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Lessons Of Bruriah
Source Sheet by Jessica Shafrin
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Created June 12, 2023 · 100 Views נוצר 12 June, 2023 · 100 צפיות

  1. וְאֵין לָהּ פִּדְיוֹן, וַאֲסוּרָה לְזָרִים. הָנָךְ נְפִישָׁן. וְאִיבָּעֵית אֵימָא: קֹדֶשׁ חָמוּר שֶׁכֵּן עָנוּשׁ כָּרֵת. רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק אָמַר, אָמַר קְרָא: ״תִּתֵּן לוֹ״. ״לוֹ״ — וְלֹא לְאוּרוֹ. מִכְּלָל דְּבַת אוּרוֹ הוּא. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר כּוּ׳: מַאי טַעְמָא? אָמַר רָבָא: מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁרֵיחוֹ רַע גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַנִּיחֶנָּה וְיֵצֵא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי: וְיֵצֵא! אֲמַר לֵיהּ: שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר הַדְלָקַת נֵר בְּשַׁבָּת חוֹבָה. דְּאָמַר רַב נַחְמָן בַּר רַב זַבְדָּא, וְאָמְרִי לַהּ אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן בַּר רָבָא אָמַר רַב: הַדְלָקַת נֵר בְּשַׁבָּת חוֹבָה, רְחִיצַת יָדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִם בְּחַמִּין עַרְבִית, רְשׁוּת. וַאֲנִי אוֹמֵר: מִצְוָה. מַאי מִצְוָה? דְּאָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר רַב: כָּךְ הָיָה מִנְהָגוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר אִלְעַאי, עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת מְבִיאִים לוֹ עֲרֵיבָה מְלֵאָה חַמִּין וְרוֹחֵץ פָּנָיו יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וּמִתְעַטֵּף, וְיוֹשֵׁב בִּסְדִינִין הַמְצוּיָּיצִין, וְדוֹמֶה לְמַלְאַךְ ה׳ צְבָאוֹת. וְהָיוּ תַּלְמִידָיו מְחַבִּין מִמֶּנּוּ כַּנְפֵי כְסוּתָן. אָמַר לָהֶן: בָּנַי, לֹא כָּךְ שָׁנִיתִי לָכֶם: סָדִין בְּצִיצִית, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי פּוֹטְרִין וּבֵית הִלֵּל מְחַיְּיבִין — וַהֲלָכָה כְּדִבְרֵי בֵּית הִלֵּל. וְאִינְהוּ סָבְרִי, גְּזֵירָה מִשּׁוּם כְּסוּת לַיְלָה. ״וַתִּזְנַח מִשָּׁלוֹם נַפְשִׁי נָשִׁיתִי טוֹבָה״. מַאי ״וַתִּזְנַח מִשָּׁלוֹם נַפְשִׁי״ — אָמַר רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ: זוֹ הַדְלָקַת נֵר בְּשַׁבָּת. ״נָשִׁיתִי טוֹבָה״ — אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה: זוֹ בֵּית הַמֶּרְחָץ. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן זוֹ רְחִיצַת יָדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִם בְּחַמִּין. רַבִּי יִצְחָק נַפָּחָא אָמַר: זוֹ מִטָּה נָאָה וְכֵלִים נָאִים שֶׁעָלֶיהָ. רַבִּי אַבָּא אָמַר: זוֹ מִטָּה מוּצַּעַת וְאִשָּׁה מְקוּשֶּׁטֶת לְתַלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים. תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: אֵיזֶהוּ עָשִׁיר? — כׇּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ נַחַת רוּחַ בְּעׇשְׁרוֹ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. סִימָן מטק״ס. רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן אוֹמֵר: כׇּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מֵאָה כְּרָמִים וּמֵאָה שָׂדוֹת וּמֵאָה עֲבָדִים שֶׁעוֹבְדִין בָּהֶן. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר: כֹּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ אִשָּׁה נָאָה בְּמַעֲשִׂים. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר: כֹּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בֵּית הַכִּסֵּא סָמוּךְ לְשׁוּלְחָנוֹ. תַּנְיָא רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר: אֵין מַדְלִיקִין בִּצְרִי. מַאי טַעְמָא? — אָמַר רַבָּה: מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁרֵיחוֹ נוֹדֵף גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִסְתַּפֵּק מִמֶּנּוּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי:

    the Sages taught: Who is wealthy? Anyone who gets pleasure from his wealth, that is the statement of Rabbi Meir. The letters mem (Meir), tet (Tarfon), kuf (Akiva), samekh (Yosei) are a mnemonic for the tannaim who expressed opinions on this matter. Rabbi Tarfon says: A wealthy person is anyone who has one hundred vineyards, and one hundred fields, and one hundred slaves working in them. Rabbi Akiva says: Anyone who has a wife whose actions are pleasant.

  2. אוֹמֵר בֶּן עַזַּאי: חַיָּיב אָדָם לְלַמֵּד אֶת וְכוּ׳. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר: כׇּל הַמְלַמֵּד אֶת בִּתּוֹ תּוֹרָה — מְלַמְּדָהּ תִּיפְלוּת. תִּיפְלוּת סָלְקָא דַּעְתָּךְ? אֶלָּא אֵימָא: כְּאִילּוּ לִמְּדָהּ תִּיפְלוּת. אָמַר רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ: מַאי טַעְמָא דְּרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, דִּכְתִיב: ״אֲנִי חׇכְמָה שָׁכַנְתִּי עׇרְמָה״, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה חׇכְמָה בְּאָדָם — נִכְנְסָה עִמּוֹ עַרְמוּמִית.
    § The mishna states: From here ben Azzai states: A person is obligated to teach his daughter Torah, so that if she drinks and does not die immediately, she will know that some merit of hers has delayed her punishment. Rabbi Eliezer says: Anyone who teaches his daughter Torah is teaching her promiscuity. The Gemara asks: Could it enter your mind to say that teaching one’s daughter Torah is actually teaching her promiscuity? Rather, say: It is considered as if he taught her promiscuity. Rabbi Abbahu says: What is the reason for Rabbi Eliezer’s statement? It is as it is written: “I, wisdom, dwell with cunning” (Proverbs 8:12), which indicates that once wisdom enters into a person, cunning enters with it. Rabbi Eliezer fears that the woman will use the cunning she achieves by learning the wisdom of the Torah to engage in promiscuous behavior.
  3. הָנְהוּ בִּרְיוֹנֵי דַּהֲווֹ בְּשִׁבָבוּתֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי מֵאִיר וַהֲווֹ קָא מְצַעֲרוּ לֵיהּ טוּבָא. הֲוָה קָא בָּעֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר רַחֲמֵי עִלָּוַיְהוּ כִּי הֵיכִי דְּלֵימוּתוּ. אָמְרָה לֵיהּ בְּרוּרְיָא דְּבֵיתְהוּ: מַאי דַּעְתָּךְ — מִשּׁוּם דִּכְתִיב ״יִתַּמּוּ חַטָּאִים״, מִי כְּתִיב ״חוֹטְאִים״? ״חַטָּאִים״ כְּתִיב. וְעוֹד, שְׁפֵיל לְסֵיפֵיהּ דִּקְרָא ״וּרְשָׁעִים עוֹד אֵינָם״, כֵּיוָן דְּ״יִתַּמּוּ חַטָּאִים״ ״וּרְשָׁעִים עוֹד אֵינָם״? אֶלָּא בְּעִי רַחֲמֵי עִלָּוַיְהוּ דְּלַהְדְּרוּ בִּתְשׁוּבָה, ״וּרְשָׁעִים עוֹד אֵינָם״. בְּעָא רַחֲמֵי עִלָּוַיְהוּ, וַהֲדַרוּ בִּתְשׁוּבָה.

    There were hooligans in Rabbi Meir’s neighborhood who caused him a great deal of anguish. Rabbi Meir prayed for God to "have mercy" on them, that they should die. Rabbi Meir’s wife, Bruriah, said to him: What is your thinking? On what basis do you pray for the death of these hooligans? Do you base yourself on the verse, as it is written: “Let sins cease from the land” (Psalms 104:35), which you interpret to mean that the world would be better if the wicked were destroyed? But is it written, let sinners cease?” Let sins cease, is written. One should pray for an end to their transgressions, not for the demise of the transgressors themselves. Moreover, go to the end of the verse, where it says: “And the wicked will be no more.” If, as you suggest, transgressions shall cease refers to the demise of the evildoers, how is it possible that the wicked will be no more, i.e., that they will no longer be evil? Rather, pray for God to have mercy on them, that they should repent. Rabbi Meir saw that Bruriah was correct and he prayed for God to have mercy on them, and they repented.

  4. רבי יוסי הגלילי הוה קא אזיל באורחא אשכחה לברוריה. אמר לה "באיזו דרך נלך ללוד?" אמרה ליה "גלילי שוטה. לא כך אמרו חכמים אל תרבה שיחה עם האשה? היה לך'לומר 'באיזה ללוד?'"
    Rabbi Yosei HaGelili was walking along the way, and met Berurya. He said to her: "On which path shall we walk in order to get to Lod?" She said to him: Foolish Galilean, didn’t the Sages say: Do not talk much with women? You should have said: "Which way to Lod?"
  5. רבי שמלאי אתא לקמיה דרבי יוחנן אמר ליה ניתני לי מר ספר יוחסין אמר ליה מהיכן את אמר ליה מלוד והיכן מותבך בנהרדעא אמר ליה אין נידונין לא ללודים ולא לנהרדעים וכל שכן דאת מלוד ומותבך בנהרדעא כפייה וארצי

     

    אמר ליה ניתנייה בתלתא ירחי שקל קלא פתק ביה אמר ליה ומה ברוריה דביתהו דרבי מאיר ברתיה דרבי חנניה בן תרדיון דתניא תלת מאה שמעתתא ביומא מתלת מאה רבוותא ואפילו הכי לא יצתה ידי חובתה בתלת שנין ואת אמרת בתלתא ירחי

    There is a fundamental problem in the mishna that was clarified during the course of a particular incident: Rabbi Simlai came before Rabbi Yoḥanan. He said to him: Would the Master teach me the Book of Genealogies? The Book of Genealogies was a collection of tannaitic teachings that formed a midrash on the book of Chronicles. Rabbi Yoḥanan said to him: Where are you from? He said to him: From Lod. Rabbi Yoḥanan further asked: And where is your present place of residence? He said to him: In Neharde’a. Rabbi Yoḥanan said to him: I have a tradition that we teach these subjects neither to Lodites nor to Neharde’ans, and certainly not to you who comes from Lod and your residence is in Neharde’a, such that you have both shortcomings. Rabbi Simlai pressured Rabbi Yoḥanan until he agreed to teach him.

     

    Rabbi Simlai said to him: Teach me the Book of Genealogies in three months. Rabbi Yoḥanan took a clod of dirt, threw it at him, and said to him: Berurya, wife of Rabbi Meir and daughter of Rabbi Ḥananya ben Teradyon, was so sharp and had such a good memory that she learned three hundred halakhot in one day from three hundred Sages, and nonetheless she did not fulfill her responsibility to properly learn the Book of Genealogies in three years because it is especially long and difficult. And you say that I should teach it to you in three months? After your inappropriate request, I am not inclined to teach you at all.

  6. Rachel Adler, "The Virgin in the Brothel and Other Anomalies: Character and Context in the Legend of Beruriah"
    Those who teach us inevitably teach us themselves, since all learning flows through the medium of the relationship. Our teachers bind us to them with their stories. We take into ourselves their Torah sealed inextricably in narrative and with it their blunders, their blindness, their brutalities. God may heal the brokenhearted, but it is our teachers who break those hearts. Our teachers break our hearts when they do not see how their Torah is bounded by their context.
  7. What is Midrash?

    Midrash is an interpretive act, seeking the answers to religious questions (both practical and theological) by plumbing the meaning of the words of the Torah. (In the Bible, the root d-r-sh [דרשׁ] is used to mean inquiring into any matter, including occasionally to seek out God’s word.) Midrash responds to contemporary problems and crafts new stories, making connections between new Jewish realities and the unchanging biblical text. (My Jewish Learning)

  8. Herbed Focaccia Bread: (The connection to an herbed focaccia bread as a midrash of Beruriah is by Helene Jawhara Piner)

     

    Ingredients:

    • 4 cups all-purpose flour
    • 2 teaspoons kosher salt
    • 2¼ teaspoons instant yeast (1 packet)
    • 2 cups warm tap water
    • 1 teaspoon soft butter for greasing pan
    • 4 tablespoons olive oil divided
    • Italian seasoning or finely chopped fresh herbs- including parsley (a reminder of the tears she shed during the attacks on her and the deaths of her sons)
    • candied tomatoes (to represent that even if simple suffices, we can always go further)
    • "Spirnkles" of zaatar or olives to complete the dish like the pearls on the bread whose "worth is far beyond that of rubies" (proverbs 3:10)
    • flaky sea salt 

     

    Prepare the dough:

    1. In a medium-large bowl, combine flour, salt, and instant yeast. Stir well. Add the warm water. Using a Danish Whisk, sturdy wooden spoon or a rubber spatula, mix until all of the flour is well incorporated (there should be no small pockets of flour. Cover the bowl with a plastic wrap and refrigerate for at least 8 hours and up to 24 hours.

    2. Lightly butter two 9-inch cake pans. Line pans with parchment paper. Pour one tablespoon of olive oil into the center of each pan. Divide dough in half with a large spoon or rubber spatula and place one piece of dough in each pan, turning to coat with oil. Tuck edges of dough underneath to form a rough ball.

    3. Cover each pan tightly with plastic wrap and allow the dough balls to rest for 2 hours (it may take as long as 3 hours, depending on the warmth of your kitchen). The dough should cover most of the pan.

    4. Preheat oven to 450˚F with a rack positioned in the center of the oven.

    5. Drizzle another tablespoon of oil over each round of dough. With oiled fingers, using both hands, press straight down and create deep dimples that go all the way through the dough (in other words, you'll actually be making deep holes.) If necessary, gently stretch the dough as you dimple to allow the dough to fill the pan.

    6. Sprinkle tops with Italian seasoning (or fresh herbs) and flaky sea salt.

    7. Bake:

    8. Transfer the pans to the oven and immediately reduce the temperature to 425˚F. Bake for 22 to 28 minutes, until the tops are golden and the undersides are crisp. Remove pans from the oven. With a metal spatula remove bread rounds from the pans and transfer to a cooling rack.

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