« Mishnah Zevachim
Mishnah Zevachim 10 משנה זבחים
Anything that is [offered] more frequently than something else, precedes it [when both are offered]. The Tamid [communal burnt-offering brought twice daily in the Temple, once at dawn and once in the late afternoon] precede the Musaf offerings [additional sacrifices brought on Shabbat and holidays]; the Musaf offerings of Shabbat precede the Musaf offerings of Rosh Chodesh [the first day of the new month on which special prayers and sacrifices offered]; the Musaf offerings of Rosh Chodesh precede the Musaf offerings of Rosh HaShanah [the New Year's festival], as it says: "You shall offer these in addition to the Olah [an offering that is entirely burnt] of the morning, which is for a continual Olah" (Numbers 28:23). כל התדיר מחברו, קודם את חברו.התמידים קודמים למוספין, מוספי שבת קודמין למוספי ראש חדש, מוספי ראש חדש קודמין למוספי ראש השנה, שנאמר (במדבר כח), מלבד עלת הבקר אשר לעלת התמיד תעשו את אלה. And anything that is holier than something else precedes it [when both are offered]. The blood of a Chattat [offerings brought to expiate sin] precedes that of an Olah because it achieves atonement; but the limbs of an Olah precede the designated portions of a Chattat because they are entirely burnt on the fires. A Chattat precedes an Asham [offerings brought to alleviate guilt] because its blood is dashed on the four corners and on the base [of the altar]. An Asham precedes a Todah [thanksgiving-offering] and the ram of a Nazir [a person who swears abstention from all grape products like wine, from cutting his hair, and avoidance of corpse impurity] because it is a type of Kodshai Kodashim [sacrifices of the highest degree of sanctity. They may be slaughtered only on the north-west corner of the altar, and consumed only within the Temple compound by male priests, or burnt entirely]. A Todah or the ram of a Nazir precede a Shelamim [an offering whose various parts are consumed by its owners, the Kohanim and the fire on the altar] because they [the first two] are eaten over one day and require [an accompanying] bread [offering]. A Shelamim precedes a Bechor [first-born offering] because it requires a four-fold application [of blood], and the laying of hands, and libations, and the waving of the breast and thigh. וכל המקדש מחברו , קודם את חברו.דם חטאת קודם לדם עולה, מפני שהוא מרצה.אברי עולה קודמין לאמורי חטאת, מפני שהן כליל לאשים.חטאת קודמת לאשם, מפני שדמה נתן על ארבע קרנות ועל היסוד.אשם קודם לתודה ולאיל נזיר, מפני שהוא קדשי קדשים .התודה ואיל נזיר קודמין לשלמים, מפני שהן נאכלין ליום אחד וטעונים לחם.שלמים קודמין לבכור, מפני שהם טעונין מתן ארבע וסמיכה ונסכים ותנופת חזה ושוק. A Bechor precedes a Ma'aser [animal tithe] because its sanctity [begins] in the womb, and it is eaten by priests. A Ma'aser precedes bird-offerings, since it is a [slaughtered] sacrifice and it includes sacred parts [namely] its blood and its designated portions [burnt on the altar]. הבכור קודם למעשר מפני שקדשתו מרחם ונאכל לכהנים.המעשר קודם לעופות, מפני שהוא זבח ויש בו קדשי קדשים דמו ואמוריו . The bird-offerings precede Menachot [meal-offerings] because they are a type of blood-offering. The Chattat of flour precedes the voluntary meal-offering because it comes [to atone] for a sin. The Chattat of a bird precedes the Olah of a bird, as does the consecration [of the sin-offering of a bird precede that of an Olah]. העופות קודמין למנחות, מפני שהן מיני דמים.מנחת חוטא קודמת למנחת נדבה, מפני שהיא באה על חטא .חטאת העוף קודמת לעולת העוף.וכן בהקדשה. All the Chattot in the Torah precede the Ashamim except the Asham of the Metzora [one rendered severely impure from an unsightly skin disease. Upon recovery and purification he must bring offerings] since it comes to permit [him to eat sacrificial meat]. All the Ashamim in the Torah must be two year old [rams] and be [two] silver shekels in value, except the Asham of a Nazir and that of a Metzora, since those are one year old and need not be [two] silver shekels in value. כל החטאות שבתורה, קודמות לאשמות, חוץ מאשם מצורע, מפני שהוא בא על [ ידי ] הכשר.כל האשמות שבתורה באין בני שתים ובאין בכסף שקלים, חוץ מאשם נזיר ואשם מצורע, שהן באין בני שנתן ואינן באין בכסף שקלים. Just as there is order with regard to the offering [of the sacrifices] so is there order with regard to eating [of the sacrifices]. [If one had] a Shelamim of yesterday and a Shelamim of today, [the one] from yesterday takes precedence. [If one had] a Shelamim of yesterday and a Chattat or a Asham of today, the [one] from yesterday takes precedence. These are the words of Rabbi Meir, but the Sages say the Chattat takes precedence because it is a type of Kodshai Kodashim. כשם שהן קודמים בהקרבתן, כך הן קודמים באכילתן.שלמים של אמש ושלמים של היום, של אמש קודמין, שלמים של אמש וחטאת ואשם של היום, שלמים של אמש קודמין, דברי רבי מאיר.וחכמים אומרים, החטאת קודמת , מפני שהיא קדשי קדשים. And with regard to all of them the priests can eat them [prepared] in any manner: They can eat them roasted, stewed, or cooked. And they may [cook them] with non-sacred spices or spices of Terumah [a portion of a crop given to a Kohen which becomes holy upon separation and can only be consumed by Kohanim or their households]. These are the words of Rabbi Shimon. Rabbi Meir says they may not add spices of Terumah [to the meat] so as to not cause the Terumah to become invalidated. ובכלם, הכהנים רשאין לשנות באכילתן, לאכלן צלויים, שלוקים, ומבשלים, ולתת לתוכן תבלי חלין ותבלי תרומה, דברי רבי שמעון.רבי מאיר אומר, לא יתן לתוכן תבלי תרומה, שלא יביא את התרומה לידי פסול. Rabbi Shimon said: If you see oil being distributed in the Temple court, you need not ask what it is - it is the remainder from the wafers of the Israelites' meal-offerings, or a [remainder of] a Log [a biblical unit of liquid measurement] of oil from a Metzora. If you see oil that is poured upon the fires, you do not need to ask what it is - it is the remainder of the wafers from the priests' meal-offerings, or the meal-offering of the anointed high priest. [This is because] individuals cannot donate oil [just by itself]. Rabbi Tarfon says: [Individuals can] donate oil [just by itself]. אמר רבי שמעון, אם ראית שמן שהוא מתחלק בעזרה, אין אתה צריך לשאול מה הוא, אלא מותר רקיקי מנחות ישראל, ולג שמן של מצורע.אם ראית שמן שהוא נתון על גבי האשים, אין אתה צריך לשאול מה הוא, אלא מותר רקיקי מנחות כהנים, ומנחת כהן המשיח.שאין מתנדבים שמן, רבי טרפון אומר, מתנדבים שמן.
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