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Mishnah Menachot 8.7 משנה מנחות
All public and private offerings can be brought from the Land [of Israel] or outside the Land, from the new or the old [grain] except for the omer and the two breads [of Shavuot] which can only be brought from the new [grain] and from the Land of [Israel]. And all of them should only be brought from the best. What is the best? Michmas and Mizoniacha are the best [areas] for fine flour. Second best for fine flour are Chafaraim in the valley. The [grain of the] whole land was valid, but they used to bring it only from these places.. כל קרבנות הצבור והיחיד, באים מן הארץ ומחוצה לארץ, מן החדש ומן הישן, חוץ מן העמר ושתי הלחם, שאינן באים אלא מן החדש ומן הארץ.וכלן אינן באים אלא מן המבחר .ואיזהו מבחר, מכמס ומזוניחה, אלפא לסלת.שניה להם, חפרים בבקעה.כל הארצות היו כשרות, אלא מכאן היו מביאים. One may not bring [grain for grain offerings] from a fertilized field nor from an irrigated field nor from a field [also planted with] trees. But if one did bring it [from these] it was valid. How does one do it [i.e., work the field to produce grain for grain offerings]? He plows it in the first year and in the second year he sows it seventy days before Pesach, and it would produce [grain fit to make from it] fine flour. How would he test it? The temple-treasurer would put his hand into it; if [flour] powder came up in [his hand], it was invalid until he sifted it [to remove the fine powder]. If it had become full of maggots, it is invalid. אין מביאין לא מבית הזבלים, ולא מבית השלחים, ולא מבית האילן.ואם הביא, כשר.כיצד הוא עושה, נרה שנה ראשונה, ובשניה זורעה קדם לפסח שבעים יום , והיא עושה סלת מרבה.כיצד הוא בודק, הגזבר מכניס את ידו לתוכה.עלה בה אבק, פסולה, עד שיניפנה.ואם התליעה, פסולה. Tekoa is best for its oil. Abba Shaul says: Second to it is Regev, on the other side of the Jordan. The [oil of the] whole land was valid, but they used to bring it only from these places. One may not bring it from a fertilized field nor from an irrigated field nor from [from olive-trees planted in a field] with seeds sown in between them, but if one did bring it [from these] it was valid. One may not bring anpikanon [oil from olives that were not fully ripe], and if one did bring it, it is invalid. One may not bring it from olive-berries which had been soaked in water or preserved or stewed; and if one did bring it, it is invalid. תקועה, אלפא לשמן.אבא שאול אומר, שניה לה רגב בעבר הירדן.כל הארצות היו כשרות, אלא מכאן היו מביאין.אין מביאין לא מבית הזבלים, ולא מבית השלחים, ולא ממה שנזרע ביניהם. ואם הביא, כשר.אין מביאין אנפיקנון. ואם הביא, פסול.אין מביאין מן הגרגרים שנשרו במים , ולא מן הכבושים , ולא מן השלוקין. ואם הביא פסול. There are three [crops of] olives and each gives three kinds of oil. The first crop of olives he picks the olives from the top of the tree; and he pounds them and puts them into the basket; Rabbi Judah says: around the [sides of the] basket. This is the first. He then presses them with the beam; Rabbi Judah says: with stones. This is the second. He goes back and grinds them and presses them again. This is the third . The first [oil] is fit for the menorah [Temple candelabrum] and the others for grain offerings. The second olive crop is when he picks them at roof-level and he pounds them and puts them into the basket; Rabbi Judah says: around the [sides of the] basket. This is the first. He then presses them with the beam; Rabbi Judah says: with stones. This is the second. He goes back and grinds them and presses them again. This is the third . The first [oil] is fit for the menorah and the others for grain offerings. The third olive crop is when he packs the last olives of the tree inside the storehouse [of the oil pressing facility] until they become overripe; he takes them up and dries them on the roof and he pounds them and puts them into the basket; Rabbi Judah says: around the basket. This is the first. He then presses them with the beam; Rabbi Judah says: with stones. This is the second. He goes back and grinds them and presses them again. This is the third . The first [oil] is fit for the menorah and the others for grain offerings. שלשה זיתים, ובהן שלשה שלשה שמנים.הזית הראשון מגרגרו בראש הזית וכותש ונותן לתוך הסל. רבי יהודה אומר, סביבות הסל. זה ראשון.טען בקורה, רבי יהודה אומר, באבנים. זה שני.חזר וטחן וטען - זה שלישי.הראשון למנורה, והשאר למנחות. הזית השני מגרגרו בראש הגג, וכותש ונותן לתוך הסל. רבי יהודה אומר, סביבות הסל. זה ראשון.טען בקורה, רבי יהודה אומר, באבנים. זה שני.חזר וטחן וטען, זה שלישי.הראשון למנורה, והשאר למנחות. הזית השלישי, עוטנו בתוך הבית עד שילקה, ומעלהו ומנגבו בראש הגג, וכותש ונותן לתוך הסל. רבי יהודה אומר, סביבות הסל. זה ראשון.טען בקורה, רבי יהודה אומר, באבנים. זה שני.חזר וטחן וטען, זה שלישי.הראשון למנורה, והשאר למנחות. The first of the first, there is none better than it. The second of the first and the first of the second are equal. The third of the first, the second of the second and the first oil of the third are equal. The third of the second and the second of the third are equal. The third of the third, there is none worse than it. It would have been logical that grain offerings should also require the purest olive oil: for if the menorah, whose [oil] is not for eating, requires pure olive oil, then should not grain offerings, whose oil is for eating, also require pure olive oil? But Scripture says, “Pure olive oil of beaten olives for lighting” (Exodus 27:20), and not pure olive oil of beaten olives for grain offerings. הראשון שבראשון, אין למעלה ממנו.השני שבראשון והראשון שבשני, שוין.השלישי שבראשון והשני שבשני והראשון שבשלישי, שוין.השלישי שבשני והשני שבשלישי, שוין.השלישי שבשלישי, אין למטה ממנו.אף המנחות היו בדין שיטענו שמן זית זך, מה אם המנורה שאינה לאכילה, טעונה שמן זית זך, המנחות שהן לאכילה, אינו דין שיטענו שמן זית זך, תלמוד לומר (שמות כז כ): "...זך כתית למאור", ולא זך כתית למנחות. From where did they bring the wine [for the libations]? Keruhim and Attulim are best for wine. Second to them are Bet Rimmah and Bet Lavan on the mountain and Kefar Signa in the valley. [Wine of the] whole land was valid but they used to bring it only from these places. One may not bring it from a fertizlized field nor from an irrigated field nor from [vines planted in a field] sown with seeds; but if one did bring it [from these] it was valid. One may not bring wine from sun-sweetened grapes, but if one did bring it, it was valid. One may not bring old wine, the words of Rabbi. But the sages validate it. One may not bring sweet wine or smoked wine or boiled wine, and if one did bring it, it was invalid. One may not bring wine from grapes [raised and] hung [on reeds], but only from the vines growing close to the ground and from cultivated vineyards. ומנין היו מביאין את היין, קרותים והטולים אלפא ליין.שניה להן, בית רמה ובית לבן בהר, וכפר סגנה בבקעה.כל הארצות היו כשרות, אלא מכאן היו מביאין.אין מביאין, לא מבית הזבלים, ולא מבית השלחין, ולא ממה שנזרע ביניהן.ואם הביא, כשר.אין מביאין אליוסטון.ואם הביא, כשר.אין מביאין ישן, דברי רבי.וחכמים מכשירין.אין מביאין, לא מתוק, ולא מעשן , ולא מבשל.ואם הביא, פסול.אין מביאין מן הדליות, אלא מן הרוגליות ומן הכרמים העבודים. They would not put [the wine] in large casks but in small barrels. And one did not fill the barrels to the brim, so that its scent might waft. One may not take the wine at the edge of the barrel because of the scum, nor that at the bottom because of the lees. Rather, one should take it only from the middle third of the barrel. How did he test it? The temple-treasurer used to sit with a [measuring] reed in his hand; when it shot out [during pouring] lees, he would knock with his reed [as a sign to stop pouring]. Rabbi Yose bar Judah says: wine on which there is a scum is invalid, as it is said, “They shall be for you without blemish, and their grain offering,” and "They shall be for you without blemish, and their libations” (Numbers 28:19-20, 31). לא היו כונסים אותו בחצבים גדולים, אלא בחביות קטנות.ואינו ממלא את החביות עד פיהם, כדי שיהא ריחו נודף .אינו מביא, לא מפיה, מפני הקמחין.ולא משוליה, מפני השמרים.אלא מביא משלישה ומאמצעה.כיצד הוא בודק, הגזבר יושב והקנה בידו, זרק את הגיד והקיש בקנה.רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה אומר, יין שעלה בו קמחין, פסול, שנאמר (במדבר כח יט), "תמימים יהיו לכם, ומנחתם...", תמימים יהיו לכם ונסכיהם .
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