Mishnah Zevachim 14:2 משנה זבחים
[If] a red heifer was burned outside of its specific spot [on the Mount of Olives], and similarly [if] the [special] goat sent away [to the desert wilderness outside of Jerusalem on Yom Kippur] was offered outside [the Temple precincts], [these acts] do not make one liable, as it says (Leviticus 17:4) "And to the opening of the Ohel Moed [tent of meeting] he did not bring it" [if] something is not fit to be brought to the door of the Ohel Moed, one is not liable [for offering it outside]. פרת חטאת ששרפה חוץ מגתה, וכן שעיר המשתלח שהקריבו בחוץ, פטור, שנאמר (ויקרא יז) ואל פתח אהל מועד לא הביאו. כל שאינו ראוי לבוא אל פתח אהל מועד, אין חיבין עליו. [If] one offered outside [the Temple precincts] an animal that had relations with a woman, or with whom a man had relations, or that was designated for idolatry, or which was worshiped, or that was used to pay a prostitute, or which was exchanged for a dog, or was a mixed breed, or was a Terefah [an animal with a mortal condition such that it will die within one year], or an animal born through Caesarean section, he is exempt as it says (Leviticus 17:4) "Before the Mishkan [Tabernacle]", one is not liable for anything which is not fit to be brought in the Mishkan. [If one offered outside] blemished animals he is exempt, regardless of whether they had a permanent blemish or a temporary blemish. Rabbi Shimon says: One is exempt [for offering outside] permanently blemished animals, but he violates a negative commandment [by offering outside an animal with] a temporary blemish. One is exempt for offering outside turtle-doves that are not yet old enough [to be sacrificed] or pigeons that are too old [to be sacrificed]. Rabbi Shimon says: One is exempt for pigeons that are too old, but he violates a negative commandment [by offering outside] turtle-doves that are not yet old enough. One is exempt [for offering outside] an animal and its young [on the same day], or for [offering an animal] which is not old enough [being not yet eight days old]. Rabbi Shimon says: These are [violations] of negative commandments, for Rabbi Shimon was wont to say: One [violates] a negative commandment for anything which may be brought after a certain time, but one [is not punished with] Karet [excision at the hands of Heaven]; but the Sages say, anything for which one is not subject to Karet, one [also is not considered to have violated] a negative commandment. הרובע, והנרבע, והמקצה, והנעבד, והאתנן, והמחיר, והכלאים, והטרפה, ויוצא דפן שהקריבן בחוץ, פטור, שנאמר (ויקרא יז) לפני משכן ה', כל שאינו ראוי לבוא לפני משכן ה' אין חיבין עליו. בעלי מומין, בין בעלי מומין קבועים בין בעלי מומין עוברים שהקריבן בחוץ, פטור. רבי שמעון אומר: בעלי מומין קבועים פטור, ובעלי מומין עוברין עוברין בלא תעשה. תורים שלא הגיע זמנן, ובני יונה שעבר זמנן שהקריבן בחוץ, פטור. רבי שמעון אומר: בני יונה שעבר זמנן פטור, ותורים שלא הגיע זמנן בלא תעשה. אותו ואת בנו ומחסר זמן, פטור. רבי שמעון אומר: הרי זה בלא תעשה. שהיה רבי שמעון אומר: כל שהוא ראוי לבוא לאחר זמן, הרי זה בלא תעשה ואין בו כרת, וחכמים אומרים: כל שאין בו כרת, אין בו בלא תעשה. "Before its time" [can refer to] either an animal [which is too young] or its owner [who brings the sacrifice too soon]. What [are cases where] the owner [acts] before his time? A Zav [a man suffering from gonorrhea], or a Zavah [a woman with a menstrual-type flow occurring at a time other than her normal period], or a woman who has given birth, or a Metzora [one rendered severely impure from an unsightly skin disease. Upon recovery and purification he must bring offerings], who offer their Chattot [offerings generally brought to expiate sin] or their Ashamim [offerings generally brought to alleviate guilt] [too early] outside [the Temple], are exempt. But [if they offer] their Olot [offerings that are entirely burnt] or their Shelamim [offerings whose various parts are consumed by its owners, the Kohanim and the fire on the altar] outside [the Temple precincts] they are liable. One who offers up meat from a Chattat, [or] meat from an Asham, [or] meat from a Kodshai Kodashim [sacrifices of the highest degree of sanctity; they may be slaughtered only on the north-west corner of the altar, and consumed only within the Temple compound by male priests, or burnt entirely], [or] meat from a Kodashim Kalim [sacrifices of a lesser degree of sanctity; they may be slaughtered anywhere in the Temple courtyard and consumed by most anyone, anywhere in Jerusalem], or if [he offered] the remainder of the Omer [the special barley offering offered on the sixteenth of Nisan which permits grain harvested in the last year to be eaten], or the Shtei HaLechem [two leavened loaves of wheat brought as offerings on Shavuot which permitted using the new grain for holy offerings], or the Lechem HaPanim [twelve specially shaped unleavened loaves offered each Shabbat on the golden table in the Temple], or the remainders of the meal-offerings, [or] one who pours [oil onto a meal-offering], [or] one who mixes [the flour with the oil], [or] one who breaks [the meal-offering into pieces], [or] one who salts [an offering], [or] one who waves [an offering], [or] one who [brings the meal-offering to the altar], [or] one who arranges the table [with the Lechem HaPanim], or one who prepares the candles [of the Menorah - the Temple candelabrum], or one who takes the handful [of flour from a meal-offering], or one who receives the blood outside [the Temple precincts], is exempt. He is not liable due to his Zarut [not belonging to the priestly class], nor due to his impurity, nor due to his lack of [priestly] garments, nor because he has [not] washed [his] hands or feet. מחסר זמן, בין בגופו בין בבעליו. איזה הוא מחסר זמן בבעליו, הזב, והזבה, ויולדת, ומצורע, שהקריבו חטאתם ואשמם בחוץ, פטורין. עולותיהן ושלמיהן בחוץ, חיבין. המעלה מבשר חטאת, מבשר אשם, מבשר קדשי קדשים, מבשר קדשים קלים, ומותר העמר, ושתי הלחם, ולחם הפנים, ושירי מנחות, היוצק, הבולל, הפותת, המולח, המניף, המגיש, המסדר את השלחן, והמטיב את הנרות, והקומץ, והמקבל דמים בחוץ, פטור. אין חיבין עליו לא משום זרות, ולא משום טמאה, ולא משום מחסר בגדים, ולא משום רחוץ ידים ורגלים. Before the Mishkan was constructed, the Bamot [personal altars] were permitted, and the services were performed by the first-borns. Once the Mishkan was constructed, the Bamot were forbidden, and the services were performed by the Kohanim [the priestly caste, a subgroup of the tribe of Levi, uniquely responsible for maintaining and carrying out the sacrificial services in the Temple]. Kodshai Kodashim were eaten within the [Mishkan] curtains, and Kodashim Kalim [were eaten] anywhere in the camp of Israel. עד שלא הוקם המשכן, היו הבמות מתרות, ועבודה בבכורות. משהוקם המשכן, נאסרו הבמות, ועבודה בכהנים. קדשי קדשים נאכלים לפנים מן הקלעים. קדשים קלים בכל מחנה ישראל. Once they [the nation] came to Gilgal, the Bamot were permitted. Kodshai Kodashim were eaten within the curtains, [and] Kodashim Kalim [were eaten] anywhere. באו לגלגל, התרו הבמות. קדשי קדשים נאכלים לפנים מן הקלעים, קדשים קלים בכל מקום. When they came to Shiloh, Bamot were forbidden. [The Mishkan there] had no [fixed] roof, but was a structure of stone [walls] beneath, and curtains above them. It was [considered] "the Resting Place" (of Devarim 12:9). Kodshai Kodashim were eaten within the curtains, [and] Kodashim Kalim and Ma'aser Sheni [the second tithe of produce which must be taken to Jerusalem and consumed there, were eaten] anywhere within sight [of Shiloh]. באו לשילה, נאסרו הבמות. לא היה שם תקרה, אלא בית של אבנים מלמטן ויריעות מלמעלן, והיא היתה מנוחה. קדשי קדשים נאכלים לפנים מן הקלעים, קדשים קלים ומעשר שני בכל הרואה. When they came to Nov and to Giv'on, the Bamot were permitted. Kodshai Kodashim were eaten within the curtains, [and] Kodashim Kalim were eaten in any Israelite city. באו לנוב ולגבעון, התרו הבמות. קדשי קדשים נאכלים לפנים מן הקלעים, קדשים קלים בכל ערי ישראל. When they came to Jerusalem, the Bamot were forbidden, and they were never permitted again. It was [considered] "the Inheritance" (of Devarim 12:9). Kodshai Kodashim were eaten within the curtains [which were walls in the Temple], [and] Kodashim Kalim and Ma'aser Sheni [were eaten] within the walls [of Jerusalem]. באו לירושלים, נאסרו הבמות, ולא היה להם עוד התר, והיא היתה נחלה. קדשי קדשים נאכלים לפנים מן הקלעים, קדשים קלים ומעשר שני לפנים מן החומה. [Individuals] who consecrated sacrifices when the Bamot were forbidden, and [who] offered these sacrifices outside [the Mishkan] when the Bamot were forbidden, violated a positive commandment and a negative commandment, and were subject Karet because of them. If [individuals] consecrated them when the Bamot were permitted, and sacrificed these when the Bamot were prohibited, they [thereby] violated a positive commandment and a negative commandment, but they were not subject to Karet because of them. If [individuals] consecrated them when the Bamot were prohibited, and sacrificed these when the Bamot were permitted, they [thereby] violated a positive commandment, but not a negative commandment. כל הקדשים שהקדישן בשעת אסור במות והקריבן בשעת אסור במות בחוץ, הרי אלו בעשה ולא תעשה, וחיבין עליהן כרת. הקדישן בשעת התר במות והקריבן בשעת אסור במות, הרי אלו בעשה ולא תעשה, ואין חיבין עליהן כרת. הקדישן בשעת אסור במות והקריבן בשעת התר במות, הרי אלו בעשה ואין בהם בלא תעשה. These are the sacrifices that must be sacrificed in the Mishkan [even when the Bamot were permitted]: Sacrifices consecrated [specifically] for the Mishkan. Communal sacrifices were sacrificed at the Mishkan, and personal sacrifices [could be offered] at the Bamot. Personal sacrifices that were consecrated [specifically] for the Mishkan, [had to be] sacrificed at the Mishkan, and if [the individual] sacrificed them at a Bamah, he is exempt. What differentiates a personal Bamah from a communal Bamah? Laying the hands [on the animal], and slaughtering it in the north [of the altar], and dashing [the blood] around [the altar, on the corners], and waving [certain sacrifices], and bringing [the meal-offering]. Rabbi Yehudah says: The meal-offering cannot [be brought at a Bamah], nor are Kohanim [necessary there], nor are priestly garments, nor are service vessels, nor is the pleasing aroma, nor is a dividing blood line [the red marking on the altar indicating where blood should be dashed], nor is washing the hands and feet [necessary there]. But [the Mishkan and the Bamot] are similar with regard to time, and Notar [a sacrifice that becomes unfit due to being unconsumed past the permitted time], and impurity. אלו קדשים קרבין במשכן: קדשים שהקדשו למשכן. קרבנות הצבור קרבין במשכן. וקרבנות היחיד בבמה. קרבנות היחיד שהקדשו למשכן יקרבו במשכן, ואם הקריבן בבמה פטור. מה בין במת יחיד לבמת צבור, סמיכה, ושחיטת צפון, ומתן סביב, ותנופה, והגשה. רבי יהודה אומר: אין מנחה בבמה, וכהון, ובגדי שרת, וכלי שרת, וריח ניחוח, ומחיצה בדמים, ורחוץ ידים ורגלים. אבל הזמן, והנותר, והטמא, שוין בזה ובזה.
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