטא ואם תחטא הבא קרבן לפני וקרוב לשמע דברי חכמים אמר רבא הוי קרוב לשמוע דברי חכמים שאם חוטאים מביאים קרבן ועושים תשובה מתת הכסילים זבח אל תהי ככסילים שחוטאים ומביאים קרבן ואין עושים תשובה

In this context, the Gemara cites an additional statement, which Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Guard your foot when you go to the house of God, and prepare to listen; it is better than when fools offer sacrifices, as they know not to do evil” (Ecclesiastes 4:17)? It means: When you enter the house of the Lord, guard yourself from transgression, and if you commit a transgression, bring a sacrifice before Me in atonement. The verse continues: “And draw near and listen to the words of the wise.” Rava said: Be prepared to hearken to the words of the wise, who, if they commit a transgression, they bring a sacrifice and repent. He interprets the next part of the verse: “It is better than when fools give sacrifices,” that one should not act like the fools who commit a transgression and bring a sacrifice but do not repent.

כי אינם יודעים לעשות רע אי הכי צדיקים נינהו אלא אל תהי ככסילים שחוטאים ומביאים קרבן ואינם יודעים אם על הטובה הם מביאים אם על הרעה הם מביאים אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא בין טוב לרע אינן מבחינים והם מביאים קרבן לפני

Regarding the end of the verse: “As they know not to do evil,” the Gemara asks: If so, they are righteous. Rather it must be understood: Do not be like the fools who commit a transgression and bring a sacrifice, but are unaware whether they are bringing it as a thanks-offering for the good, or as an offering of atonement for the evil. This is the meaning of the verse: “As they know not to do evil”; they know not if and when their actions are evil. With regard to those individuals, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: They cannot distinguish between good and evil and yet they bring a sacrifice before me?

רב אשי ואיתימא רבי חנינא בר פפא אמר שמור נקביך בשעה שאתה עומד בתפלה לפני

Rav Ashi and some say Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said: Mind your orifices when you stand before me in prayer.

תנו רבנן הנכנס לבית הכסא חולץ תפיליו ברחוק ארבע אמות ונכנס אמר רב אחא בר רב הונא אמר רב ששת לא שנו אלא בית הכסא קבוע אבל בית הכסא עראי חולץ ונפנה לאלתר וכשהוא יוצא מרחיק ארבע אמות ומניחן מפני שעשאו בית הכסא קבוע

The Sages taught: One who enters a bathroom must remove his phylacteries at a distance of four cubits and enter. Rav Aḥa bar Rav Huna said that Rav Sheshet said: This was only taught with regard to one entering a regular bathroom, but one who enters a makeshift bathroom may remove his phylacteries and defecate immediately. But when one exits from a makeshift bathroom, he must distance himself four cubits before donning his phylacteries because he has now rendered that place a regular bathroom.

איבעיא להו מהו שיכנס אדם בתפילין לבית הכסא קבוע להשתין מים רבינא שרי רב אדא בר מתנא אסר אתו שיילוה לרבא אמר להו אסור חיישינן שמא יפנה בהן ואמרי לה שמא יפיח בהן

A dilemma was raised before the Sages in the yeshiva: What is the halakha; may one enter a regular bathroom wearing his phylacteries in order to urinate? The Sages disagreed: Ravina permitted to do so while Rav Adda bar Mattana prohibited it. They came and asked this of Rava. He said to them: It is forbidden because we are concerned lest he will come to defecate with them still on. Others say that this halakha is because we are concerned that, since he is already in the bathroom, he might forget that his phylacteries are on his head and will break wind with them still on him.

תניא אידך הנכנס לבית הכסא קבוע חולץ תפיליו ברחוק ארבע אמות ומניחן בחלון הסמוך לרשות הרבים ונכנס וכשהוא יוצא מרחיק ארבע אמות ומניחן דברי בית שמאי ובית הלל אומרים אוחזן בידו ונכנס רבי עקיבא אומר אוחזן בבגדו ונכנס

It was taught in another baraita: One who enters a regular bathroom must remove his phylacteries at a distance of four cubits, place them in the window in the wall of the bathroom adjacent to the public domain, and then enter. And when he exits, he must distance himself four cubits before donning them. This is the statement of Beit Shammai. Beit Hillel say: He must remove his phylacteries but he holds them in his hand and enters. Rabbi Akiva says: He holds them in his garment and enters.

בבגדו סלקא דעתך זימנין מישתלי להו ונפלי אלא אימא אוחזן בבגדו ובידו ונכנס

The Gemara wonders: Does it enter your mind to say in his garment? There is room for concern because sometimes he forgets them and they fall. Rather, say: He holds them with his garment and in his hand and enters the bathroom. He holds the phylacteries in his hand and covers it with the garment.

ומניחם בחורין הסמוכים לבית הכסא ולא יניחם בחורין הסמוכים לרשות הרבים שמא יטלו אותם עוברי דרכים ויבא לידי חשד

It was established in the baraita: And if there is room to place them, he places them in the holes adjacent to the bathroom, but he does not place them in the holes adjacent to the public domain, lest the phylacteries will be taken by passersby and he will come to be suspect.

ומעשה בתלמיד אחד שהניח תפיליו בחורין הסמוכים לרשות הרבים ובאת זונה אחת ונטלתן ובאת לבית המדרש ואמרה ראו מה נתן לי פלוני בשכרי כיון ששמע אותו תלמיד כך עלה לראש הגג ונפל ומת באותה שעה התקינו שיהא אוחזן בבגדו ובידו ונכנס

And an incident occurred involving a student who placed his phylacteries in the holes adjacent to the public domain, and a prostitute passed by and took the phylacteries. She came to the study hall and said: See what so-and-so gave me as my payment. When that student heard this, he ascended to the rooftop and fell and died. At that moment they instituted that one should hold them with his garment and in his hand and enter to avoid situations of that kind.

תנו רבנן בראשונה היו מניחין תפילין בחורין הסמוכים לבית הכסא ובאין עכברים ונוטלין אותן התקינו שיהו מניחין אותן בחלונות הסמוכות לרשות הרבים ובאין עוברי דרכים ונוטלין אותן התקינו שיהא אוחזן בידו ונכנס

The Sages taught in a baraita on this topic: At first, they would place the phylacteries in the holes adjacent to the bathroom, and mice would come and take them or gnaw upon them. Therefore, they instituted that they should place them in the holes adjacent to the public domain, where there were no mice. However, passersby would come and take the phylacteries. Ultimately, they instituted that one should hold the phylacteries in his hand and enter.

אמר רבי מיאשא בריה דרבי יהושע בן לוי הלכה גוללן כמין ספר ואוחזן בימינו כנגד לבו אמר רב יוסף בר מניומי אמר רב נחמן ובלבד שלא תהא רצועה יוצאת מתחת ידו טפח

On this topic, Rabbi Meyasha, son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, said: The halakha in this case is that one rolls up the phylacteries in their straps like a scroll, and holds them in his hand opposite his heart. Rav Yosef bar Manyumi said that Rav Naḥman said: This is provided that the strap of the phylacteries does not emerge more than a handbreadth below his hand.

אמר רבי יעקב בר אחא אמר רבי זירא לא שנו אלא שיש שהות ביום ללבשן אבל אין שהות ביום ללבשן עושה להן כמין כיס טפח ומניחן

Rabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa said that Rabbi Zeira said: It was only taught that one rolls up his phylacteries when there is still time left in the day to don them. If there is not time left in the day to don them before nightfall, when phylacteries are not donned, he makes a one-handbreadth pouch of sorts for them and he places them in it.

אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן ביום גוללן כמין ספר ומניחן בידו כנגד לבו ובלילה עושה להן כמין כיס טפח ומניחן

Similarly, Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: During the day one rolls up the phylacteries like a scroll and places them in his hand opposite his heart, and at night he makes a one-handbreadth pouch of sorts for them and he places them in it.

אמר אביי לא שנו אלא בכלי שהוא כליין אבל בכלי שאינו כליין אפילו פחות מטפח

Abaye said: They only taught that it must be a one-handbreadth pouch with regard to a vessel that is the phylacteries’ regular vessel, but in a vessel that is not their regular vessel, he may place the phylacteries in it, even if it is less than a handbreadth.

אמר מר זוטרא ואיתימא רב אשי תדע שהרי פכין קטנים מצילין באהל המת

Mar Zutra and, some say, Rav Ashi, said as proof for that distinction: The laws of impurity state that only a space of at least a handbreadth can serve as a barrier to prevent the spread of impurity imparted by a corpse. Nevertheless, small sealed vessels less than a handbreadth in size protect their contents from ritual impurity even if they are inside a tent over a corpse. This proves that even a space smaller than a handbreadth can serve as a barrier before impurity.

אמר רבה בר בר חנה כי הוה אזלינן בתריה דרבי יוחנן כי הוה בעי למיעל לבית הכסא כי הוה נקיט ספרא דאגדתא הוה יהיב לן כי הוה נקיט תפילין לא הוה יהיב לן אמר הואיל ושרונהו רבנן

Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: When we would walk after Rabbi Yoḥanan, we would see that when he sought to enter the bathroom while holding a book of aggada, he would give it to us. When he was holding phylacteries, he would not give them to us, as he said: Since the Sages permitted to hold them,