Berakhot 14aברכות י״ד א
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ובפרקים שואל מפני הכבוד ומשיב שלום לכל אדם

And at the breaks between the paragraphs one may greet due to respect and respond with a greeting to any person. And if that is the case, the mishna is no longer difficult.

תניא נמי הכי הקורא את שמע ופגע בו רבו או גדול הימנו בפרקים שואל מפני הכבוד ואין צריך לומר שהוא משיב ובאמצע שואל מפני היראה ואין צריך לומר שהוא משיב דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה אומר באמצע שואל מפני היראה ומשיב מפני הכבוד ובפרקים שואל מפני הכבוד ומשיב שלום לכל אדם

The Gemara remarks: This version of the dispute was also taught in a baraita: One who is reciting Shema and happens upon his teacher or one who is greater than he, at the breaks between the paragraphs he may greet him due to respect and, needless to say, he may respond. And in the middle of each paragraph, he may greet another due to fear and, needless to say, he may respond. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: In the middle of each paragraph one may greet due to fear and respond due to respect. And in the breaks between the paragraphs one may greet due to respect and respond with a greeting to any person. The proposed additions to the mishna appear in the version of the dispute cited in the baraita.

בעא מיניה אחי תנא דבי רבי חייא מרבי חייא בהלל ובמגילה מהו שיפסיק אמרינן קל וחומר קריאת שמע דאורייתא פוסק הלל דרבנן מבעיא או דלמא פרסומי ניסא עדיף

Aḥai, the tanna who recited mishnayot in the school of Rabbi Ḥiyya, raised a dilemma before Rabbi Ḥiyya: May one interrupt during the recitation of hallel and the reading of the Megilla, Esther, to greet someone? Do we say that it is an a fortiori inference; if in the middle of Shema, which is a biblical obligation, one may interrupt in order to greet someone, all the more so, in the middle of hallel, which is a rabbinic obligation, one may interrupt? Or, perhaps, publicizing the miracle is more significant, so one may not interrupt hallel or the Megilla at all.

אמר ליה פוסק ואין בכך כלום אמר רבה ימים שהיחיד גומר בהן את ההלל בין פרק לפרק פוסק באמצע הפרק אינו פוסק וימים שאין היחיד גומר בהן את ההלל אפילו באמצע הפרק פוסק

Rabbi Ḥiyya said to him: One interrupts and it is of no concern. Rabba said: On days when the individual completes the entire hallel, i.e., the days on which there is a rabbinic obligation to recite hallel, an individual may interrupt between one paragraph and another; however, one may not interrupt in the middle of the paragraph. On days where the individual does not complete the entire hallel, i.e., days on which the recitation of hallel is merely a custom, not a rabbinic obligation, one may interrupt even in the middle of the paragraph.

איני והא רב בר שבא איקלע לגביה דרבינא וימים שאין היחיד גומר את ההלל הוה ולא פסיק ליה

The Gemara questions this: It that so? Didn’t Rav bar Shaba once happen to come before Ravina on one of the days when the individual does not complete the entire hallel, and Ravina did not interrupt his recitation of hallel to greet him?

שאני רב בר שבא דלא חשיב עליה דרבינא:

The Gemara responds: The case of Rav bar Shaba is different, as Rav bar Shaba was not considered important to Ravina. That is the reason that he did not interrupt his recitation of hallel to greet him.

בעי מיניה אשיאן תנא דבי רבי אמי מרבי אמי השרוי בתענית מהו שיטעום אכילה ושתיה קביל עליה והא ליכא או דילמא הנאה קביל עליה והא איכא

Having mentioned the dilemma raised by one of those who recite the mishnayot in the study hall, the Gemara cites that Ashyan, the tanna who recited mishnayot in the school of Rabbi Ami, raised a dilemma before Rabbi Ami: May one who is fasting taste the food that he is preparing to determine if it spiced properly? Did he accept upon himself to refrain from eating and drinking, and that is not eating and drinking; it is merely tasting? Or, perhaps, he accepted upon himself to refrain from deriving pleasure from food, and that is pleasure when he tastes.

אמר ליה טועם ואין בכך כלום תניא נמי הכי מטעמת אינה טעונה ברכה והשרוי בתענית טועם ואין בכך כלום

Rabbi Ami said to him: He tastes and it is of no concern. This was also taught in a baraita: Tasting a cooked dish does not require a blessing beforehand, and one who is fasting may taste and it is of no concern.

עד כמה

The Gemara asks: How much may one who is fasting taste?

רבי אמי ורבי אסי טעמי עד שיעור רביעתא:

The Gemara responds: When Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi would fast, they would taste up to a quarter of a log.

אמר רב כל הנותן שלום לחבירו קודם שיתפלל כאילו עשאו במה שנאמר חדלו לכם מן האדם אשר נשמה באפו כי במה נחשב הוא אל תקרי במה אלא במה

Rav said: Anyone who greets another person in the morning before he prayed, it is as if he built an altar for idol worship, as it is stated: “Cease you from man, in whose nostrils there is breath, for how little is he to be accounted” (Isaiah 2:22). When one’s soul is breathed in through his nostrils in the morning (ge’onim) he should turn to no one other than God. And do not read it as it is written, bameh, how; but rather, read bama, altar.

ושמואל אמר במה חשבתו לזה ולא לאלוה

And Shmuel said: The word bameh should not be taken in anything other than its literal connotation. The verse must therefore be understood: How did you consider him so significant, that you gave him priority and not God? Certainly you should have honored God first.

מתיב רב ששת בפרקים שואל מפני הכבוד ומשיב

Rav Sheshet raises an objection: We learned in our mishna that in the breaks between the paragraphs one may greet an individual due to respect, and respond to another’s greeting due to respect, despite the fact that the recitation of Shema precedes the Amida prayer.

תרגמה רבי אבא במשכים לפתחו

Rabbi Abba explained this: The prohibition against greeting another in the morning refers specifically to when one sets out early to greet him at his door. If one simply happens to encounter another person, he is permitted to greet him.

אמר רבי יונה אמר רבי זירא כל העושה חפציו קודם שיתפלל כאלו בנה במה אמרו לו במה אמרת אמר להו לא אסור קא אמינא

With regard to this same verse, Rabbi Yona said that Rabbi Zeira said: Anyone who tends to his own affairs before he prays, it is as though he built an altar. They said to Rabbi Yona: Did you say that it was as if one built an altar? Rabbi Yona responded to them: No; I said simply that it is prohibited.

וכדרב אידי בר אבין דאמר רב אידי בר אבין אמר רב יצחק בר אשיאן אסור לו לאדם לעשות חפציו קודם שיתפלל שנאמר צדק לפניו יהלך וישם לדרך פעמיו

And as Rav Idi bar Avin said that Rav Yitzḥak bar Ashyan said: A person is prohibited to attend to his own affairs before he prays, as it is stated: “Righteousness shall go before Him, and shall make His footsteps on a path” (Psalms 85:14). One should first pray and acknowledge the righteousness of his Creator, and only then should he set out on his way.

ואמר רב אידי בר אבין אמר רב יצחק בר אשיאן כל המתפלל ואחר כך יוצא לדרך הקדוש ברוך הוא עושה לו חפציו שנאמר צדק לפניו יהלך וישם לדרך פעמיו:

And, Rav Idi bar Avin said that Rav Yitzḥak bar Ashyan said: Anyone who first prays and only then sets out on his way, the Holy One, Blessed be He, tends to his affairs, as it is stated: “Righteousness shall go before Him, and shall make His footsteps on a path.” God will set righteousness before him and satisfy all his wishes, when he sets out on his way.

ואמר רבי יונה אמר רבי זירא כל הלן שבעת ימים בלא חלום נקרא רע שנאמר ושבע ילין בל יפקד רע אל תקרי שבע אלא שבע

Having mentioned his name, the Gemara tangentially cites what Rabbi Yona said that Rabbi Zeira said: One who goes seven nights without a dream, is called evil, as it is stated: “He who has it will abide satisfied [save’a], he will not be visited by evil” (Proverbs 19:23). Rabbi Yona reinterprets the verse: Do not read save’a, satisfied, but sheva, seven. One who sleeps for seven nights without being visited by a dream, is called evil.

אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרבי חייא בר אבא הכי אמר רבי חייא אמר רבי יוחנן כל המשביע עצמו מדברי תורה ולן אין מבשרין אותו בשורות רעות שנאמר ושבע ילין בל יפקד רע:

Rav Aḥa, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said to him: Rabbi Ḥiyya said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said as follows: Anyone who fills himself with matters of Torah and goes to sleep, they do not deliver evil tidings to him, as it is stated: “He who lies satisfied, will not be visited by evil.”

אלו הן בין הפרקים וכו׳:

We learned in the mishna: These are the breaks between the paragraphs at which one is permitted to interrupt under certain circumstances. According to the first tanna, one may interrupt between the last paragraph of Shema and the blessing that follows it, but Rabbi Yehuda prohibits this.

אמר רבי אבהו אמר רבי יוחנן הלכה כרבי יהודה דאמר בין אלהיכם לאמת ויציב לא יפסיק אמר רבי אבהו אמר רבי יוחנן מאי טעמיה דרבי יהודה דכתיב

Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda who said that one may not interrupt between eloheikhem and emet veyatziv. Furthermore, Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: What is the reason for Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion? This phrase evokes the verse as it is written: