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Mishnah Chullin 1 משנה חולין
Everyone [may] slaughter - and his slaughter is valid - except a deafmute, a simpleton or a minor, lest they spoil the slaughter. But [if they] all slaughter and others see them, their slaughter is valid. The slaughter of a non-Jew - it is nevelah [an improperly slaughtered animal, prohibited for consumption] carcass, and renders impure those who lift it. [If] the slaughterer [slaughters] at night, or if a blind person slaughters, his slaughter is valid. [If] the slaughterer [slaughters] on Shabbat, or on Yom Kippur - even though he is liable for death - his slaughter is valid. הכל שוחטין ושחיטתן כשרה, חוץ מחרש, שוטה, וקטן, שמא יקלקלו בשחיטתן.וכלן ששחטו ואחרים רואין אותן, שחיטתן כשרה.שחיטת נכרי, נבלה ומטמאה במשא. השוחט בלילה, וכן הסומא ששחט, שחיטתו כשרה. השוחט בשבת, וביום הכפורים, אף על פי שמתחיב בנפשו , שחיטתו כשרה. If one slaughters with a hand sickle, a sharp flint stone, or with a reed, it is valid. All may slaughter, at any time, and with any instrument, except a reaping sickle, a saw, the [sharp] teeth [of animals fixed to the jaw], or with the finger nail, because they do not cut, but strangle [and tear]. If one slaughters with a reaping sickle with the first thrust, Bet Shammai say it is valid, but Beth Hillel say it is invalid; but if the teeth [of the reaping sickle] were ground away, it is [considered] like a knife. השוחט במגל יד, בצור, ובקנה, שחיטתו כשרה.הכל שוחטין ולעולם שוחטין, ובכל שוחטין, חוץ ממגל קציר, והמגרה, והשנים, והצפרן, מפני שהן חונקין. השוחט במגל קציר בדרך הליכתה, בית שמאי פוסלין, ובית הלל מכשירין. ואם החליקו שניה, הרי היא כסכין. If one slaughters through the top ring of the throat, leaving a thread's breadth of the whole [circumference], the slaughter is valid. R. Jose bar Yehuda says, [It is valid even if he left] a thread's breadth of most of it [the circumference]. השוחט מתוך הטבעת ושיר בה מלא החוט על פני כלה, שחיטתו כשרה.רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה אומר, מלא החוט על פני רבה. One who slaughters from the side [of the throat], the slaughter is valid. One who performs melikah [slaughter of bird offerings by pinching the neck using the thumbnail] from the side [of the throat], the melikah is invalid. One who slaughters from the back of the neck, the slaughter is invalid. One who performs melikah from the back of the neck, the melikah is valid. One who slaughters from [the front of] the throat, the slaughter is invalid. One who performs melikah from the [front of] the throat, the melikah is valid, for the whole neck is valid for melikah, and the whole throat for slaughtering. Therefore, [that which is] valid regarding slaughter is invalid regarding melikah and [that which is] valid regarding melikah is invalid regarding slaughter. השוחט מן הצדדין, שחיטתו כשרה. המולק מן הצדדין, מליקתו פסולה.השוחט מן הערף, שחיטתו פסולה.המולק מן הערף, מליקתו כשרה. השוחט מן הצואר, שחיטתו כשרה. המולק מן הצואר, מליקתו פסולה, שכל הערף כשר למליקה, וכל הצואר כשר לשחיטה. נמצא, כשר בשחיטה, פסול במליקה .כשר במליקה, פסול בשחיטה. [That which is] valid regarding pigeons is invalid regarding turtle-doves and [that which is] valid regarding turtle doves is invalid regarding pigeons. When [the neck feathers of] either kind begin to shine and to turn yellow, they are invalid [as sacrifices]. כשר בתורין, פסול בבני יונה. כשר בבני יונה, פסול בתורין. תחלת הצהוב בזה ובזה, פסול. [That which is] valid regarding the Parah Adumah [red heifer, slaughtered and burned, whose ashes purify from corpse-impurity] is invalid regarding the Eglah Arufah [calf whose neck is broken in expiation for unsolved murder], and [that which is] valid regarding the Eglah Arufah is invalid regarding the Parah Adumah. [That which is] valid regarding priests is invalid regarding Levites, and [that which is] valid regarding Levites is invalid regarding priests. [That which is] pure regarding earthenware vessels, is impure regarding other vessels, and [that which is] pure regarding earthenware vessels, is impure regarding other vessels. [That which is] pure regarding wooden vessels, is impure regarding metal vessels, and [that which is] pure regarding metal vessels, is impure regarding wooden vessels. [Ripeness which] obligates bitter almonds [regarding Terumah] exempts sweet almonds; and [ripeness which] obligates sweet almonds [regarding Terumah] exempts bitter almonds. כשר בפרה, פסול בעגלה.כשר בעגלה, פסול בפרה.כשר בכהנים, פסול בלוים. כשר בלוים, פסול בכהנים. טהור בכלי חרש , טמא בכל הכלים.טהור בכל הכלים טמא בכלי חרש טהור בכלי עץ, טמא בכלי מתכות. טהור בכלי מתכות, טמא בכלי עץ.החיב בשקדים המרים, פטור במתוקים. החיב במתוקים, פטור במרים. An infusion of water on grape lees which has not yet fermented, may not be bought with the money of second tithe, and renders a mikveh [ritual bath for purification] invalid; when it has fermented it may be purchased with the money of second tithe, and does not render a mikvehunfit. [Orphaned] brothers who are partners, if they are obligated regarding the kalbon [small coin given along with the yearly half-shekel donation to the Temple], they are exempt regarding the tithe of animals, and if they are obligated regarding the tithe of animals, and they are exempts regarding the kalbon. While there is [still the right of] sale [i.e., a father who may sell his minor daughter as a maidservant designated for eventual marriage], there are no punitive damages [yet imposed on one rapes or seduces a minor daughter], and when there is a fine [imposed, i.e., during the first six months after she attains her majority], there is no [longer a right of] sale. While there is mi'un [the right of refusal of an orphaned daughter married off during her minority by her brother or mother], there is no chalitzah [ceremony releasing the widow of a childless man from the obligation to marry his brother], and when chalitzah [may be performed], there is no [longer the right of] mi'un. When the cornet is sounded [on the eve of Shabbat] no havdalah is said, and when havdalah is said, the cornet is not sounded. When a festival falls out on the eve of the Shabbat the cornet is sounded, and havdalah is not said. If [it falls out] on the day after Shabbat, havdalah is said, but the cornet is not sounded. How is havdalah said [when a festival falls out on the day after Shabbat]? [Blessed art thou, etc.] "who makes a distinction between holy and holy". R. Dosa says, "who makes a distinction between the greater and lesser [degrees of] holiness." התמד, עד שלא החמיץ, אינו נקח בכסף מעשר, ופוסל את המקוה. משהחמיץ, נקח בכסף מעשר, ואינו פוסל את המקוה. האחין השתפין, כשחיבין בקלבון, פטורין ממעשר בהמה. כשחיבין במעשר בהמה, פטורים מן הקלבון. כל מקום שיש מכר, אין קנס.וכל מקום שיש קנס, אין מכר.כל מקום שיש מאון, אין חליצה. וכל מקום שיש חליצה, אין מאון. כל מקום שיש תקיעה, אין הבדלה. וכל מקום שיש הבדלה, אין תקיעה. יום טוב שחל להיות בערב שבת, תוקעין ולא מבדילין. במוצאי שבת, מבדילין ולא תוקעין. כיצד מבדילין, המבדיל בין קדש לקדש. רבי דוסא אומר, בין קדש חמור לקדש הקל.
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