Mishnah Chullin 1 משנה חולין
Anyone [may] slaughter - and his slaughter is valid - except for a deaf-mute, a shoteh [a person who exhibits signs demonstrating a lack of ability to think clearly], or a minor, lest they spoil the slaughter. But all who slaughter while others watch them: their slaughter is valid. The slaughter of a non-Jew is a nevelah [an improperly slaughtered animal of a permitted species] and renders impure through carrying. One who slaughters at night, and so too a blind person who slaughters, his slaughter is valid. One who slaughters on Shabbat, or on Yom Kippur, even though he is liable for death, his slaughter is valid. הכל שוחטין ושחיטתן כשרה, חוץ מחרש, שוטה, וקטן, שמא יקלקלו בשחיטתן. וכלן ששחטו ואחרים רואין אותן, שחיטתן כשרה. שחיטת נכרי, נבלה ומטמאה במשא. השוחט בלילה, וכן הסומא ששחט, שחיטתו כשרה. השוחט בשבת, וביום הכפורים, אף על פי שמתחיב בנפשו, שחיטתו כשרה. If one slaughters with a hand sickle, a flint stone, or with a reed, his slaughter is valid. All [may] slaughter, they may slaughter at any time, and they may slaughter with anything, except a reaping sickle, a saw, teeth, or a finger nail, because they strangle. One who slaughters with a reaping sickle along the direction [of the teeth], Beit Shammai invalidates, but Beit Hillel validated. If its teeth were smoothed, it is like a knife. השוחט במגל יד, בצור, ובקנה, שחיטתו כשרה. הכל שוחטין ולעולם שוחטין, ובכל שוחטין, חוץ ממגל קציר, והמגרה, והשנים, והצפרן, מפני שהן חונקין. השוחט במגל קציר בדרך הליכתה, בית שמאי פוסלין, ובית הלל מכשירין. ואם החליקו שניה, הרי היא כסכין. One who slaughters through the ring of the windpipe and left on it a thread's breadth around the whole of it [the circumference], his slaughter is valid. Rabbi Yose ben Rabbi Yehuda says, "[Even] a thread's breadth around the majority of it." השוחט מתוך הטבעת ושיר בה מלא החוט על פני כלה, שחיטתו כשרה. רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה אומר: מלא החוט על פני רבה. One who slaughters from the sides, his slaughter is valid. One who performs melikah [a slaughtering method used for bird sacrifices, employing the thumbnail instead of a knife] from the sides, his melikah is invalid. One who slaughters from the back of the neck, his slaughter is invalid. One who performs melikah from the back of the neck, his melikah is valid. One who slaughters from the throat, his slaughter is invalid. One who performs melikah from the the throat, his melikah is invalid, for the entire back of the neck is valid for melikah, and the entire throat is valid for slaughtering. As a result, [that which is] valid regarding slaughter is invalid regarding melikah and [that which is] valid regarding melikah is invalid regarding slaughter. השוחט מן הצדדין, שחיטתו כשרה. המולק מן הצדדין, מליקתו פסולה. השוחט מן הערף, שחיטתו פסולה. המולק מן הערף, מליקתו כשרה. השוחט מן הצואר, שחיטתו כשרה. המולק מן הצואר, מליקתו פסולה, שכל הערף כשר למליקה, וכל הצואר כשר לשחיטה. נמצא כשר בשחיטה, פסול במליקה. כשר במליקה, פסול בשחיטה. [That which is] valid regarding pigeons is invalid regarding turtle-doves. [That which is] valid regarding turtle-doves is invalid regarding pigeons. [At] the beginning of yellowing [of the feathers] with either this or that, they [become] invalid [as sacrifices]. כשר בתורין, פסול בבני יונה. כשר בבני יונה, פסול בתורין. תחלת הצהוב, בזה ובזה פסול. [That which is] valid for the parah [adumah] [a red heifer whose ashes are added to specially drawn water, the sprinkling of which purifies those rendered impure from corpses] is invalid for the eglah [arufah] [a calf whose neck is broken to atone for an unsolved murder]. [That which is] valid for the eglah is invalid for the parah. [That which is] valid for kohanim [member of the priestly caste, a subgroup of tribe of Levi, which is uniquely responsible for maintaining and carrying out the sacrificial services in the Temple] is invalid for levites. [That which is] valid regarding levites is invalid regarding kohanim. [That which is] pure for earthenware vessels is impure for all the [other] vessels. [That which is] pure for all the [other] vessels is impure for earthenware vessels. [That which is] pure for wooden vessels is impure for metal vessels. [That which is] pure for metal vessels, is impure for wooden vessels. The [conditions] which obligate bitter almonds [for tithes], exempt for sweet ones. Those which obligate for sweet almonds, exempt for bitter ones. כשר בפרה, פסול בעגלה. כשר בעגלה, פסול בפרה. כשר בכהנים, פסול בלוים. כשר בלוים, פסול בכהנים. טהור בכלי חרש, טמא בכל הכלים. טהור בכל הכלים, טמא בכלי חרש. טהור בכלי עץ, טמא בכלי מתכות. טהור בכלי מתכות, טמא בכלי עץ. החיב בשקדים המרים, פטור במתוקים. החיב במתוקים, פטור במרים. An infusion of grape by-products, while it has not yet fermented, is not purchased with the money of ma'aser [sheni] [the second tithe of produce, which must be taken to Jerusalem and consumed there] and invalidates a mikveh [water collected by natural means used to cleanse ritual impurity]. From the time that it has fermented, it may be purchased with the money of ma'aser [sheni], and does not invalidate a mikveh. Brothers who are partners, when they are obligated for the kalbon [a surcharge added to the half a shekel given to the Temple due to exchanging a full shekel], they are exempt regarding ma'aser behema [the tithe of every tenth animal from the flock or cattle, which is brought as a sacrifice]. When they are obligated for ma'aser behema they are exempt for the kalbon. Any place there is a right of sale [for a father with his daughter], there are no fine [for raping or seducing the daughter]. And any place there is a fine, there is no right of sale. Any place there is mi'un [the refusal of a marriage by a fatherless child married off by her mother or brother , retroactively annulling the marriage], there is no chalitzah [the ceremony performed to release a widow of a childless man from the obligation of Levirate marriage]. And any place where there is chalitzah, there is no mi'un. Any place where there is a [shofar] blast [on the eve of Shabbat], there is no havdalah [the ceremony marking the transition from a sacred time to the regular week]. And any place where there is havdalah, there is no blast. [For] a festival which falls out on the eve of the Shabbat, we sound a blast and do not make havdalah. [If it falls out] at the end of Shabbat, havdalah is said, but the blast is not sounded. How is havdalah said [when a festival falls out on the day after Shabbat]? "Who makes a distinction between holy and holy." Rabbi Dosa says, "Between heavy holiness and light holiness." התמד עד שלא החמיץ, אינו נקח בכסף מעשר, ופוסל את המקוה. משהחמיץ, נקח בכסף מעשר, ואינו פוסל את המקוה. האחין השתפין כשחיבין בקלבון, פטורין ממעשר בהמה. כשחיבין במעשר בהמה, פטורים מן הקלבון. כל מקום שיש מכר, אין קנס. וכל מקום שיש קנס, אין מכר. כל מקום שיש מאון, אין חליצה. וכל מקום שיש חליצה, אין מאון. כל מקום שיש תקיעה, אין הבדלה. וכל מקום שיש הבדלה, אין תקיעה. יום טוב שחל להיות בערב שבת, תוקעין ולא מבדילין. במוצאי שבת, מבדילין ולא תוקעין. כיצד מבדילין, המבדיל בין קדש לקדש. רבי דוסא אומר: בין קדש חמור לקדש הקל.
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