Mishnah Challah 1.6 משנה חלה
Five things are obligated in Challah [dough that must be set aside for the priest]: wheat, barley, spelt, oats, and rye. These are obligated in Challah, and they join with each other [to complete the minimum measurement required for Challah], and they are forbidden as Chadash [grain from the current year that one is forbidden to eat until the Omer (the special barley offering, offered the day after Passover, which permits grain harvested in the last year to be eaten) is brought] from before Passover and to be harvested before the Omer. But if they took root before the Omer, the Omer makes them permissible [to be eaten]; but if they did not, they are forbidden [to be eaten] until the next Omer. חמשה דברים חיבים בחלה: החטים, והשעורים, והכסמין, ושבלת שועל, והשיפון. הרי אלו חיבין בחלה, ומצטרפין זה עם זה, ואסורין בחדש מלפני הפסח ומלקצור מלפני העמר. ואם השרישו קדם לעמר - העמר מתירן; ואם לאו - אסורין עד שיבא העמר הבא. One who eats an olive's bulk of them as Matsah [unleavened bread] on Passover has fulfilled one's obligation; an olive's bulk of Chamets [leavened bread, prohibited on Passover], one is liable for Karet [to be cut off spiritually from the Jewish nation]. One who intermingles one of them with other things transgresses on Passover. One who swore off bread and crops is forbidden from them; so says Rabbi Meir. The Sages say: One who swore off wheat is only forbidden from particularly [wheat]. They are liable in Challah and Ma'aserot [tithes]. האוכל מהם כזית מצה בפסח, יצא ידי חובתו; כזית חמץ, חיב בהכרת. נתערב אחד מהם בכל המינים, הרי זה עובר בפסח. הנודר מן הפת ומן התבואה, אסור בהם; דברי רבי מאיר. וחכמים אומרים: הנודר מן הדגן אינו אסור אלא מהן. וחיבין בחלה ובמעשרות. The following are obligated in Challah, but are exempt from Ma'aserot: the Leket [individual stalks which fall during harvest, which must be left for the poor to glean], the Shikhecha [individual sheaves, forgotten in the field, which must be left for the poor to collect], the Pe'ah [a corner of the field that is required to be left for the poor], the Hefker [property rendered ownerless by renunciation of its former owner], the Ma'aser Rishon [the first tithe of produce, which must be given to the Levi] whose Terumah [a portion of a crop given to a Kohen which becomes holy upon separation, and can only be consumed by Kohanim or their household] was taken, and the Ma'aser Sheni [the second tithe of produce, which must be taken to Jerusalem and consumed there] and Hekdesh [property, living or inanimate, devoted by its owner for sacred purposes, by which action he ceases to be its owner] that were redeemed, the surplus of the Omer offering, and crops that have not yet yielded a third [of their produce]. Rabbi Eliezer says: crops which have not yet yielded a third [of their produce] are exempt from Challah. אלו חיבין בחלה ופטורים מן המעשרות: הלקט, והשכחה, והפאה, וההפקר, ומעשר ראשון שנטלה תרומתו, ומעשר שני והקדש שנפדו, ומותר העמר, ותבואה שלא הביאה שליש. רבי אליעזר אומר: תבואה שלא הביאה שליש, פטורה מן החלה. The following are obligated in Ma'aserot, but are exempt from Challah: Rice, and millet, and poppies, and sesames, and legumes, and [harvest that yielded] less than five fourths of grain. Sponge breads, and honey breads, and cookies, and pan loaf, and Medum'ah [mixture of Chulin (permitted foodstuff) and Terumah that is forbidden to non-Kohanim] dough, are all exempt from Challah. אלו חיבין במעשרות ופטורים מן החלה: הארז, והדחן, והפרגים, והשמשמין, והקטניות, ופחות מחמשת רבעים בתבואה. הספגנין, והדבשנין, והאסקריטין, וחלת המשרת, והמדמע - פטורין מן החלה. A batter whose start is spongy, and whose end is spongy, is exempt from Challah. Whose start is doughy and whose end is spongy, or whose start is spongy whose end is doughy, it is obligated in Challah. Similarly crumb loaves are obligated. עסה שתחלתה ספגנין וסופה ספגנין, פטורה מן החלה. תחלתה עיסה וסופה ספגנין, תחלתה ספגנין וסופה עיסה - חיבת בחלה. וכן הקנבקאות חיבות. Flour that was thrown into boiling water, Beit Shammai exempts [from separating Challah], but Beit Hillel obligates it. Flour that had boiling water poured on it, Beit Shammai obligates it, but Beit Hillel exempts it. Loaves for a Todah [thanksgiving offering] and crackers for a Nazirite's offering, that one made for himself are exempt; made to sell them in the marketplace, are obligated. המעיסה - בית שמאי פוטרין, ובית הלל מחיבין. החליטה - בית שמאי מחיבין, ובית הלל פוטרין. חלות תודה ורקיקי נזיר - עשאן לעצמו, פטור; למכור בשוק, חיב. If a baker made leaven to distribute, it is obligated in Challah. If women give the baker [flour] to make them leaven from, and if there isn't any the minimum quantity [for Challah] belonging to any one of them, it is exempt from Challah. נחתום שעשה שאור לחלק, חיב בחלה. נשים שנתנו לנחתום לעשות להן שאור - אם אין בשלאחת מהן שעור - פטורה מן החלה. Dough for dogs, as long as shepherds would eat from it, is obligated in Challah. And one may make an Eruv [enclosure of shared space via shared food to permit carrying on Shabbat] from it. And one may enter into a Shittuf [a partnership of space for the sake of carrying on Shabbat] with it, and one recites the blessings [before and after eating] over it, and one may invite to Zimmun [calling those who have eaten together, minimally three, to join together for the after-meal blessing] over it, and one may cook it on a Festival, and a person may use this dough to fulfill their obligation on Passover [of eating Matsah,]. If the shepherds would not eat from it, it is not obligated in Challah, one may not use it for an Eruv or enter into a Shittuf with it, and one does not say the blessing over it, and one does not one say the Zimmun over it, and it may not be cooked on a Festival, nor does one fulfill his obligation with it on Passover. In either case, the dough is subject to Tumat Okhalin [the ritual impurity affecting food]. עיסת הכלבים - בזמן שהרועים אוכלין ממנה, חיבת בחלה; ומערבין בה, ומשתתפין בה, ומברכין עליה, ומזמנין עליה, ונעשית ביום טוב, ויוצא בה אדם ידי חובתו בפסח. אם אין הרועים אוכלין ממנה, אינה חיבת בחלה; ואין מערבין בה, ואין משתתפין בה, ואין מברכין עליה, ואין מזמנין עליה, ואינה נעשית ביום טוב, ואין אדם יוצא בה ידי חובתו בפסח. בין כך ובין כך מטמאה טמאת אכלין. Hallah and Terumah carry the death penalty [if a non-Kohen knowingly eats from them] and the one-fifth penalty [if a non- Kohen unwittingly eats from them] and they are forbidden to non-Kohanim, and they are the property of the Kohanim, and they are neutralized in 101 parts, and they require washing of the hands [before handling] and they require the setting of the sun [in order to eat them after purification] and they may not be set aside from the pure for the defiled, and they may be [only] set aside for that which is nearby, and from that which its preparation has been completed. [If one says that] "All of my threshing floor is Terumah all my dough is Challah," they have said nothing, unless they have some leftover. החלה והתרומה, חיבין עליהן מיתה וחמש, ואסורים לזרים, והם נכסי כהן, ועולין באחד ומאה, וטעונין רחיצת ידים והערב שמש, ואינן נטלין מן הטהור על הטמא, אלא מן המקף ומן הדבר הגמור. האומר: 'כל גרני תרומה וכל עיסתי חלה' - לא אמר כלום, עד שישיר מקצת.
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