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Mishnah Horayot 3.5 משנה הוריות
An anointed priest who sinned and then finished his anointment [term] or a prince who sinned and then finished his position, the anointed priest brings a bull and the prince brings a goat. כהן משיח שחטא ואחר כך עבר ממשיחותו, וכן נשיא שחטא ואחר כך עבר מגדלתו, כהן משיח מביא פר, והנשיא מביא שעיר. An anointed priest who finished his anointment [term] and then sinned or a prince who finished his position and then sinned, the anointed priest brings a bull and the prince as a commoner. כהן משיח שעבר ממשיחותו ואחר כך חטא, וכן הנשיא שעבר מגדלתו ואחר כך חטא, כהן משיח מביא פר, והנשיא כהדיוט. [Leaders] who sinned before they were appointed and afterwards were appointed, these are [treated] like a commoner. Rabbi Shimon says: If it become known to them before the appointment, they are liable. [If it become known] after the appointment, they are exempt. Who is the prince? This is the king, as it says (Leviticus 4:22): "And he did one of the commandments of Hashem his God," [this refers to] a prince, because there is no one above him besides Hashem his God. חטאו עד שלא נתמנו ואחר כך נתמנו, הרי אלו כהדיוט. רבי שמעון אומר, אם נודע להם עד שלא נתמנו, חיבין. ומשנתמנו, פטורין. ואיזהו הנשיא, זה המלך, שנאמר (ויקרא ד), ועשה אחת מכל מצות ה' אלהיו, נשיא שאין על גביו אלא ה' אלהיו. Who is the anointed [discussed above]? The one anointed with the oil of anointing, not the one with many clothes. There is no difference between the priest anointed with the oil of anointing and the one with many clothes except for the bull offered for [the violation of] any of the commandments. There is no difference between the acting and retired priest, except for the bull of the Day of Atonement and the [flour sacrifice of] the tenth of an Eifah[specific unit of volume]. They are the same in the service of the Day of Atonement, are commanded to [marry] a virgin, are forbidden to [marry] a widow, do not defile themselves for relatives, do not let their hair grow long, do not tear their clothing, and [when they die] allow the unintentional killer to return [from exile]. ואיזהו המשיח, המשוח בשמן המשחה, לא המרבה בבגדים. אין בין כהן המשוח בשמן המשחה למרבה בגדים, אלא פר הבא על כל המצות. ואין בין כהן משמש לכהן שעבר, אלא פר יום הכפורים ועשירית האיפה. זה וזה שוין בעבודת יום הכפורים, ומצוין על הבתולה, ואסורין על האלמנה, ואינן מטמאין בקרוביהן, ולא פורעין, ולא פורמין, ומחזירין את הרוצח. A High Priest tears [his garments] from below, and a common [priest tears his garments] from above. A High Priest brings offerings as a mourner but does not eat [the sacrificial meat], while a common [priest] does not bring offerings or eat [the sacrificial meat as a mourner]. כהן גדול פורם מלמטה, וההדיוט מלמעלה. כהן גדול מקריב אונן ולא אוכל, וההדיוט לא מקריב ולא אוכל. Anything that is more common than its peer supersedes its peer. Anything that is holier than its peer supersedes its peer. If the bull of the anointed and the bull of the community are [both] standing [to be sacrificed], the bull of the anointed supersedes the bull of the community in all its processes. כל התדיר מחברו, קודם את חברו. וכל המקדש מחברו, קודם את חברו. פר המשיח ופר העדה עומדים, פר המשיח קודם לפר העדה בכל מעשיו. A man supersedes a woman to keep alive and to return a lost object. A woman supersedes a man to clothe and to free from captivity. If they both stand to be disgraced, the man supersedes the woman. האיש קודם לאשה להחיות ולהשיב אבדה, והאשה קודמת לאיש לכסות ולהוציאה מבית השבי. בזמן ששניהם עומדים לקלקלה, האיש קודם לאשה. A priest supersedes a Levite, a Levite supersedes an Israelite, an Israelite supersedes a decedent of a forbidden relation, a descendant of a forbidden relation supersedes a Natin [Gibonite], a Natin supersedes a convert, and a convert supersedes a freed slave. When? When they are all equal. But if the descendant of a forbidden relation is a Sage and the high priest is an Am Ha'Aretz [one who is lax in observing tithes and purity laws], the descendant of a forbidden relation who is a sage supersedes the high priest who is am Am Ha'Aretz. כהן קודם ללוי, לוי לישראל, ישראל לממזר, וממזר לנתין, ונתין לגר, וגר לעבד משחרר. אימתי, בזמן שכלן שוין. אבל אם היה ממזר תלמיד חכם וכהן גדול עם הארץ, ממזר תלמיד חכם קודם לכהן גדול עם הארץ.
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