Mishnah Sheviit.2 משנה שביעית
Until when do we plow a treeless field in the pre-Sabbatical year? Until the moisture is gone, [that is,] while people are still plowing for planting cucumbers and gourds. Rabbi Shimon said: You have entitled each person to make his own ruling! Rather, in a vegetable field until Passover, and in an orchard until Shavuot [festival at the end of the grain harvest]. עד אימתי חורשין בשדה הלבן ערב שביעית? עד שתכלה הלחה, כל זמן שבני אדם חורשים לטע במקשאות ובמדלעות. אמר רבי שמעון: נתת תורת כל אחד ואחד בידו! אלא בשדה הלבן עד הפסח, ובשדה האילן עד העצרת. One may fertilize and aerate cucumbers and gourds up until Rosh Hashanah [New Year's festival of the seventh year]. And [one may do] similarly in an irrigated field. One may remove wounds [from trees], remove withered leaves, apply nutrient powder, and fumigate plants until Rosh Hashanah. Rabbi Shimon says that one may additionally remove certain leaves from grape clusters during the seventh year. מזבלין ומעדרין במקשאות ובמדלעות עד ראש השנה. וכן בבית השלחין. מיבלין, מפרקין, מאבקין, מעשנין, עד ראש השנה. רבי שמעון אומר, אף נוטל הוא את העלה מן האשכול בשביעית. One may clear stones until Rosh Hashanah. One can prune, thin, and remove decay [from trees] until Rosh Hashanah. Rabbi Yehoshua says, just as the thinning and cutting of the fifth [going into the sixth], so too the sixth [going into the seventh]. Rabbi Shimon says, as long as I am permitted to cultivate the tree, I am permitted to deal with its decay. מסקלין עד ראש השנה. מקרסמין, מזרדין, מפסלין, עד ראש השנה. רבי יהושע אומר, כזרודה וכפסולה של חמישית, כך של ששית. רבי שמעון אומר, כל זמן שאני רשאי בעבודת האילן, רשאי אני בפסולו. One may apply a foul-smelling dressing to the saplings, and wrap them, and trim them, and make housing for them, and water them until Rosh Hashanah. Rabbi Eliezer bar Tzadok said, one may even water the crown and branches during the Sabbatical year, but not the roots. מזהמין את הנטיעות, וכורכין אותן, וקוטמין אותן, ועושין להן בתים, ומשקין אותן, עד ראש השנה. רבי אלעזר בר צדוק אומר, אף משקה הוא את הנוף בשביעית, אבל לא את העקר. Unripe figs may be oiled and pierced until Rosh Hashanah. The unripe fruit of the pre-Sabbatical year once the Sabbatical year has begun, or of the Sabbatical year once the post-Sabbatical year has begun, may not be oiled and may not be pierced. Rabbi Yehudah says, Where it is customary to oil, they may not oil, because it is work; but where it is not customary to oil, they may oil. Rabbi Shimon permits [working] trees [after the Sabbatical year, though they still bear fruit], because because one is permitted [then] to work the tree [itself]. סכין את הפגים ומנקבים אותן, עד ראש השנה. פגי ערב שביעית שנכנסו לשביעית, ושל שביעית שיצאו למוצאי שביעית, לא סכין ולא מנקבין אותן. רבי יהודה אומר, מקום שנהגו לסוך, אינן סכין, מפני שהיא עבודה. מקום שנהגו שלא לסוך, סכין. רבי שמעון מתיר באילן, מפני שהוא רשאי בעבודת האילן. One may not plant, bend [a plant so that it takes root], or graft [by attaching two plants] on the eve of the Sabbatical year, less than thirty days before Rosh Hashanah. And if he did plant, bend [a plant so that it takes root], or graft [by attaching two plants], he must uproot. Rabbi Yehudah says, Any grafting which hasn't taken hold within three days will not take hold thereafter. Rabbi Yossi and Rabbi Shimon say, within two weeks. אין נוטעין ואין מבריכין ואין מרכיבין ערב שביעית פחות משלשים יום לפני ראש השנה. ואם נטע או הבריך או הרכיב, יעקור. רבי יהודה אומר, כל הרכבה שאינה קולטת לשלשה ימים, שוב אינה קולטת. רבי יוסי ורבי שמעון אומרים, לשתי שבתות. Rice, millet, poppy, and sesame that took root before Rosh Hashanah, they are tithed according to the preceding year, and they are permitted in the Sabbatical year. And if not, they are forbidden in the Sabbatical year, and they are tithed according to the following year. הארז והדחן והפרגין והשמשמין שהשרישו לפני ראש השנה, מתעשרין לשעבר, ומתרין בשביעית. ואם לאו, אסורין בשביעית, ומתעשרין לשנה הבאה. Rabbi Shimon Shezuri says, Egyptian beans which were originally planted for seed are treated similarly. Rabbi Simon says, thick beans are similar to them. Rabbi Elazar says, thick beans when they developed pods before Rosh Hashanah. רבי שמעון שזורי אומר, פול המצרי שזרעו לזרע בתחלה, כיוצא בהן. רבי שמעון אומר, אפונין הגמלונין, כיוצא בהן. רבי אלעזר אומר, אפונין הגמלונין, משתרמלו לפני ראש השנה. If one witheld water from seedless onions and Egyptian beans for thirty days prior to Rosh Hashanah, they are tithed according to the preceding year, and are permitted in the Sabbatical year. If not, they are forbidden in the Sabbatical year, and are tithed according to the following year. [The same is true for seedless onions and Egyptian beans planted] in a non-irrigated field, if one withheld [from those plantings] water for two watering cycles, these are the words of Rabbi Meir. The Sages say: [This is only true for] three [cycles]. הבצלים הסריסים, ופול המצרי, שמנע מהם מים שלשים יום לפני ראש השנה, מתעשרין לשעבר, ומתרים בשביעית, ואם לאו, אסורים בשביעית, ומתעשרין לשנה הבאה. ושלבעל שמנע מהם מים שתי עונות, דברי רבי מאיר. וחכמים אומרים, שלש. Gourds grown for seed, if they hardened before Rosh Hashanah and became unsuitable for human consumption, they are permitted to be kept during the Sabbatical year. If not, they are forbidden to be kept during the Sabbatical year. Their sproutings are forbidden in the Sabbatical year. One may water the soil of a vegetable field according to Rabbi Shimon. Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov forbids it. One may flood rice during the Sabbatical year. Rabbi Shimon says, however one may not trim. הדלועין שקימן לזרע, אם הקשו לפני ראש השנה ונפסלו מאכל אדם, מתר לקימן בשביעית. ואם לאו, אסור לקימן בשביעית. התמרות שלהן, אסורות בשביעית. ומרביצין בעפר לבן, דברי רבי שמעון. רבי אליעזר בן יעקב אוסר. ממרסין בארז בשביעית. רבי שמעון אומר, אבל אין מכסחין.
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