5ה׳
1 א
כָּל הַמְּנָחוֹת בָּאוֹת מַצָּה, חוּץ מֵחָמֵץ שֶׁבַּתּוֹדָה וּשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם, שֶׁהֵן בָּאוֹת חָמֵץ. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, שְׂאֹר בּוֹדֶה לָהֶן מִתּוֹכָן וּמְחַמְּצָן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף הִיא אֵינָהּ מִן הַמֻּבְחָר, אֶלָּא מֵבִיא אֶת הַשְּׂאֹר, וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹךְ הַמִּדָּה, וּמְמַלֵּא אֶת הַמִּדָּה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אַף הִיא הָיְתָה חֲסֵרָה אוֹ יְתֵרָה: All grain offerings must be offered unleavened, with the exception of the leavened cakes of the thanksgiving offering and the two loaves [of Shavuot] which are offered leavened. Rabbi Meir says: he takes the leaven from [the grain offerings] themselves and with this they are leavened. Rabbi Judah says: that is not the best way, rather [first of all] he brings leaven and puts into the measuring vessel and then he fills the measuring vessel up [with flour]. But they said to him: even so [it is not satisfactory], for it would be sometimes too little and sometimes too much.
2 ב
כָּל הַמְּנָחוֹת נִלּוֹשׁוֹת בְּפוֹשְׁרִין, וּמְשַׁמְּרָן שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲמִיצוּ. וְאִם הֶחֱמִיצוּ שְׁיָרֶיהָ, עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ב), כָּל הַמִּנְחָה אֲשֶׁר תַּקְרִיבוּ לַה' לֹא תֵעָשֶׂה חָמֵץ. וְחַיָּבִים עַל לִישָׁתָהּ, וְעַל עֲרִיכָתָהּ, וְעַל אֲפִיָּתָהּ: All grain offerings must be kneaded with lukewarm water. He must guard them lest they become leavened. If the remainder became leavened he has transgressed a negative commandment, for it is written, “No grain offering which you shall bring to the Lord shall be made leavened” (Leviticus 2:11). One is liable for the kneading, and for rolling and for baking [if he performed these after it became leavened].
3 ג
יֵשׁ טְעוּנוֹת שֶׁמֶן וּלְבוֹנָה, שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא לְבוֹנָה, לְבוֹנָה וְלֹא שֶׁמֶן, לֹא שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא לְבוֹנָה. וְאֵלּוּ טְעוּנוֹת שֶׁמֶן וּלְבוֹנָה, מִנְחַת הַסֹּלֶת, וְהַמַּחֲבַת, וְהַמַּרְחֶשֶׁת, וְהַחַלּוֹת, וְהָרְקִיקִין, מִנְחַת כֹּהֲנִים, וּמִנְחַת כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ, וּמִנְחַת גּוֹיִם, וּמִנְחַת נָשִׁים, וּמִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר. מִנְחַת נְסָכִין טְעוּנָה שֶׁמֶן, וְאֵין טְעוּנָה לְבוֹנָה. לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים טָעוּן לְבוֹנָה, וְאֵין טָעוּן שָׁמֶן. שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם, מִנְחַת חוֹטֵא וּמִנְחַת קְנָאוֹת, לֹא שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא לְבוֹנָה: Some [grain offerings] require oil and frankincense, some require oil but not frankincense, some frankincense but not oil, and some neither oil nor frankincense. These require oil and frankincense: the grain offering of fine flour, that prepared on a griddle, that prepared in a pan, the cakes and the wafers, the grain offering of the priests, the grain offering of the anointed high priest, the grain offering of a non-Jew, the grain offering of women, and the grain offering of the omer [The special barley offering, offered the day after Pesach, which permits grain harvested in the last year to be eaten]. The grain offering offered with the libations requires oil but not frankincense. The showbread requires frankincense but not oil. The two loaves, the sinner's grain offering and the grain offering of jealousy require neither oil nor frankincense.
4 ד
וְחַיָּב עַל הַשֶּׁמֶן בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, וְעַל הַלְּבוֹנָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ. נָתַן עָלֶיהָ שֶׁמֶן, פְּסָלָהּ. לְבוֹנָה, יִלְקְטֶנָּה. נָתַן שֶׁמֶן עַל שְׁיָרֶיהָ, אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה. נָתַן כְּלִי עַל גַּבֵּי כְּלִי, לֹא פְסָלָהּ: And [regarding this last category,] one is liable for the oil on its own and for the frankincense on its own. If he put in oil, he has invalidated it, but if frankincense, he can remove it. If he put oil on the remainder, he has not transgressed a negative commandment. If he put a vessel [containing oil] on a vessel [containing the grain offering], he has not rendered it invalid.
5 ה
יֵשׁ טְעוּנוֹת הַגָּשָׁה וְאֵינָן טְעוּנוֹת תְּנוּפָה, תְּנוּפָה וְלֹא הַגָּשָׁה, הַגָּשָׁה וּתְנוּפָה, לֹא תְנוּפָה וְלֹא הַגָּשָׁה. אֵלּוּ טְעוּנוֹת הַגָּשָׁה וְאֵינָן טְעוּנוֹת תְּנוּפָה, מִנְחַת הַסֹּלֶת, וְהַמַּחֲבַת, וְהַמַּרְחֶשֶׁת, וְהַחַלּוֹת, וְהָרְקִיקִין, מִנְחַת כֹּהֲנִים, מִנְחַת כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ, מִנְחַת גּוֹיִם, מִנְחַת נָשִׁים, מִנְחַת חוֹטֵא. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, מִנְחַת כֹּהֲנִים, מִנְחַת כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ, אֵין בָּהֶן הַגָּשָׁה, מִפְנֵי שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן קְמִיצָה. וְכֹל שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן קְמִיצָה, אֵין בָּהֶן הַגָּשָׁה: Some [grain offerings] require bringing near but not waving, some require waving but not bringing near, some require bringing near and also waving, and some require neither bringing near nor waving. These require bringing near but not waving: the grain offering of fine flour, that prepared on a griddle, that prepared in a pan, the cakes and the wafers, the grain offering of the priests, the grain offering of the anointed high priest, the grain offering of a non-Jew, the grain offering of women, the sinner's grain offering. Rabbi Shimon says: the grain offering of the priests and the grain offering of the anointed high priest do not require bringing near, since no handful is taken out of them. And in any case where no handful is taken out, bringing near is not necessary.
6 ו
אֵלּוּ טְעוּנִין תְּנוּפָה וְאֵין טְעוּנִין הַגָּשָׁה, לֹג שֶׁמֶן שֶׁל מְצֹרָע וַאֲשָׁמוֹ, וְהַבִּכּוּרִים כְּדִבְרֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב, וְאֵמוּרֵי שַׁלְמֵי יָחִיד וְחָזֶה וָשׁוֹק שֶׁלָּהֶן, אֶחָד אֲנָשִׁים, וְאֶחָד נָשִׁים, בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲבָל לֹא בַאֲחֵרִים, וּשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם, וּשְׁנֵי כִבְשֵׂי עֲצָרֶת. כֵּיצַד הוּא עוֹשֶׂה, נוֹתֵן שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם עַל גַּבֵּי שְׁנֵי כְבָשִׂים, וּמַנִּיחַ שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו מִלְּמַטָּן, מוֹלִיךְ וּמֵבִיא, מַעֲלֶה וּמוֹרִיד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כט), אֲשֶׁר הוּנַף וַאֲשֶׁר הוּרָם. תְּנוּפָה הָיְתָה בַמִּזְרָח, וְהַגָּשָׁה בַּמַּעֲרָב. וּתְנוּפוֹת קוֹדְמוֹת לְהַגָּשׁוֹת. מִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר וּמִנְחַת קְנָאוֹת, טְעוּנוֹת תְּנוּפָה וְהַגָּשָׁה. לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים וּמִנְחַת נְסָכִים, לֹא תְנוּפָה וְלֹא הַגָּשָׁה: These require waving but not bringing near: The log [specific unit of volume] of oil of the leper and his guilt-offering, the first fruits, according to Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov, the innards of an individual’s shelamim [An offering whose various parts are consumed by its owners, the Kohanim and the fire on the altar] and its breast and thigh, whether they are the offerings of men or of women, by Israelites but not by others; the two loaves and the two lambs of Shavuot. How does he perform [the waving]? He places the two loaves upon the two lambs and puts his two hands beneath them and waves them forward and backward and upward and downward, for it is written, “which is waved and which is lifted up” (Exodus 29:27). The waving was performed on the east side [of the altar] and the bringing near on the west side. The ceremony of waving comes before that of bringing near. The grain offering of the omer and the grain offering of jealousy require bringing near and waving. The showbread and the grain offering brought with the libations require neither bringing near nor waving.
7 ז
רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, שְׁלשָׁה מִינִים טְעוּנִים שָׁלשׁ מִצְוֹת, שְׁתַּיִם בְּכָל אַחַת וְאַחַת, וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁית אֵין בָּהֶן. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן, זִבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי יָחִיד, וְזִבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי צִבּוּר, וַאֲשַׁם מְצֹרָע. זִבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי יָחִיד, טְעוּנִים סְמִיכָה חַיִּים, וּתְנוּפָה שְׁחוּטִים, וְאֵין בָּהֶם תְּנוּפָה חַיִּים. זִבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי צִבּוּר, טְעוּנִים תְּנוּפָה חַיִּים וּשְׁחוּטִים, וְאֵין בָּהֶן סְמִיכָה. וַאֲשַׁם מְצֹרָע, טָעוּן סְמִיכָה וּתְנוּפָה חַי, וְאֵין בּוֹ תְנוּפָה שָׁחוּט: Rabbi Shimon says: there are three kinds [of sacrifices] which require three commandments; two [of the three] apply to each kind, but none of them require a third. And these are they: the shelamim of the individual, the zivchei shalmei tzibur [shelamim offering brought by/on behalf of all Israel – specifically, the two sheep brought along with the leavened grain-offering on Shavu’ot] and the guilt-offering of the leper. The shelamim of the individual requires the laying on of hands for the living animal and waving after it is slaughtered, but it does not require waving while alive. The zivchei shalmei tzibur require waving while alive and also after they are slaughtered, but they do not require the laying on of hands. The guilt-offering of the leper requires the laying on of hands and also waving while alive, but it does not require waving after it is slaughtered.
8 ח
הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי בְּמַחֲבַת, לֹא יָבִיא בְמַרְחֶשֶׁת. בְּמַרְחֶשֶׁת, לֹא יָבִיא בְמַחֲבָת. וּמַה בֵּין מַחֲבַת לְמַרְחֶשֶׁת, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַמַּרְחֶשֶׁת יֶשׁ לָהּ כִּסּוּי, וְהַמַּחֲבַת אֵין לָהּ כִּסּוּי, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי. רַבִּי חֲנַנְיָה בֶן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, מַרְחֶשֶׁת עֲמֻקָּה וּמַעֲשֶׂיהָ רוֹחֲשִׁים, וּמַחֲבַת צָפָה וּמַעֲשֶׂיהָ קָשִׁים: One who says, “I take upon myself [to offer a grain offering prepared] on a griddle,” he must not bring [one prepared] in a pan; If [he says, I take upon myself to offer a grain offering prepared] in a pan,” he must not bring [one prepared] on a griddle. What is the difference between a griddle and a pan? The pan has a lid to it, but the griddle has no lid - [these are] the words of Rabbi Yose Haglili; Rabbi Hanina ben Gamaliel says: a pan is deep and what is prepared is spongy; a griddle is flat and what is prepared on it is hard.
9 ט
הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי בַּתַּנּוּר, לֹא יָבִיא מַאֲפֵה כֻפָּח וּמַאֲפֵה רְעָפִים וּמַאֲפֵה יוֹרוֹת הָעַרְבִיִּים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם רָצָה, יָבִיא מַאֲפֵה כֻפָּח. הֲרֵי עָלַי מִנְחַת מַאֲפֶה, לֹא יָבִיא מֶחֱצָה חַלּוֹת וּמֶחֱצָה רְקִיקִין. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מַתִּיר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא קָרְבָּן אֶחָד: [If one said,] “I take upon myself [to offer a grain offering baked] in an oven,” he must not bring what is baked in a stove or on tiles or in the cauldrons of the Arabs; Rabbi Judah says: he may bring what is baked in a stove. [If he said,] “I take upon myself [to offer] a baked grain offering,” he may not bring half in loaves and half in wafers. Rabbi Shimon permits it for it is one [kind of] offering.