(טז) לֹא־תֵלֵ֤ךְ רָכִיל֙ בְּעַמֶּ֔יךָ לֹ֥א תַעֲמֹ֖ד עַל־דַּ֣ם רֵעֶ֑ךָ אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה׃ (יז) לֹֽא־תִשְׂנָ֥א אֶת־אָחִ֖יךָ בִּלְבָבֶ֑ךָ הוֹכֵ֤חַ תּוֹכִ֙יחַ֙ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶ֔ךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂ֥א עָלָ֖יו חֵֽטְא׃ (יח) לֹֽא־תִקֹּ֤ם וְלֹֽא־תִטֹּר֙ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י עַמֶּ֔ךָ וְאָֽהַבְתָּ֥ לְרֵעֲךָ֖ כָּמ֑וֹךָ אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה׃
(16) Do not deal basely with your countrymen. Do not profit by the blood of your fellow: I am the LORD. (17) You shall not hate your kinsfolk in your heart. Rebuke your kinsman but incur no guilt because of him. (18) You shall not take vengeance or bear a grudge against your countrymen. Love your fellow as yourself: I am the LORD.
- Why "in your heart"?
- What is the relationship of the second verse of line 17 to the first verse?
- Why does it say "kinsfolk" and "kinsman"?
- What is the relationship of "rebuking" and "incurring no guilt because of him?
- How do 16, 17, and 18 work together?
(ג) אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲנִינָא הַתּוֹכַחַת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי אַהֲבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ט, ח): הוֹכַח לְחָכָם וְיֶאֱהָבֶךָּ, הִיא דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲנִינָא דְּאָמַר כָּל אַהֲבָה שֶׁאֵין עִמָּהּ תּוֹכָחָה אֵינָהּ אַהֲבָה. אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ תּוֹכָחָה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי שָׁלוֹם, וְהוֹכִחַ אַבְרָהָם אֶת אֲבִימֶלֶךְ, הִיא דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּאָמַר כָּל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁאֵין עִמּוֹ תּוֹכָחָה אֵינוֹ שָׁלוֹם. (בראשית כא, כה):
Rabbi Yossi bar Hanina said: "Rebuke leads to love, as it says 'Rebuke a wise person and he will love you.'" That is the opinion of Rabbi Yossi bar Hanina who said: "All love that does not include rebuke is not love." Reish Lakish said: "Rebuke leads to peace, [as it says] 'Avraham rebuked Avimelech.'" That is his opinionwho said: "All love that does not include rebuke is not love."
- In an ideal world, what are the potential benefits of rebuke?
כל מי שאפשר למחות לאנשי ביתו ולא מיחה נתפס על אנשי ביתו באנשי עירו נתפס על אנשי עירו בכל העולם כולו נתפס על כל העולם כולו
Anyone who had the capability to protest the members of his household and did not protest, he himself is apprehended for the members of his household. [If he is in a position to protest] the people of his town, he is apprehended for the people of his town. The whole world, he is apprehended for the whole world.
Rabbi Zeira said to Rabbi Simon: Let the Master reprimand the members of the house of the Exilarch. [Rabbi Simon] said to him: They will not accept reprimand from me. [Rabbi Zeira] said to him: Let my master reprimand them even if they do not accept it.
אלא הנח להם לישראל מוטב שיהיו שוגגין ואל יהיו מזידין הכא נמי הנח להם לישראל מוטב שיהיו שוגגין ואל יהיו מזידין והני מילי בדרבנן אבל בדאורייתא לא ולא היא לא שנא בדאורייתא ולא שנא בדרבנן לא אמרינן להו ולא מידי
Rather, the accepted principle is: Leave the Jews alone; it is better that they be unwitting sinners and not be intentional sinners. [There were those who understood that] this principle applies only to rabbinic prohibitions but not to Torah prohibitions. However, this is not so; it is no different whether the prohibition is by Torah law or whether it is by rabbinic law, we do not say anything to them.
And Rabbi Ile’a said in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: Just as it is a mitzva for a person to say that which will be heeded, so is it a mitzva for a person not to say that which will not be heeded. Rabbi Abba says: It is obligatory [for him to refrain from speaking], as it is stated: “Do not reprove a scorner lest he hate you; reprove a wise man and he will love you” (Proverbs 9:8).
תני תנא קמיה דרב נחמן בר יצחק כל המלבין פני חבירו ברבים כאילו שופך דמים א"ל שפיר קא אמרת דחזינא ליה דאזיל סומקא ואתי חוורא
The tanna taught a baraita before Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak: Anyone who humiliates another in public, it is as though he were spilling blood. [Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak] said to him: You have spoken well, as we see that after the humiliated person blushes, the red leaves his face and pallor comes in its place.
- How important is the "chance of success" to the mitzvah of rebuke?
- What is the danger in giving rebuke when you know it won't be heeded?
ת"ר (ויקרא יט, טו) בצדק תשפוט עמיתך שלא יהא אחד יושב ואחד עומד אחד מדבר כל צרכו ואחד אומר לו קצר דבריך ד"א בצדק תשפוט עמיתך הוי דן את חבירך לכף זכות תני רב יוסף בצדק תשפוט עמיתך עם שאתך בתורה ובמצות השתדל לדונו יפה
The Sages taught: The verse states: “But in righteousness shall you judge your colleague” (Leviticus 19:15), from which it is derived: [The court must ensure] that there will not be a situation where one litigant is sitting and one litigant is standing, or a situation where one litigant says everything that he needs to say to present his case and one litigant, the judge says to him: Curtail your statement. Alternatively, it is derived from the verse: “But in righteousness shall you judge your colleague,” that you should judge another favorably, [and seek to find justification for his actions, even if when interpreted differently his actions could be judged unfavorably.] Rav Yosef teaches that from the verse: “But in righteousness shall you judge your colleague [amitekha],” it is derived: With regard to one who is with you [im she’itekha] in observance of Torah and in fulfillment of mitzvot, try to judge him favorably.
(ח) בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, לֹא יִמְכֹּר לוֹ פָרָה חוֹרֶשֶׁת בַּשְּׁבִיעִית. וּבֵית הִלֵּל מַתִּירִין, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא יָכוֹל לְשָׁחֲטָהּ. מוֹכֵר לוֹ פֵּרוֹת אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת הַזֶּרַע, וּמַשְׁאִיל לוֹ סְאָתוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ גֹּרֶן, וּפוֹרֵט לוֹ מָעוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ פּוֹעֲלִים. וְכֻלָּן, בְּפֵרוּשׁ, אֲסוּרִין:
(8) The house of Shammai say, one should not sell him [a Jew] a plowing cow during the Sabbatical year. The house of Hillel allow it, since he could slaughter it. One may sell him cows even during planting time, and one may lend him his Se'ah measure even though one knows that he has a granary, and make change for him even though one knows he has laborers. And all of these [actions], if [he has expressed] explicit [intent], are forbidden.
- At what point does the obligation to rebuke arise?
- When we see something not right, what should be our process before we go rebuke someone else?