« Mishnah Chullin
Mishnah Chullin 3:6 משנה חולין
The following internal wounds or defects render animals Terefá: when the œsophagus is perforated; when the trachea is split or torn across in its width; when the membrane or thin skin [which is innermost and nearest] to the brain is perforated; when the heart is perforated till within the cavity of its two ventricles; when the spine is broken, and the spinal chord is severed; when the liver is wanting, and not a vestige thereof remains; when there is a perforation through the two membranes covering the lungs; when the lungs are deficient [of any of their lobes]; R. Simeon saith, "[An animal is only then Terefá] when the lungs are perforated within the bronchial tubes;" when there is a hole in the maw, or in the gallbladder, or in the thin or small intestines; when there is a hole in the interior or lower stomach, or that the greatest part of the external fleshy part thereof is torn; R. Jehudah saith, "If a hand-breadth is torn off in large cattle [oxen or cows, it is Terefá], but in a small one [a calf, &c.] when the greatest part thereof is torn; when there is a perforation in the omasum [many plies] and the magnus venter or upper stomach, beyond the place where they are connected; when the animal fell off a roof; when the greater part of its ribs are fractured, or when it had been trampled by a wolf [with its fore-paws or claws]; R. Jehudah saith, "The trample of a wolf causes small cattle only to become Terefá, but large ones only become so when a lion had struck its claws or fangs in them." Small birds are Terefá when a sparrow-hawk had struck its talons in them; and large birds [as fowls, geese, &c.] when they were struck by a [falcon, eagle, or other] large bird of prey. This is the rule. "When an animal under similar circumstances cannot survive, it is Terefá." אלו טרפות בבהמה, נקובת הושט, ופסוקת הגרגרת , נקב קרום של מח, נקב הלב לבית חללו , נשברה השדרה ונפסק החוט שלה, נטל הכבד ולא נשתיר הימנו כלום, הראה שנקבה או שחסרה .רבי שמעון אומר, עד שתנקב לבית הסמפונות.נקבה הקבה, נקבה המרה, נקבו הדקין, הכרס הפנימית שנקבה, או שנקרע רב החיצונה.רבי יהודה אומר, הגדולה טפח, והקטנה ברבה.המסס ובית הכוסות שנקבו לחוץ, נפלה מן הגג, נשתברו רב צלעותיה, ודרוסת הזאב.רבי יהודה אומר, דרוסת הזאב בדקה, ודרוסת ארי בגסה.דרוסת הנץ בעוף הדק, ודרוסת הגס בעוף הגס.זה הכלל, כל שאין כמוה חיה , טרפה. The following cases are Cashér: when the trachea is perforated or split. Of what size may the deficient part be? According to Rabbon Simeon ben Gamaliel, "As large as an [Italian] asser." When the bones of the skull are wounded, but the interior skin of the brain is uninjured; when there is a perforation in the heart, but not quite through to within the ventricles; when the vertebræ of the spine are broken, but the spinal chord was not severed; when the liver is deficient, but a small piece thereof of the size of an olive remained; when the omasum and the upper stomach are pierced one within the other; when the animal is deficient of milt or kidneys, or nether jaw, or matrix, or when through fear [from the appearance of any of the phenomena of nature] caused by the hand of God, its lungs had become dessicated. R. Meir considers also an animal whose skin was stripped off as Cashér, but the other sages consider it Pasool, ואלו כשרות בבהמה, נקבה הגרגרת או שנסדקה.עד כמה תחסר, רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר, עד כאסר האיטלקי.נפחתה הגלגלת ולא נקב קרום של מח, נקב הלב ולא לבית חללו, נשברה השדרה ולא נפסק החוט שלה, נטלה הכבד ונשתיר הימנה כזית, המסס ובית הכוסות שנקבו זה לתוך זה, נטל הטחול, נטלו הכליות, נטל לחי התחתון, נטלה האם שלה, וחרותה בידי שמים.הגלודה, רבי מאיר מכשיר, וחכמים פוסלין. The following defects render fowl Terefá: when the œsophagus is perforated; when the trachea is torn off; when a weasel bit it on the head, in a place where it may render it Terefá [viz. near the brain]; when the stomach or thin intestines are perforated; when it had fallen into the fire; when its viscera had become scorched, if they had turned yellow it is Terefá, but when they remained red it is Cashér; when a person had trodden on it, or knocked it against a wall, or that it was trodden upon by cattle, and it struggles and lives twenty-four hours after the accident [and was then slaughtered], it is Cashér. ואלו טרפות בעוף , נקובת הושט, פסוקת הגרגרת, הכתה חלדה על ראשה מקום שעושה אותה טרפה, נקב הקרקבן, נקבו הדקין.נפלה לאור ונחמרו בני מעיה, אם ירקים, פסולין.אם אדמים, כשרים.דרסה, וטרפה בכתל, או שרצצתה בהמה ומפרכסת, ושהתה מעת לעת ושחטה, כשרה. The following cases are Cashér in fowl: when the trachea is perforated or split; when it was bitten by a weasel on its head, in a place where it does not render it Terefá; when the crop is perforated, and, according to Ribi, even when that organ is entirely deficient; when the intestines protruded from the body without being perforated; when its wings or legs are broken, or when its large feathers are plucked off; R. Jehudah saith, "It is Pasool when stripped of its plumage." ואלו כשרות בעוף, נקבה הגרגרת או שנסדקה, הכתה חלדה על ראשה מקום שאינו עושה אותה טרפה, נקב הזפק.רבי אומר, אפלו נטל .יצאו בני מעיה ולא נקבו, נשתברו גפיה, נשתברו רגליה, נמרטו כנפיה.רבי יהודה אומר, אם נטלה הנוצה, פסולה. When an animal became ill through plethora of blood, or suffered from a bad state of bile, or viscosity of mucus, or that it had fed on the plant rosebay [or the oleander], or that it had swallowed fowl's dung, or drank noxious water, it is Cashér; but when it had swallowed poison, or had been bitten by a venomous serpent, although it is not prohibited as Terefá, yet it is forbidden to be eaten, on account of the danger it may cause to the persons eating thereof. אחוזת הדם, והמעשנת, והמצננת, ושאכלה הרדופני, ושאכלה צואת תרנגולים, או ששתתה מים הרעים, כשרה.אכלה סם המות או שהכישה נחש, מתרת משום טרפה, ואסורה משום סכנת נפשות. The signs by which the clean animals, domestic and wild, may be distinguished [from the unclean and prohibited ones] are mentioned in the Holy Law, but not those of fowl. The sages have, however, established, "That every [predaceous] bird, which strikes its talons into its prey, is of the unclean: every bird which has an additional claw, a crop, and of which the internal coat of the stomach may be readily peeled off, is of the clean species." R. Eleazar ben Zadok saith, "Every bird which [when placed on a perch] divides its toes equally, is an unclean one." סימני בהמה וחיה נאמרו מן התורה, וסימני העוף לא נאמרו.אבל אמרו חכמים, כל עוף הדורס, טמא.כל שיש לו אצבע יתרה, וזפק, וקרקבנו נקלף, טהור.רבי אליעזר ברבי צדוק אומר, כל עוף החולק את רגליו, טמא. Of locusts, all the species are clean which have four feet, four wings, and four leaping legs, and whose wings cover the greatest part of its body; R. Jehudah saith, "Only then when they are called by the name ‏חגב‎." Of fishes, are clean, those furnished with fins and scales; R. Jehudah saith, "When they have at least two scales and one fin." Scales are attached to the body of the fish, and fins are the organs by which it moves through the water. ובחגבים , כל שיש לו ארבע רגלים, וארבע כנפים, וקרסלים, וכנפיו חופין את רבו .רבי יוסי אומר.ושמו חגב.ובדגים, כל שיש לו סנפיר וקשקשת.רבי יהודה אומר, שני קשקשין וסנפיר אחד.ואלו הן קשקשין, הקבועין בו.וסנפירין, הפורח בהן.
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