Mishnah Bava Kamma 1:3 משנה בבא קמא
[There are] four categories of damages: The ox, the pit, the grazer, and the fire. The [characteristics] of the ox are not similar to the [characteristics] of the grazer. And the [characteristics] of the grazer are not similar to the [characteristics] of the ox. Nor are either of these, which have a living spirit, similar to the fire, which has no living spirit. Nor are any of these, which move and do damage, similar to the pit, which does not move and does damage. What is common among them is that they do damage, and the responsibility for their supervision is upon you. And when they do damage, the damager must pay from the best of the land. ארבעה אבות נזיקין , השור והבור והמבעה וההבער .לא הרי השור כהרי המבעה , ולא הרי המבעה כהרי השור.ולא זה וזה, שיש בהן רוח חיים, כהרי האש שאין בו רוח חיים.ולא זה וזה, שדרכן לילך ולהזיק, כהרי הבור שאין דרכו לילך ולהזיק.הצד השוה שבהן, שדרכן להזיק ושמירתן עליך .וכשהזיק, חב המזיק לשלם תשלומי נזק במיטב הארץ. Once I have accepted the duty of care for a thing, I have prepared the way for its causation of damage. Once I have partially prepared the way for its causation of damage, I have accepted monetary liability for damages as if I had prepared the way for the entity of its causation of damage. In cases of things that cause damage to properties not covered by sacrilege laws, properties which belong to members of the Covenant, owned properties, and properties located outside the private domain of the defendant or the shared private domain of the plaintiff and the defendant, the defendant must pay the monetary judgement for damages from the best land. כל שחבתי בשמירתו, הכשרתי את נזקו.הכשרתי במקצת נזקו, חבתי בתשלומין כהכשר כל נזקו.נכסים שאין בהם מעילה , נכסים של בני ברית, נכסים המיחדים, [ ובכל מקום ] חוץ מרשות המיחדת למזיק ורשות הנזק והמזיק.וכשהזיק , חב המזיק לשלם תשלומי נזק במיטב הארץ. Assessment of monetary liability and monetary equivalence takes place before a constituted court and with the agreement of witnesses who are free men and members of the covenant. And women are equal with regard to damages. And the plaintiff and the defendant may share in the proceeds of sale. שום כסף, ושוה כסף, בפני בית דין, ועל פי עדים בני חורין בני ברית.והנשים בכלל הנזק.והנזק והמזיק בתשלומין. Five [agents of damage] rank as harmless and five as an attested danger. Cattle are not an attested danger to butt, push, bite, lie down, or kick. The tooth [of an animal] is an attested danger to eat that which is for it; The leg [of an animal] is an attested danger to break [things] as it walks along; So also is a warned ox [an ox that has gored before]; And an ox that damages in the domain of the damaged party, and human beings. The wolf, the lion, the bear, the leopard, the panther and the snake all rank as attested danger. Rabbi Eliezer says: When they are tame they are not attested danger, but the snake is always an attested danger. What is the difference between that which is harmless and that which is an attested danger? The harmless pays half-damages from its own body and the attested danger pays full damages from the best property (of its owner and guardian). חמשה תמין וחמשה מועדין, הבהמה אינה מועדת לא לגח ולא לגוף ולא לשוך ולא לרבץ ולא לבעט.השן מועדת לאכל את הראוי לה, הרגל מועדת לשבר בדרך הלוכה, ושור המועד, ושור המזיק ברשות הנזק, והאדם .הזאב והארי והדב והנמר והברדלס והנחש, הרי אלו מועדין .רבי אליעזר אומר, בזמן שהן בני תרבות , אינן מועדין.והנחש מועד לעולם.מה בין תם למועד.אלא שהתם משלם חצי נזק מגופו, ומועד משלם נזק שלם מן העליה.
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