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Mishnah Gittin 4:7 משנה גיטין
If a man sends a bill of divorce to his wife via a messenger, and then catches up with the messenger, or sends another messenger after the first to say to the first messenger, "the bill of divorce that I gave to you is cancelled," then the bill of divorce is cancelled. If the husband beats the messenger to the woman's home, or sends a second messenger who beats the first there, and says to her "the bill of divorce that I sent you is cancelled," then it is cancelled. From the moment that the bill of divorce reaches the woman's hands, it can no longer be cancelled. השולח גט לאשתו והגיע בשליח, או ששלח אחריו שליח ואמר לו, גט שנתתי לך בטל הוא, הרי זה בטל.קדם אצל אשתו או ששלח אצלה שליח ואמר לה גט ששלחתי ליך בטל הוא, הרי זה בטל.אם משהגיע הגט לידה, שוב אינו יכול לבטלו. At first, a man [who had already sent his wife a bill of divorce by means of a messenger] would set up a religious court in a different place [from where the wife lived] and cancel the bill of divorce. Rabban Gamliel the Elder established that this should not be done, for the sake of the repair of the world. At first, a man could use a different name for himself, his wife, his city, or her city. [That is, a man could use a nickname on the bill of divorce.] Rabban Gamliel the Elder established that one should write one's name and any other name that he has and her name and any other name that she has for the sake of the repair of the world. בראשונה היה עושה בית דין במקום אחר ומבטלו.התקין רבן גמליאל הזקן שלא יהו עושין כן, מפני תקון העולם.בראשונה היה משנה שמו ושמה, שם עירו ושם עירה.התקין רבן גמליאל הזקן שיהא כותב, איש פלוני וכל שם שיש לו, אשה פלונית וכל שם שיש לה, מפני תקון העולם. A widow may only collect [the debt owed from her Ketubah] from the property of orphans if she swears an oath [Shavua]. They stopped swearing, so Rabban Gamliel the Elder instituted that she may promise [Neder] whatever they desire, and she can then collect her Ketubah. Witnesses sign on a Get, because of societal concerns [Tikkun Olam]. Hillel instituted the Pruzbol because of societal concerns [Tikkun Olam] אין אלמנה נפרעת מנכסי יתומים אלא בשבועה.נמנעו מלהשביעה, התקין רבן גמליאל הזקן שתהא נודרת ליתומים כל מה שירצו, וגובה כתבתה.העדים חותמים על הגט, מפני תקון העולם.הלל התקין פרוזבול מפני תקון העולם. A slave that was kidnapped and then ransomed, if [he was ransomed] in order to be a slave, he becomes a slave. If [he was ransomed] to be a free man, he does not become a slave. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: In both cases, he becomes a slave [nevertheless]. A slave whose master mortgaged him to others, and then frees him, the baseline law is that the slave is not obligated at all [to be a slave to the person he was mortgaged to]. But as a community service, they force his [second master] to [also] free him, and [the slave is forced to] write a [debt] document for his money's worth to him. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: [The slave] does not write [a debt document], but only a [document of] freedom. עבד שנשבה ופדאוהו, אם לשום עבד, ישתעבד.אם לשום בן חורין, לא ישתעבד.רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר, בין כך ובין כך ישתעבד .עבד שעשאו רבו אפותיקי לאחרים ושחררו, שורת הדין אין העבד חיב כלום.אלא מפני תקון העולם, כופין את רבו ועושה אותו בן חורין, וכותב שטר על דמיו.רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר, אינו כותב אלא משחרר. One who is half [Canaanite] slave and half free-man, serves his master every other day and serves himself every other day. These are the worlds of Beit Hillel. Beit Shamai said to them: You have repaired it for his master, but not repaired it for him! To marry a slave-girl is impossible ([i.e. forbidden), for he is half-free. [To marry] a free woman is impossible, for he is half-slave! And was not the world created for the sake of reproduction, as it says (Is. 45:18) "Not for emptiness did He create it, but for settlement He formed it." Rather, for the sake of repairing the world, we force his master and he makes [the half-slave] into a free-man, and writes a writ [of release] for half his value. Beit Hillel retracted (their statement) and ruled according to the words of Beit Shamai. מי שחציו עבד וחציו בן חורין, עובד את רבו יום אחד ואת עצמו יום אחד.דברי בית הלל.אמרו להם בית שמאי, תקנתם את רבו, ואת עצמו לא תקנתם.לשא שפחה אי אפשר , שכבר חציו בן חורין.בת חורין אי אפשר, שכבר חציו עבד.(יבטל), והלא לא נברא העולם אלא לפריה ורביה, שנאמר (ישעיה מה) לא תהו בראה , לשבת יצרה.אלא מפני תקון העולם, כופין את רבו ועושה אותו בן חורין, וכותב שטר על חצי דמיו.וחזרו בית הלל להורות כדברי בית שמאי. Someone who sells his slave to a non-Jew or to someone outside the land of Israel, [the slave automatically] goes free. We do not ransom captives for more than they are worth, for the sake of the community. We do not help captives escape, for the sake of the community. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: [Not for the sake of the community, but] for the sake of the captives. We do not buy religious books, tefillin, and mezuzot from the non-Jews for more than their worth, for the sake of the community. המוכר עבדו לגוי או לחוצה לארץ, יצא בן חורין.אין פודין את השבויין יותר על כדי דמיהן, מפני תקון העולם.ואין מבריחין את השבויין, מפני תקון העולם.רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר, מפני תקנת השבויין.ואין לוקחים ספרים תפלין ומזוזות מן הגוים יותר על כדי דמיהן, מפני תקון העולם. If someone divorced his wife because of her bad reputation, he may not remarry her. If it was because [she made a] vow, he may not remarry her. Rabbi Yehuda says: If the vow was known to the public, he may not remarry her. If it was not known to the public, he may remarry her. Rabbi Meir says: Any vow that required the inspection of a rabbi [to determine if it can be annulled], he may not remarry her. If it does not require inspection of a rabbi, he may remarry her. Rabbi Eliezer says: This was only forbidden for that [i.e. both prohibited a remarriage]. Rabbi Yossi b'Rabbi Yehuda said: There was an occurrence in Tzidan, where one man had said to his wife, "I swear [in the form of a konam swear] if I do not divorce you, and he divorced her. The rabbis allowed them to remarry, for the sake of the community. המוציא את אשתו משום שם רע, לא יחזיר.משום נדר, לא יחזיר.רבי יהודה אומר, כל נדר שידעו בו רבים, לא יחזיר.ושלא ידעו בו רבים, יחזיר.רבי מאיר אומר, כל נדר שצריך חקירת חכם, לא יחזיר.ושאינו צריך חקירת חכם, יחזיר.אמר רבי אליעזר, לא אסרו זה אלא מפני זה.אמר רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה.מעשה בצידן באחד שאמר לאשתו, קונם אם איני מגרשיך, וגרשה.והתירו לו חכמים שיחזירנה, מפני תקון העולם. If someone divorces his wife because she is incapable of having children [an ilonit], Rabbi Yehuda says: He may not remarry her. The Rabbis say: He may remarry her. She marries someone else, and she had children with that man, and she sues for her ketuba [from the first, on the basis that she is in fact capable of having children], Rabbi Yehuda says: We tell her, "The less you say, the better, [because then your first husband can claim the divorce was under false pretenses, rendering your current children as mamzerim]." המוציא את אשתו משום אילונית , רבי יהודה אומר, לא יחזיר.וחכמים אומרים, יחזיר.נשאת לאחר והיו לה בנים הימנו, והיא תובעת כתבתה, אמר רבי יהודה, אומרים לה, שתיקותיך יפה ליך מדבוריך. If someone sells himself and his children to a gentile, we do not redeem him. But we redeem the children after the death of their father. If one sells his field to a gentile, and a Jew buys it back from him, the buyer brings the first fruits from it, for the sake of the repair of the world. המוכר את עצמו ואת בניו לגוי, אין פודין אותו, אבל פודין את הבנים לאחר מיתת אביהן.המוכר שדהו לגוי וחזר ולקחה ממנו (ישראל), הלוקח מביא ממנו בכורים, מפני תקון העולם.
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