ודבורה אשה נביאה אשת לפידות היא שופטה את ישראל בעת ההיא (שופטים ד) וכי מה טיבה של דבורה שהיא היתה שופטת את ישראל בעת ההיא ומתנבאה עליהם? והלא פנחס בן אלעזר היה בימים ההם מעיד אני עלי את השמים ואת הארץ בין ישראל בין עכו"ם בין איש בין אשה בין עבד ובין שפחה הכל לפי המעשה שהוא עושה כך רוח הקודש שורה עליו
And Deborah was a female prophet, a woman from Lapidot. She judged Israel during those days (Judges 4). What is the nature of Deborah that she was judging Israel in those days and prophecizing for them? Wasn't Pinchas b. Elazar around in those days? I bring the heavens and the earth as my witnesses, that whether a person is a Jew or a non-Jew, a man or woman, a slave or handmaiden, the holy spirit can rest on them based on their actions.
It was about this time I conceived the bold and arduous project of arriving at moral perfection. I wish'd to live without committing any fault at any time; I would conquer all that either natural inclination, custom, or company might lead me into. As I knew, or thought I knew, what was right and wrong, I did not see why I might not always do the one and avoid the other. But I soon found I had undertaken a task of more difficulty than I had imagined.  While my care was employ'd in guarding against one fault, I was often surprised by another; habit took the advantage of inattention; inclination was sometimes too strong for reason. I concluded, at length, that the mere speculative conviction that it was our interest to be completely virtuous, was not sufficient to prevent our slipping; and that the contrary habits must be broken, and good ones acquired and established, before we can have any dependence on a steady, uniform rectitude of conduct. For this purpose I therefore contrived the following method.
Franklin, Benjamin. Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (p. 47). . Kindle Edition.
The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin
These names of virtues, with their precepts, were:
1. Temperance: Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation.
(Note that this one is not really parallel. Lefin means being gentle. He does not seem to have an exact parallel for temperance).
2. Silence: Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling conversation.
3. Order: Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business have its time.
4. Resolution: Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you resolve.
5. Frugality: Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself; i. e., waste nothing.
6. Industry: Lose no time; be always employ'd in something useful; cut off all unnecessary actions.
7. Sincerity: Use no hurtful deceit; think innocently and justly; and, if you speak, speak accordingly.
8. Justice: Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the benefits that are your duty.
9. Moderation: Avoid extreams; forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve.
10. Cleanliness: Tolerate no uncleanliness in body, cloaths, or habitation.
11. Tranquillity: Be not disturbed at trifles, or at accidents common or unavoidable.
13. Humility: Imitate Jesus and Socrates.
Franklin, Benjamin. Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (pp. 47-48). . Kindle Edition.
Order of the Virtues According to Lefin
Order of Virtues According to Franklin
My intention being to acquire the habitude of all these virtues, I judg'd it would be well not to distract my attention by attempting the whole at once, but to fix it on one of them at a time; and, when I should be master of that, then to proceed to another, and so on, till I should have gone thro' the thirteen; and, as the previous acquisition of some might facilitate the acquisition of certain others, I arrang'd them with that view, as they stand above.
Franklin, Benjamin. Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (p. 48). . Kindle Edition.
For something, that pretended to be reason, was every now and then suggesting to me that such extream nicety as I exacted of myself might be a kind of foppery in morals, which, if it were known, would make me ridiculous; that a perfect character might be attended with the inconvenience of being envied and hated; and that a benevolent man should allow a
Franklin, Benjamin. Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (pp. 50-51). . Kindle Edition.
It will be remark'd that, tho' my scheme was not wholly without religion, there was in it no mark of any of the distinguishing tenets of any particular sect. I had purposely avoided them; for, being fully persuaded of the utility and excellency of my method, and that it might be serviceable to people in all religions, and intending some time or other to publish it, I would not have anything in it that should prejudice anyone, of any sect, against it.
Franklin, Benjamin. Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (p. 51). . Kindle Edition.
My list of virtues contain'd at first but twelve; but a Quaker friend having kindly informed me that I was generally thought proud; that my pride show'd itself frequently in conversation; that I was not content with being in the right when discussing any point, but was overbearing, and rather insolent, of which he convinc'd me by mentioning several instances; I determined endeavouring to cure myself, if I could, of this vice or folly among the rest, and I added Humility to my list, giving an extensive meaning to the word. I cannot boast of much success in acquiring the reality of this virtue, but I had a good deal with regard to the appearance of it. I made it a rule to forbear all direct contradiction to the sentiments of others, and all positive assertion of my own. I even forbid myself, agreeably to the old laws of our Junto, the use of every word or expression in the language that imported a fix'd opinion, such as certainly, undoubtedly, etc., and I adopted, instead of them, I conceive, I apprehend, or I imagine a thing to be so or so; or it so appears to me at present. When another asserted something that I thought an error, I deny'd myself the pleasure of contradicting him abruptly, and of showing immediately some absurdity in his proposition; and in answering I began by observing that in certain cases or circumstances his opinion would be right, but in the present case there appear'd or seem'd to me some difference, etc. I soon found the advantage of this change in my manner; the conversations I engag'd in went on more pleasantly. The modest way in which I propos'd my opinions procur'd them a readier reception and less contradiction; I had less mortification when I was found to be in the wrong, and I more easily prevail'd with others to give up their mistakes and join with me when I happened to be in the right.
Franklin, Benjamin. Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (pp. 51-52). . Kindle Edition.
Cheshbon Hanefesh, Par. 20
20. A few years ago, a new strategy was developed — a strategy that is a wonderful innovation in this field [of cheshbon ha'nefesh]. It would seem that the method will spread quickly - - like the invention of the printing press which brought light to the world. This strategy ties together the four elements which we talked about: balancing one's personal ledgers before retiring and upon awakening, conditioning and cheshbon ha-nefesb. However, it spares the person much of the effort that these elements required when utilized alone as well as being far more effective. Instead of taking up all of a person's time, this method actually leaves the entire day open and orderly, with the mind clear for the Divine service. It clears the path so that a person can make his accounting, tempers the fires of mussar and facilitates character development. Moreover, the process ofbecoming accustomed to follow this method is sweetened by the knowledge that by acting according to it, one lessens the amount of sin of which one is guilty.
Nancy Sinkoff, Benjamin Franklin in Jewish Eastern Europe
Rejecting the implacable hostility of the later skeptical French Enlightenment to religion and clericalism, Lefin saw no inconsistency between the intellectual exploration of Western, non-Jew- ish ideas and fidelity to traditional rabbinic culture.
Benjamin Franklin typified the eighteenth-century natural philosopher; discoverer of the lightning rod and of the Pennsylvania fireplace, he believed in the practical application and moral utility of his experiments, maintaining that a heightened sense of God’s creative power could not but result from scientific observation....The eighteenth-century natural philosopher was not a specialist, but rather, like Lefin and Franklin, a man with catholic interests and passions.
Cheshbon Hanefesh, par 19
It should be noted that the discipline to which we refer — albeit important in that every soul requires it — is more difficult than the conditioning of the animal spirit to which we earlier referred. The reason for this is because the intellectual spirit — which conditions — and the animal spirit — which becomes conditioned — share the same body. In any event, the Sages of previous generations left us very little in terms of the ways in which this can be accomplished. The subject of educating one's children, or the manner in which a state should be run or the education of an entire people to act according to the values of her rulers and lawmakers were dealt with extensively by the Sages of previous generations. However, their counsel is of little use to us in the matters we are discussing. The educational methodology which they suggested is predicated mostly on the use of physical reward and punishment. A teacher hands out candies and nuts to the students who pay attention and strikes those who refuse to do so. The master's hand is always ready to provide reward or punishment as is called for by his slave's actions. This type of reinforcement has no relevance whatsoever to our discussion. Even though the Sages admit that the ultimate success of disciplining is contingent upon deceiving and tricking the animal spirit within man, they did not pursue this. On the contrary, they placed their trust in the efficacy of reward and punishment.
Cheshbon Hanefesh, par. 49
Mussar without counsel is insufficient, for one can not expect the animal spirit to be consistently willing to obey the advice of the intellectual spirit — even when the latter's advice is as "clear as the sun at noon."
Even children know that all men are destined to die, that everything is in the hands of God, that God gives and God takes — thousands of such consoling remarks which are completely logical. Yet even wise and sagacious men find that the ears of their animal spirits are blocked and their intellect clouded when faced with death.
Everyone apprises the alcoholic of the shame he brings to himself and to his family, of the damages he causes his body and soul. He listens and agrees with all that they say, but he is powerless to change his ways and he therefore rejects all reproof, closes his ears and flees from all chastisement. The ancient Greeks in the land of Laconia [Sparta] would force their slaves to drink until they vomited and thereby became disgusting to their children who would thus, while still young, be cured of all desu-e to become intoxicated.
In the healing of the body there are also many parallels. Doctors must devise ingenious methods to sweeten bitter drugs, to make them less costly and more palatable so that they can be used to treat the delicate, children or the poor. Were they not to do so, then even the balms of Gilead [i.e., the most effective drug — see YIRMFyAHUS'.22 and 46:11] would be of no avaU if no one used them.
(א) המעשים הטובים הם המעשים השווים הממוצעים בין שתי קצוות ששתיהן רע, האחת מהן תוספות, והשנית חסרון, והמעלות הן תכונות נפשיות וקנינים ממוצעים בין שתי תכונות רעות, האחת מהן יתירה והאחרת חסרה, מן התכונות האלה יתחייבו הפעולות ההם, והמשל בו הזהירות שהיא מדה ממוצעת בין רוב התאוה ובין העדר הרגשת ההנאה, והזהירות היא מפעולות הטוב ותכונות הנפש אשר יתחייב ממנה הזהירות היא מעלת המדות, אבל רוב התאוה הוא הקצה הראשון והעדר הרגשת ההנאה לגמרי הוא הקצה האחרון, ושניהם רע גמור, ושתי תכונות הנפש אשר מהן יתחייב רוב התאוה, והיא התכונה היתירה, והעדר ההרגשה, והיא התכונה החסרה, שתיהן יחד פחיתיות מפחיתיות המדות:
(1) GOOD deeds are such as are equibalanced, maintaining the mean between two equally bad extremes, the too much and the too little. 1 Virtues are psychic conditions and dispositions which are mid-way between two reprehensible extremes, one of which is characterized by an exaggeration, the other by a deficiency. Good deeds are the product of these dispositions. To illustrate, abstemiousness is a disposition which adopts a mid-course between inordinate passion and total insensibility to pleasure. Abstemiousness, then, is a proper rule of conduct, and the psychic disposition which gives rise to it is an ethical quality ; but inordinate passion, the extreme of excess, and total insensibility to enjoyment, the extreme of deficiency, are both absolutely pernicious. The psychic dispositions, from which these two extremes, inordinate passion and insensibility, result the one being an exaggeration, the other a deficiency are alike classed among moral imperfections.
(ד) ודע שאלו המעלות והפחיתיות אשר למדות לא יגיעו ויתישבו בנפש רק בכפול הפעולות הבאות מן המדה ההיא פעמים רבות בזמן ארוך והרגילינו בהם, ואם היו הפעולות ההם טובות יהיה המגיע לנו מעלה, ואם היו רעו יהיה המגיע לנו פחיתות, ומפני שאין האדם בטבעו מתחילת ענינו בעל מעלה, ולא בעל חסרון, כמו שנבאר בפרק השמיני, והוא ירגיל בלא ספק פעולות מקטנותו כפי מנהג קרוביו ואנשי ארצו, ואפשר שיהיו הפעולות ההם ממוצעות, ואפשר שיהיו מותירות או מחסרות, כמו שספרנו ותהיה נפשו חולה.
(4) Know, moreover, that these moral excellences or defects cannot be acquired, or implanted in the soul, except by means of the frequent repetition of acts resulting from these qualities, which, practised during a long period of time, accustoms us to them. If these acts performed are good ones, then we shall have gained a virtue; but if they are bad, we shall have acquired a vice.
Cheshbon Hanefesh, par. 67, Equanimity (מנוחת הנפש)
Rise above events that are inconsequential — both bad and good — for they are not worth disturbing your equanitnity.
67. As long as a man's mind is settled, his intellectual spirit quietly stands guard, spreading its light upon his mind as if it were a torch atop the edifice of his body. The animal spirit is sent to spread this light of knowledge throughout the entire body via the conduits of the brain.* It apprises the limbs of the commands and will of the sublime soul, and returns their message to its sender through the feelings and sensations which are aroused in them. As the verse (MISHLEI 20:27) states: A man's soul is the lamp of God; it seeks out all the hidden recesses. At such times [i.e, when his mind is settled], man has free choice and the control over his spirit to take the time to focus hi thouhts upon exercising his sovereignty [over his animal spirit] and to devise strategies that activate or restrain his animal spirit for his personal benefit in this world and in the World to Come.
Section II--Patience (סבלנות)
When something bad happens to you and you did not have the power to avoid it, do not aggravate the situation even more through wasted grief.
[Lefin goes on to explain that the pain we feel after having committed wrongs spur us to repent. This is useful, constructive, pain. The pain that we feel naturally was given to us by God to direct us on the right path].
As concerns those serious incidents which come upon us unavoidably and which we were powerless to prepare for or which we could not deal with once they transpired, God has provided us with a remedial regimen — patience. Through this trait, one can dull the soul's pain much as physical pain can be dulled by drugs which harden the nerves that stem from the brain and its membranes. As the verse (ibid. 18:16) states: Man's spirit sustains him in sickness. Hence, we must fulfill God's will; i.e., at first we must exert ourselves, employing the wisdom and understanding which He has granted us, to guard our steps and use them [i.e., wisdom and understanding] as best we can. If, despite our efforts, we are faced with evil through His providence, we are still obligated to recognize this last favor of His — i.e., the trait of patience which He has given us. We are to utilize it as a means of lessening our pain and accept our wounds as those inflicted by our faithful lover, the exalted Benefactor, for beyond doubt, they [our pain] too were only created for our benefit.
Section III Order (סדר)
All your actions and possessions should be orderly--each and every one in a set place and at a set time. Let your thoughts always be free to deal with that which lies ahead of you...
One should be extraordinarily careful not to allow himself to become confused and must condition himself to focus all of his attention on what he is doing at the moment.
Section IV Decisiveness (חריצות)
All of your acts should be preceded by deliberation; when you have reached a decision, act without hesitating.
Section IX Diligence (זריזות, איסור הבטלה)
Always find something to do--for yourself or for a friend and don't allow a moment of your life to be wasted.