וּבַפְּרָקִים — שׁוֹאֵל מִפְּנֵי הַכָּבוֹד וּמֵשִׁיב שָׁלוֹם לְכׇל אָדָם.
And at the breaks between the paragraphs one may greet due to respect and respond with a greeting to any person. And if that is the case, the mishna is no longer difficult.
תַּנְיָא נָמֵי הָכִי: הַקּוֹרֵא אֶת שְׁמַע וּפָגַע בּוֹ רַבּוֹ אוֹ גָּדוֹל הֵימֶנּוּ, בַּפְּרָקִים — שׁוֹאֵל מִפְּנֵי הַכָּבוֹד וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁהוּא מֵשִׁיב, וּבָאֶמְצַע — שׁוֹאֵל מִפְּנֵי הַיִּרְאָה וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁהוּא מֵשִׁיב. דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: בָּאֶמְצַע — שׁוֹאֵל מִפְּנֵי הַיִּרְאָה וּמֵשִׁיב מִפְּנֵי הַכָּבוֹד, וּבַפְּרָקִים — שׁוֹאֵל מִפְּנֵי הַכָּבוֹד וּמֵשִׁיב שָׁלוֹם לְכׇל אָדָם.
The Gemara remarks: This version of the dispute was also taught in a baraita: One who is reciting Shema and happens upon his teacher or one who is greater than he, at the breaks between the paragraphs he may greet him due to respect and, needless to say, he may respond. And in the middle of each paragraph, he may greet another due to fear and, needless to say, he may respond. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: In the middle of each paragraph one may greet due to fear and respond due to respect. And in the breaks between the paragraphs one may greet due to respect and respond with a greeting to any person. The proposed additions to the mishna appear in the version of the dispute cited in the baraita.
בְּעָא מִינֵּיהּ אַחַי תַּנָּא דְבֵי רַבִּי חִיָּיא מֵרַבִּי חִיָּיא: בְּהַלֵּל וּבַמְגִילָּה מַהוּ שֶׁיַּפְסִיק? אָמְרִינַן קַל וָחוֹמֶר: קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע דְּאוֹרָיְיתָא — פּוֹסֵק, הַלֵּל דְּרַבָּנַן מִבַּעְיָא?! אוֹ דִלְמָא פַּרְסוֹמֵי נִיסָּא עֲדִיף.
Aḥai, the tanna who recited mishnayot in the school of Rabbi Ḥiyya, raised a dilemma before Rabbi Ḥiyya: May one interrupt during the recitation of hallel and the reading of the Megilla, Esther, to greet someone? Do we say that it is an a fortiori inference; if in the middle of Shema, which is a biblical obligation, one may interrupt in order to greet someone, all the more so, in the middle of hallel, which is a rabbinic obligation, one may interrupt? Or, perhaps, publicizing the miracle is more significant, so one may not interrupt hallel or the Megilla at all.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ: פּוֹסֵק, וְאֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם. אָמַר רַבָּה: יָמִים שֶׁהַיָּחִיד גּוֹמֵר בָּהֶן אֶת הַהַלֵּל, בֵּין פֶּרֶק לְפֶרֶק פּוֹסֵק, בְּאֶמְצַע הַפֶּרֶק — אֵינוֹ פּוֹסֵק, וְיָמִים שֶׁאֵין הַיָּחִיד גּוֹמֵר בָּהֶן אֶת הַהַלֵּל — אֲפִילּוּ בְּאֶמְצַע הַפֶּרֶק פּוֹסֵק.
Rabbi Ḥiyya said to him: One interrupts and it is of no concern. Rabba said: On days when the individual completes the entire hallel, i.e., the days on which there is a rabbinic obligation to recite hallel, an individual may interrupt between one paragraph and another; however, one may not interrupt in the middle of the paragraph. On days where the individual does not complete the entire hallel, i.e., days on which the recitation of hallel is merely a custom, not a rabbinic obligation, one may interrupt even in the middle of the paragraph.
אִינִי?! וְהָא רַב בַּר שְׁבָא אִיקְּלַע לְגַבֵּיהּ דְּרָבִינָא, וְיָמִים שֶׁאֵין הַיָּחִיד גּוֹמֵר אֶת הַהַלֵּל הֲוָה, וְלָא פְּסֵיק לֵיהּ!
The Gemara questions this: It that so? Didn’t Rav bar Shaba once happen to come before Ravina on one of the days when the individual does not complete the entire hallel, and Ravina did not interrupt his recitation of hallel to greet him?
שָׁאנֵי רַב בַּר שְׁבָא דְּלָא חֲשִׁיב עֲלֵיהּ דְּרָבִינָא.
The Gemara responds: The case of Rav bar Shaba is different, as Rav bar Shaba was not considered important to Ravina. That is the reason that he did not interrupt his recitation of hallel to greet him.
בְּעָא מִינֵּיהּ אַשְׁיָאן תַּנָּא דְבֵי רַבִּי אַמֵּי מֵרַבִּי אַמֵּי: הַשָּׁרוּי בְּתַעֲנִית מַהוּ שֶׁיִּטְעוֹם? אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה קַבֵּיל עֲלֵיהּ — וְהָא לֵיכָּא. אוֹ דִילְמָא: הֲנָאָה קַבֵּיל עֲלֵיהּ — וְהָא אִיכָּא.
Having mentioned the dilemma raised by one of those who recite the mishnayot in the study hall, the Gemara cites that Ashyan, the tanna who recited mishnayot in the school of Rabbi Ami, raised a dilemma before Rabbi Ami: May one who is fasting taste the food that he is preparing to determine if it spiced properly? Did he accept upon himself to refrain from eating and drinking, and that is not eating and drinking; it is merely tasting? Or, perhaps, he accepted upon himself to refrain from deriving pleasure from food, and that is pleasure when he tastes.
אָמַר לֵיהּ: טוֹעֵם וְאֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם. תַּנְיָא נָמֵי הָכִי: מַטְעֶמֶת אֵינָהּ טְעוּנָה בְּרָכָה, וְהַשָּׁרוּי בְּתַעֲנִית טוֹעֵם וְאֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם.
Rabbi Ami said to him: He tastes and it is of no concern. This was also taught in a baraita: Tasting a cooked dish does not require a blessing beforehand, and one who is fasting may taste and it is of no concern.
The Gemara asks: How much may one who is fasting taste?
רַבִּי אַמֵּי וְרַבִּי אַסִּי טָעֲמִי עַד שִׁיעוּר רְבִיעֲתָא.
The Gemara responds: When Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi would fast, they would taste up to a quarter of a log.
אָמַר רַב: כָּל הַנּוֹתֵן שָׁלוֹם לַחֲבֵירוֹ קוֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל כְּאִילּוּ עֲשָׂאוֹ בָּמָה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״חִדְלוּ לָכֶם מִן הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר נְשָׁמָה בְּאַפּוֹ כִּי בַמֶּה נֶחְשָׁב הוּא״. אַל תִּקְרֵי, ״בַּמֶּה״ אֶלָּא ״בָּמָה״.
Rav said: Anyone who greets another person in the morning before he prayed, it is as if he built an altar for idol worship, as it is stated: “Cease you from man, in whose nostrils there is breath, for how little is he to be accounted” (Isaiah 2:22). When one’s soul is breathed in through his nostrils in the morning (ge’onim) he should turn to no one other than God. And do not read it as it is written, bameh, how; but rather, read bama, altar.
וּשְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר: בַּמֶּה חֲשַׁבְתּוֹ לָזֶה וְלֹא לָאֱלוֹהַּ?
And Shmuel said: The word bameh should not be taken in anything other than its literal connotation. The verse must therefore be understood: How did you consider him so significant, that you gave him priority and not God? Certainly you should have honored God first.
מֵתִיב רַב שֵׁשֶׁת: בַּפְּרָקִים שׁוֹאֵל מִפְּנֵי הַכָּבוֹד וּמֵשִׁיב!
Rav Sheshet raises an objection: We learned in our mishna that in the breaks between the paragraphs one may greet an individual due to respect, and respond to another’s greeting due to respect, despite the fact that the recitation of Shema precedes the Amida prayer.
תַּרְגְּמַהּ רַבִּי אַבָּא: בְּמַשְׁכִּים לְפִתְחוֹ.
Rabbi Abba explained this: The prohibition against greeting another in the morning refers specifically to when one sets out early to greet him at his door. If one simply happens to encounter another person, he is permitted to greet him.
אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹנָה אָמַר רַבִּי זֵירָא: כָּל הָעוֹשֶׂה חֲפָצָיו קוֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל — כְּאִלּוּ בָּנָה בָּמָה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ ״בָּמָה״ אָמְרַתְּ? אָמַר לְהוּ: לָא, ״אָסוּר״ קָא אָמֵינָא.
With regard to this same verse, Rabbi Yona said that Rabbi Zeira said: Anyone who tends to his own affairs before he prays, it is as though he built an altar. They said to Rabbi Yona: Did you say that it was as if one built an altar? Rabbi Yona responded to them: No; I said simply that it is prohibited.
(וְכִדְרַב אִידִי בַּר אָבִין דְּאָמַר) רַב אִידִי בַּר אָבִין אָמַר רַב יִצְחָק בַּר אַשְׁיָאן: אָסוּר לוֹ לָאָדָם לַעֲשׂוֹת חֲפָצָיו קוֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״צֶדֶק לְפָנָיו יְהַלֵּךְ וְיָשֵׂם לְדֶרֶךְ פְּעָמָיו״.
And as Rav Idi bar Avin said that Rav Yitzḥak bar Ashyan said: A person is prohibited to attend to his own affairs before he prays, as it is stated: “Righteousness shall go before Him, and shall make His footsteps on a path” (Psalms 85:14). One should first pray and acknowledge the righteousness of his Creator, and only then should he set out on his way.
וְאָמַר רַב אִידִי בַּר אָבִין אָמַר רַב יִצְחָק בַּר אַשְׁיָאן: כָּל הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל וְאַחַר כָּךְ יוֹצֵא לַדֶּרֶךְ, הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה לוֹ חֲפָצָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״צֶדֶק לְפָנָיו יְהַלֵּךְ וְיָשֵׂם לְדֶרֶךְ פְּעָמָיו״.
And, Rav Idi bar Avin said that Rav Yitzḥak bar Ashyan said: Anyone who first prays and only then sets out on his way, the Holy One, Blessed be He, tends to his affairs, as it is stated: “Righteousness shall go before Him, and shall make His footsteps on a path.” God will set righteousness before him and satisfy all his wishes, when he sets out on his way.
וְאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹנָה אָמַר רַבִּי זֵירָא: כָּל הַלָּן שִׁבְעַת יָמִים בְּלֹא חֲלוֹם נִקְרָא ״רַע״, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְשָׂבֵעַ יָלִין בַּל יִפָּקֶד רָע״, אַל תִּקְרֵי ״שָׂבֵעַ״ אֶלָּא ״שֶׁבַע״.
Having mentioned his name, the Gemara tangentially cites what Rabbi Yona said that Rabbi Zeira said: One who goes seven nights without a dream, is called evil, as it is stated: “He who has it will abide satisfied [save’a], he will not be visited by evil” (Proverbs 19:23). Rabbi Yona reinterprets the verse: Do not read save’a, satisfied, but sheva, seven. One who sleeps for seven nights without being visited by a dream, is called evil.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַב אַחָא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא: הָכִי אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּיא אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: כָּל הַמַּשְׂבִּיעַ עַצְמוֹ מִדִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה וְלָן — אֵין מְבַשְּׂרִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשׂוֹרוֹת רָעוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְשָׂבֵעַ יָלִין בַּל יִפָּקֶד רָע״.
Rav Aḥa, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said to him: Rabbi Ḥiyya said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said as follows: Anyone who fills himself with matters of Torah and goes to sleep, they do not deliver evil tidings to him, as it is stated: “He who lies satisfied, will not be visited by evil.”
אֵלּוּ הֵן בֵּין הַפְּרָקִים וְכוּ׳.
We learned in the mishna: These are the breaks between the paragraphs at which one is permitted to interrupt under certain circumstances. According to the first tanna, one may interrupt between the last paragraph of Shema and the blessing that follows it, but Rabbi Yehuda prohibits this.
אָמַר רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: הֲלָכָה כְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה דְּאָמַר בֵּין ״אֱלֹהֵיכֶם״ לֶ״אֱמֶת וְיַצִּיב״ לֹא יַפְסִיק. אָמַר רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: מַאי טַעְמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה — דִּכְתִיב:
Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda who said that one may not interrupt between eloheikhem and emet veyatziv. Furthermore, Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: What is the reason for Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion? This phrase evokes the verse as it is written: