Compare the verses in Exodus 20 and Deuteronomy 5. What the reasons for Shabbat observance in each?
Muktzeh means set aside or excluded; it is the prohibition against handling any object which, for one reason or another, was not intended for use during the Sabbath day.
Several kinds of objects fall into this category:
- Objects which can never be brought into use on the Sabbath without transgressing Sabbath law, such as: money, candlesticks in which the candles were burnt, pencils, pens, cigarette lighters, [mobile phones].
- Objects which were inaccessible when Shabbat started, fruit still attached to the tree at the beginning of Shabbat, clothes which were wet at the beginning of Shabbat.
- Objects normally used for work prohibited on Shabbat, but also usable for purposes permissible on Shabbat, may not be handled unless they are also used for permissible purposes, or to be moved because their place is needed. For instance, a hammer may be handled if it is to be used for cracking nuts or it is place is needed for something else.
- Useless objects (bones, potsherds, broken objects).
- Religious objects which can not be used on Shabbat, such as a Shofar, Tefillin, and Lulav.
- Objects which themselves are permitted but contain things that are muktzeh (i.e., a purse with money in it), are forbidden. If the container is not used exclusively for money or for other objects that are muktzeh, it may handled even if it contains money. These prohibitions are flexible and do not apply where there is undue hardship, possible financial loss, or some other difficulty. Instances given are broken glass and objects with an offensive odour. --Rabbi Isaac Klein, A Guide to Jewish Religious Practice, p. 83-84.
Shevut can be defined as activity that is not "shabbesdik" (Yiddish for not in the spirit of Shabbat). Some examples are packing a suitcase or washing a floor. What can you do to make Shabbat a day that is different from the rest of the week?
Oneg Shabbat--Engaging in pleasurable activities such as eating, singing, marital relations and spending time with family and friends. The expression, "Oneg Shabbat" comes from this verse.
"Shabbat is a sanctuary in time"
"When history began, there was only one holiness in the world, holiness in time. When at Sinai the word of God was about to be voiced, a call for holiness in man was proclaimed: “Thou shalt be unto me a holy people.” It was only after the people had succumbed to the temptation of worshipping a thing, a golden calf, that the erection of a Tabernacle, of holiness in space, was commanded. The sanctity of time came first, the sanctity of man came second, and the sanctity of space last. Time was hallowed by God; space, the Tabernacle, was consecrated by Moses.
"The meaning of the Sabbath is to celebrate time rather than space. Six days a week we live under the tyranny of things of space; on the Sabbath we try to become attuned to holiness in time. It is a day on which we are called upon to share in what is eternal in time, to turn from the results of creation to the mystery of creation, from the world of creation to the creation of the world."--Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel, The Sabbath: Its Meaning for Modern Man