Mishnah Zevachim 14.6 משנה זבחים
A red heifer that was burned outside outside of the olive mount and similarly the goat sent to azazel that was offered outside the temple, does not make one liable as it says (Leviticus 17) "and to the opening of the mishkan he did not bring it" anything which is not fit to be brought in the mishkan, one is not liable [for offering it outside]. פרת חטאת ששרפה חוץ מגתה, וכן שעיר המשתלח שהקריבו בחוץ, פטור, שנאמר (ויקרא יז), ואל פתח אהל מועד לא הביאו, כל שאינו ראוי לבוא אל פתח אהל מועד, אין חיבין עליו. One who offers outside the temple an animal that slept with a man or a woman, or that was set aside for idolitry or that was worshiped, or used as a harlot's fee or as a dog's exchange or as a cross-breed or a treifah or born through Cesarean section is exempt as it says (Leviticus 17) "Before the mishkan" anything which is not fit to be brought in the mishkan he is not liable for. Blemished animals, whether a passing or permanent blemish, that he offered outside the temple, he is exempt. Rabbi Shimon says permanently blemished animals are exempt but animals with passing blemishes he violates a negative commandment [if he offers them outside]. Turtledoves that have not yet reached their proper age, and pigeons that have past their age which he offered outside he is exempt. Rabbi Shimon says for pigeons past their time he is exempt, but for turtledoves that have not yet reached their proper age he violates a negative commandment. An animal and its child or one which has not reached its appropriate age [8 days] he is exempt [for offering outside]. Rabbi Shimon says, in this case he violates a negative commandment, as Rabbi Shimon says, anything which is able to be brought after a certain time he violates a negative commandment but does not get Kareit [for offering it outside], but the sages say, anything for which he is not liable for Kareit, he does not violate a negative commandment. הרובע, והנרבע, והמקצה, והנעבד, והאתנן, והמחיר, והכלאים, והטרפה, ויוצא דפן, שהקריבן בחוץ, פטור, שנאמר (ויקרא יז), לפני משכן ה', כל שאינו ראוי לבוא לפני משכן ה' , אין חיבין עליו.בעלי מומין, בין בעלי מומין קבועים בין בעלי מומין עוברים שהקריבן בחוץ, פטור.רבי שמעון אומר, בעלי מומין קבועים, פטור.ובעלי מומין עוברין, עוברין בלא תעשה.תורים שלא הגיע זמנן ובני יונה שעבר זמנן שהקריבן בחוץ, פטור.רבי שמעון אומר, בני יונה שעבר זמנן, פטור.ותורים שלא הגיע זמנן, בלא תעשה.אותו ואת בנו ומחסר זמן, פטור.רבי שמעון אומר, הרי זה בלא תעשה, שהיה רבי שמעון אומר, כל שהוא ראוי לבוא לאחר זמן, הרי זה בלא תעשה ואין בו כרת, וחכמים אומרים, כל שאין בו כרת, אין בו בלא תעשה . Someone who detracted time [from when he was supposed to sacrifice, i.e. he did it too early] - whether [because of] itself or [because of] its owner. Which cases are those who detracted time [because of] its owner? The zav and zavah [who experience a abnormal discharge], a woman who gave birth, a leprous person, if they sacrifice their sin offerings and guilt-offerings [too early] outside [the Temple], they are exempt. But their burnt offerings and their peace-offerings slaughtered outside [the Temple] they would be liable. One who offers up meat of a sin-offering, meat of a guilt-offering, meat of a high-holy offering, meat from a less-holy offering [different types of offering are in different categories of holiness], or [he offered] the extras of the Omer offering, or the two loaves [of Shavuot], or the shewbread [of every Sabbath], or the leftovers of the mincha-offerings, or one who pours [oil onto a mincha offering], or one who mixes [the flour with the oil], or one who breaks [the mincha-offering into four pieces after it is made], or one who salts [a sacrifice], or one who waves [the offering required for certain sacrifices], or one who [took the mincha-offering closer to the corner of the altar], or one who sets the table [in the Temple], or one who readies the Menorah, or one who takes [the required amount of] flour [for the mincha-offering], and one who receives the blood [of the offering] outside [the Temple] - he is exempt. He is not liable because of not being of the priestly class, nor because he was impure, nor because he lacked the [appropriate] attire, nor because he had not washed his hands and feet. מחסר זמן, בין בגופו בין בבעליו.איזה הוא מחסר זמן בבעליו, הזב, והזבה, ויולדת, ומצורע , שהקריבו חטאתם ואשמם בחוץ, פטורין.עולותיהן ושלמיהן בחוץ, חיבין.המעלה מבשר חטאת, מבשר אשם, מבשר קדשי קדשים, מבשר קדשים קלים, ומותר העמר, ושתי הלחם, ולחם הפנים, ושירי מנחות, היוצק, הבולל, הפותת, המולח, המניף, המגיש, המסדר את השלחן, והמטיב את הנרות, והקומץ, והמקבל דמים בחוץ, פטור.אין חיבין עליו לא משום זרות , ולא משום טמאה , ולא משום מחסר בגדים , ולא משום רחוץ ידים ורגלים. Before the mishkan was set up, personal alters were permitted and the service was performed by the first born. Once the mishkan was set up, personal alters were forbidden and the service was performed by the priests. High level sanctity offerings were eaten inside the curtains and lesser sanctity offerings were eaten in the entire camp of Israel. עד שלא הוקם המשכן, היו הבמות מתרות, ועבודה בבכורות.משהוקם המשכן, נאסרו הבמות, ועבודה בכהנים.קדשי קדשים, נאכלים לפנים מן הקלעים.קדשים קלים, בכל מחנה ישראל. Once they [the mishkan] came to Gilgal personal alters were permitted again. High-level sanctity offerings were eaten only inside the curtains and lesser-level sanctity offerings were eaten in any place. באו לגלגל והתרו הבמות.קדשי קדשים, נאכלים לפנים מן הקלעים.קדשים קלים, בכל מקום. When they came to Shiloh, the altars [outside the Temple] were forbidden [to sacrifice animals on]. [The temple there] had no top, but a structure of stone underneath, and curtains over it. It was [considered] "a settled place" [as referenced in (Deuteronomy 12:9)]. The high-holy sacrifices were eating with the hangings [in a curtained courtyard], and the less-holy sacrifices and the second tithes could be eaten anywhere one could see [the temple at Shiloh]. באו לשילה נאסרו הבמות.לא היה שם תקרה, אלא בית של אבנים מלמטן ויריעות מלמעלן, והיא היתה מנוחה.קדשי קדשים נאכלים לפנים מן הקלעים.קדשים קלים ומעשר שני, בכל הרואה. When they came to Nov and Givon, they permitted altars [outside the Temple, which would be forbidden when they were settled in Israel]. The high-holy sacrifices were eating behind the hangings [within a curtained courtyard], and the less-holy sacrifices were eaten in all Israelite cities. באו לנוב ולגבעון התרו הבמות.קדשי קדשים נאכלים לפנים מן הקלעים.קדשים קלים, בכל ערי ישראל . When they came to Jerusalem, they forbade the altars [outside the Temple]. It was never permitted for them ever again, it was an [eternally] inherited [prohibition]. The high-holy sacrifices were eaten behind the hangings [within a curtained courtyard], and the less-holy sacrifices, and the second tithes, [were eaten] within the walls [of Jerusalem]. באו לירושלים נאסרו הבמות, ולא היה להם עוד התר, והיא היתה נחלה .קדשי קדשים, נאכלים לפנים מן הקלעים .קדשים קלים ומעשר שני לפנים מן החומה . All sacrifices consecrated when the altars [outside the Temple] are prohibited, and [people nevertheless] sacrifices when the altars are [still] prohibited, this is [a violation of] a positive commandment and a negative commandment, and [these sacrifices] cause them to get excision [karet]. If they were consecrated while the altars [outside the Temple] were permitted, and they were sacrificed in the time that the altars were prohibited [outside the Temple], this is [also a violation] of a positive commandment and a negative commandment, and [these sacrifices] cause him to get karet. If they were consecrated while the altars [outside the Temple] were prohibited, and they were sacrificed in the time that the altars were permitted [outside the Temple], this is [a violation of] a positive commandment, but not of a negative commandment. כל הקדשים שהקדישן בשעת אסור במות והקריבן בשעת אסור במות בחוץ, הרי אלו בעשה ולא תעשה, וחיבין עליהן כרת.הקדישן בשעת התר במות, והקריבן בשעת אסור במות, הרי אלו בעשה ולא תעשה, ואין חיבין עליהן כרת.הקדישן בשעת אסור במות והקריבן בשעת התר במות, הרי אלו בעשה ואין בהם בלא תעשה. These are the sacrifices that must be sacrifices in the Mishkan [Tabernacle]: Sacrifices consecrated [specifically] for the Mishkan, [that is] communal sacrifices, are sacrificed in the Mishkan. Private sacrifices, that can be done on an altar. Private sacrifices that were consecrated [specifically] for the Mishkan, are sacrificed in the Mishkan. And if he sacrifices [instead] on an altar, he is exempt. What differentiates an altar of a private individual and the altar of the community? Leaning [on the animal before slaughtering is not required for the altar but is for the Mishkan], slaughtering it [towards] the north [of the altar, which is not required for the altar], giving a circle [of blood only around the altar of in the Mishkan and not the other altar], waving [the sacrifice in certain cases, which is not required of a private sacrifice at the altar], bringing near [the mincha offering which is required for the Mishkan offering]. Rabbi Yehudah says, The Mincha cannot be done at an altar, and the priestly class [is unnecessary for a private offering at an altar], and the serving attire [of the priests is unnecessary for a private offering at an altar], and the serving vessels [which are holy, and are not necessary at a private offering at an altar], and [the requirement for a] pleasant smell [coming from the sacrifice is unnecessary for a private offering at an altar], and washing hands and feet [is unnecessary for a private offering at an altar]. But they are the same [in terms of being forbidden] if [the person offering made a mistake regarding] the time [he was supposed to eat it], or he left it over [past the time it was supposed to be eaten], or he was impure. אלו קדשים קרבין במשכן, קדשים שהקדשו למשכן.קרבנות הצבור, קרבין במשכן.וקרבנות היחיד, בבמה.קרבנות היחיד שהקדשו למשכן, יקרבו במשכן.ואם הקריבן בבמה, פטור.מה בין במת יחיד לבמת צבור.סמיכה, ושחיטת צפון, ומתן סביב, ותנופה, והגשה.רבי יהודה אומר, אין מנחה בבמה, וכהון, ובגדי שרת, וכלי שרת, וריח ניחוח, ומחיצה בדמים, ורחוץ ידים ורגלים.אבל הזמן , והנותר , והטמא, שוין בזה ובזה.
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