Imaginary Prayer

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(יא) וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֶל־יוֹסֵ֔ף רְאֹ֥ה פָנֶ֖יךָ לֹ֣א פִלָּ֑לְתִּי וְהִנֵּ֨ה הֶרְאָ֥ה אֹתִ֛י אֱלֹקִ֖ים גַּ֥ם אֶת־זַרְעֶֽךָ׃

(11) And Israel said to Joseph, “I never thought (alt. expected) to see you again, and here God has let me see your children as well.”

(ז) וְעַתָּ֗ה הָשֵׁ֤ב אֵֽשֶׁת־הָאִישׁ֙ כִּֽי־נָבִ֣יא ה֔וּא וְיִתְפַּלֵּ֥ל בַּֽעַדְךָ֖ וֶֽחְיֵ֑ה וְאִם־אֵֽינְךָ֣ מֵשִׁ֔יב דַּ֚ע כִּי־מ֣וֹת תָּמ֔וּת אַתָּ֖ה וְכׇל־אֲשֶׁר־לָֽךְ׃

(7) Therefore, restore the man’s wife—since he is a prophet, he will intercede for you—to save your life. If you fail to restore her, know that you shall die, you and all that are yours.”

(יז) וַיִּתְפַּלֵּ֥ל אַבְרָהָ֖ם אֶל־הָאֱלֹקִ֑ים וַיִּרְפָּ֨א אֱלֹקִ֜ים אֶת־אֲבִימֶ֧לֶךְ וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּ֛וֹ וְאַמְהֹתָ֖יו וַיֵּלֵֽדוּ׃

(17) Abraham then prayed to God, and God healed Abimelech and his wife and his slave girls, so that they bore children;

פָּלַל Transliteration pālal pronunciation paw-lal' Part of Speech verb

Root Word (Etymology)

A primitive root

Dictionary Aids

TWOT Reference: 1776

KJV Translation Count — Total: 84x

The KJV translates Strong's H6419 in the following manner: pray (74x), made (3x), judge (2x), intreat (1x), judgment (1x), prayer (1x), supplication (1x), thought (1x).

Outline of Biblical Usage [?]

  1. to intervene, interpose, pray

    1. (Piel) to mediate, judge

    2. (Hithpael)

      1. to intercede

      2. to pray

see Strong's Biblical Concordance

לא פללתי לשון תפלה כמו ויעמוד פנחס ויפלל לא התפללתי לראות פניך שהרי אמרתי טרוף טורף יוסף. ד״‎א לא דנתי בלבי. כל פלול לשון דין.

לא פללתי, an expression describing prayer as a request from G-d. We find this word in this sense also in Psalms 106,30, where it quotes Pinchas as having prayed. Yaakov says that he had not even prayed to see Joseph again, as it would have been inappropriate seeing that he thought he had seen evidence that Joseph had been the victim of a wild beast. (Genesis 37,33) An alternate explanation: whenever this word occurs it refers to making a judgment, i.e. arriving at a definitive conclusion. Yaakov would have been saying that he had never even entertained real hope to see Joseph again. (Rash’bam)

פללתי. לא שפטתי בדעתי, ונקראת המשפט בלשון פלול או תפלה כי התפלה הוא המשפט השכלי, והמחשבה הנבחרת, כמו שנקראת ג"כ התפלה, שיחה, כי היא הדבור האמתי, ובזה נשלמו שני תנאי התפלה, המחשבה והדבור.

לא פללתי, I did not judge in my mind, and judgement is th elanguage of Palul or Tefilah becasue prayer is the mind's judgement, and chosen thought, such as it is written also The Prayer, conversation, because it is pure speech, and with this is synthesised the two components of prayer: thought and speech.

וטעם לא פללתי. לא דנתי בלבי. מגזרת פלילים:

[I HAD NOT THOUGHT.] Pillalti (I thought) means, my mind never judged that I would ever see you. It comes from the same root as pelilim (judges) (Deut. 32:31).

לא פללתי, מן ונתן בפלילים (שמות כ"א) כלומר לא דנתי בעצמי ולא חשבתי שאראך עוד, כי חשבתי שאתה מת. ויש מפרשים פללתי ענין תפלה, כי לתפלת שוא הייתי חושב זאת התפלה, כי באמת הייתי חושב שאתה מת:

לא פללתי, related to the word ונתן בפלילים (Exodus 21,22) meaning here “I have not judged the situation and responsibility by myself but have left it to independent judges who are without prejudice.” As far as Joseph’s fate was concerned, Yaakov said that he had not arrived at definitive conclusions but had not dared hope that he would ever see him again. Some commentators relate the word פללתי to the word תפלה, prayer, in which case Yaakov was saying to Joseph that he had not prayed to G’d concerning being reunited with Joseph in this life as he had considered it a forbidden, vain prayer, i.e. uttering the Lord’s name in vain, seeing that all the evidence he had at his disposal indicated that Joseph was already dead. (compare Midrash Lekach Tov on this paragraph)

לא פללתי. לֹא מְלָאַנִי לִבִּי לַחֲשֹׁב מַחֲשָׁבָה שֶׁאֶרְאֶה פָנֶיךָ עוֹד. פללתי לְשׁוֹן מַחֲשָׁבָה, כְּמוֹ הָבִיאִי עֵצָה עֲשִׂי פְלִילָה (ישעיהו ט"ז):

לא פללתי I HAD NOT CONTEMPLATED — I had never dared to cherish the thought that I would again see your face. פללתי is an expression for thinking, like the noun in (Isaiah 16:3) “Give counsel, carry out the thought (פלילה)”.

לא מלאני לבי לחשוב מחשבה כו'. דקשה לרש"י פשיטא כיון דסבר שטרוף טורף איך יחשוב מחשבה לראות אותו ועל זה פי' לא מלאני לבי כלומר לא עלתה על דעתי מחשבה אחרת ולומר שמא לא נטרף ואראה אותך חי:

I did not dare have any thought... Rashi is answering the question: Yaakov thought that “Yoseif has been torn to pieces” (37:33). If so, why would he think he would see him? Thus Rashi explains, “I did not dare have any thought.” In other words, it never occurred to me to think differently, that perhaps you were not torn up and I will see you alive.

פלא פלאים

דבר מדהים שאין לו הסבר

Hanuka Song

The Hebrew word for "to pray" ("hitpalel) does not mean “to ask" or "to petition" God. It is derived from a stem, pll, that is closest in meaning to the last of these four types of prayer. It means to judge; therefore l'hitpalel, ("to pray"), could also be translated as "to judge oneself." Here lies a clue to the real purpose for engaging in prayer. Whether we petition God to give us what we need, or thank Him for whatever good was granted, or extol Him for His awesome attributes, all prayer is intended to help make us into better human beings.

To Pray as a Jew: A Guide to the Prayer Book and the Synagogue Service Paperback – August 13, 2019

by Hayim H. Donin p. 5

וַהֲבִיאוֹתִ֞ים אֶל־הַ֣ר קׇדְשִׁ֗י וְשִׂמַּחְתִּים֙ בְּבֵ֣ית תְּפִלָּתִ֔י עוֹלֹתֵיהֶ֧ם וְזִבְחֵיהֶ֛ם לְרָצ֖וֹן עַֽל־מִזְבְּחִ֑י כִּ֣י בֵיתִ֔י בֵּית־תְּפִלָּ֥ה יִקָּרֵ֖א לְכׇל־הָעַמִּֽים׃

I will bring them to My sacred mount
And let them rejoice in My house of prayer.
Their burnt offerings and sacrifices
Shall be welcome on My altar;
For My House shall be called
A house of prayer for all peoples.”

The Hebrew word for prayer is “hitpallel” – which is a reflexive verb literally meaning to pray to oneself. In prayer we do not only pray to God. We equally look inside ourselves – deciding what our true needs and goals are. We must ask ourselves what we want in life and why. Do we want X because it is truly our soul’s need, or because someone else has it? Is this something we can really stand before God and say this is a need? Or is it just a vain fantasy, something either not appropriate or not realistic for us? God wants us to pray to Him not because He needs to be reminded what our needs are, but so that we can understand this ourselves. Prayer is an exercise in coming closer to ourselves as much as to God.

At the end of Jacob’s life, Joseph brings his sons Ephraim and Manasseh for blessings. Jacob exclaims to Joseph “I did not even imagine seeing your face, and behold, God has also shown me your offspring (Genesis 48:11). The word Jacob uses for “imagine” is “filalti” – of the same root as the word hitpallel. Prayer is thus not only asking God for something. It is imagining becoming whom I’d like to become. Prayer is envisioning myself becoming a greater person – and asking God for the Divine assistance to help me get there.

See: How to Pray Well. by Rabbi Dovid Rosenfeld

(דף ז) אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי יוסי בן זמרא מנין שהקב״ה מתפלל שנאמר (שם נו ז) והביאותים אל הר קדשי ושמחתים בבית תפלתי תפלתם לא נאמר אלא תפלתי מכאן שהקדוש ברוך הוא מצלי. מאי מצלי אמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב יהי רצון מלפני שיכבשו רחמי את כעסי ויגולו רחמי על מדותי ואתנהג עם בני במדת הרחמים ואכנס להם לפנים משורת הדין. תניא אמר רבי ישמעאל בן אלישע פעם אחת נכנסתי להקטיר קטורת לפני ולפנים וראיתי אכתריאל יה ה׳ צבאות יושב על כסא רם ונשא ואמר לי ישמעאל בני ברכני אמרתי לו יהי רצון מלפניך שיכבשו רחמיך את כעסך ויגולו רחמיך על מדותיך ותתנהג עם בניך במדת הרחמים ותכנס להם לפנים משורת הדין ונענה לי בראשו וקא משמע לן שלא תהא ברכת הדיוט קלה בעיניך. אמר רבי אלעזר אמר רבי חנינא לעולם אל תהי ברכת הדיוט קלה בעיניך שהרי שני גדולי הדור ברכום שני הדיוטים ונתקיימה בהם ברכתם אלו הן דוד ודניאל דוד דברכיה ארונה דכתיב (ש״ב כד כג) ויאמר ארונה אל המלך ה׳ אלקיך ירצך. דניאל דברכיה דריוש מלכא דכתיב (דניאל ו יז) אלקך די אנת פלח ליה בתדירא הוא ישזבינך:

(Fol. 7a) R. Jochanan said in the name of R. Jose b. Zimra: "Whence do we know that the Holy One, praised be He! prayeth? It is said (Is. 56, 7.) Even these will I bring to my holy mountain, and make them joyful in my house of prayer. It does not say in their [house of] prayer, but in my [house of] prayer. We learn from this that the Holy One, praised be He! prays." What doeth He pray? R. Zutra b. Tubia, in the name of Rab, said: "[Thus He prayeth] 'May it be my will that my mercy overcome my anger; and let my compassion rule over my attributes [of Justice] that I may deal with my children in attributes of kindness; and out of regard to them may I overlook Judgment.' " It is taught that Rabbi Ishmael b. Elisha said: "Once, when I entered tlie Holy of Holies to burn the incense, I saw the Lord of all Hosts sitting on a high and exalted throne, and He said to me 'Ishmael, my son, bless me!' I replied, 'Sovereign of the Universe! may it be Thy will that Thy mercy overcome Thy anger, and Thy compassion may overrule Thy other attributes; let Thy conduct toward Thy children be with the attribute of loving kindness and enter inside the line of justice; and, out of regard to them mayest Thou overlook Judgment!' The Lord shook His head at me" [as a sign confirming my prayer] . By this R. Ishmael wants to teach us that the blessing of a common man shall not be lightly esteemed. R. Elazar said in the name of R. Chanina: "Never shall the blessing of even a common man be considered insignificant in your eyes; for two great men of their generation were blessed by simple men and their blessings were fulfilled. They are: David and Daniel — David was blessed by Aravnah, as it is written (IE Sam. 24, 23.) And Aravnah said unto the king. May the Lord thy God receive thee favorably. Daniel was blessed by King Darius; as it is written (Dan. 6, 17.) May thy God whom thou dost worship continually, truly deliver thee."

ונקראת התפילה מלשון 'פלל', שהוא לשון מחשבה, כי התפילה צריכה כוונה ומחשבה שיעשה השם יתברך חפצו ורצונו, ודבר זה נקרא 'תפילה', שרצונו ומחשבתו חפץ ומבקש הטוב*. וזה שאמר 'מנין שהקב"ה מתפלל', מפני שהוא יתברך הטוב האמיתי, ורב חסד (שמות לד, ו), נקרא "חפץ בחסד", ומבקש הטוב. וזה שהוא יתברך מתפלל, רוצה לומר בקשת הטוב. והרי אין ענין התפילה רק בקשה, וזהו עצם לשון התפילה בכל מקום. רק אצל האדם בקשתו הוא מהשם יתברך, ואם לא כן, מה מועיל בקשתו כאשר יבקש דבר. ומכל מקום לשון תפילה לשון בקשה. וקאמר שהשם יתברך חפץ ומבקש בדבר זה, שיהיה הרצון לפניו שיכבשו רחמיו את כעסו, וינהג עם בניו במדת הרחמים, ויכנס לפנים משורת הדין. ומה שאמרו לשון זה 'שהקב"ה מתפלל', ולא אמרו 'שהקב"ה חפץ', או 'מבקש', דבר זה יתבאר בסמוך למה אמרו בזה הלשון דוקא.

And we call it HaTefilah from the root Palal, wihich is the language of thought. Because prayer needs intention and thought that the Holy One Blessed be He his will and desire.. And this thing is called Tefilah that His will and desire desires and requests the good. And this that it is written "Whence do we know that the Holy One, praised be He! prayeth? Because the Holy One Blessed be He is the ultimate good. And "abundant in Hesed and faithfulness," (Exodus 34: 6) is called "desiring in Hesed" and requesting good. And this is what is meant the the Blessed One prays, meaning to say He requests good.....

And that which it says this langauge: "Whence do we know that the Holy One, praised be He! prayeth? it doesn't say that the Holy one wishes or desires... this thing is clear with the language that is chosen.

והרמב"ם כתב בספרו בחלק ב' בפרק י"ח, כי הפועל ברצון, ולא יפעל בשביל תכלית מה, רק שהוא נמשך לרצונו, כאשר יפעל מפעל מה שלא פעל עד עתה, אין זה שנוי דעת שפעל עתה מה שלא פעל עד עתה, כי זהו אמתת הרצון בעצמו, שירצה, ואין זה שנוי בו. ולפי זה אמר שהוא מתפלל 'יהי רצון וכו'', כי על ידי הרצון הוא עושה מה שירצה, ונכנס לפנים משורת הדין. דאם לא כן, היה שנוי חס ושלום אצלו מן לא רוצה אל רוצה. וכאשר התפילה 'יהי רצון', אין אצלו שנוי כלל, כי הכל נמשך אחר הרצון. וכך הוא הרצון, שירצה ולא ירצה, ואין זה שנוי. לכך אמרו זה הלשון 'יהי רצון'. אך פירוש ראשון ברור בלי ספק.

....

Accordingly it says when one prays "May it be thy will", becasue dependent on the will He does what He wishes and goes beyond the letter of the law...

אֵין עוֹמְדִין לְהִתְפַּלֵּל אֶלָּא מִתּוֹךְ כֹּבֶד רֹאשׁ. חֲסִידִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים הָיוּ שׁוֹהִים שָׁעָה אַחַת וּמִתְפַּלְּלִים, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּכַוְּנוּ אֶת לִבָּם לַמָּקוֹם. אֲפִלּוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ שׁוֹאֵל בִּשְׁלוֹמוֹ, לֹא יְשִׁיבֶנּוּ. וַאֲפִלּוּ נָחָשׁ כָּרוּךְ עַל עֲקֵבוֹ, לֹא יַפְסִיק:
One may only stand and begin to pray from an approach of gravity and submission. There is a tradition that the early generations of pious men would wait one hour, in order to reach the solemn frame of mind appropriate for prayer, and then pray, so that they would focus their hearts toward their Father in Heaven. Standing in prayer is standing before God and, as such, even if the king greets him, he should not respond to him; and even if a snake is wrapped on his heel, he should not interrupt his prayer.

St. Igantius

These are the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola, a plan of contemplation to be carried out over about a month. St. Ignatius of Loyola (1419-1556) was the founder of the Jesuits, and was canonized by Pope Gregory XV in 1622. He published the Spiritual Exercises in 1548. The Exercises were intended for use during a retreat; and are a central part of the first year training of Jesuit novitiates. However, one does not have to be a Jesuit-in-training to take advantage of the Exercises: Increasingly, lay people and even non-Catholics follow this path. see

Ignatius was convinced that God can speak to us as surely through our imagination as through our thoughts and memories. In the Ignatian tradition, praying with the imagination is called contemplation. In the Exercises, contemplation is a very active way of praying that engages the mind and heart and stirs up thoughts and emotions. (Note that in other spiritual traditions, contemplation has quite a different meaning: it refers to a way of praying that frees the mind of all thoughts and images.) See

Ignatius would never have thought of himself as a highly educated intellectual. He had an advanced degree from the University of Paris, the finest university in Europe at the time. He was well-acquainted with the ideas of leading philosophers and theologians. He was an excellent analytical thinker.

But the mental quality of thought that drove his spiritual life was his remarkable imagination. His imagination played a central role in his conversion. Through his many years of directing others he discovered how useful the imagination could be in fostering a deeper relationship with God. Imaginative prayer is recognized as one of the hallmarks of Ignatian spirituality.

  1. Pray with Scripture imaginatively. Imagine the sights and sounds of a biblical story, either as an observer or as a participant in the scene. Begin with imagining a particular sound or sight, or how something in the environment might feel to the touch, and then let the scene unfold. Let God speak to you through the unique way that you experience this scene. ..
  2. Take inspiration from an object that sparks your imagination.
  3. Have a conversation with God We not only speak but also listen for replies. ... Does the conversation lead to any insights or help me to arrive at greater peace, love, or forgiveness? If so, then I know that God is speaking through this kind of prayer.
  4. Imagine another person’s point of view. Ignatius suggested that we always try to put a good interpretation onto another’s actions and assume that person’s best intentions. My own view is not the only one; another person may be experiencing the situation differently than the way that I assume.
  5. Give thanks. Bring to mind a series of pictures of people, relationships, communities, pets, or others for whom you are grateful. Give thanks as you imagine each person, place, or thing. Savor the gifts as you imagine each one.
  6. Remember the saints in heaven. Both formally recognized saints and loved ones who have passed before us are supporting us and still in relation to us, whether we feel it or not. We can remember their love for us by imagining moments of past love, as shown through deeds, and so retaining their presence in our hearts.
  7. Let go of old images of God and allow new ones to emerge. Scripture contains many images of God: God as a loving father (Psalm 68:5), spouse (Song of Songs), a mother eagle protecting her young (Deuteronomy 32:11–12), a rock or fortress (Psalm 62:6), and so many more. Throughout our lives, old images of God may fade or break, but new ones are there too. God is beyond any single image. When we allow a new side of God to emerge in new images, we expand our understanding of this great Mystery.

see

Here’s a method for using images in a new way to connect with God in prayer.

Pick an image and imagine yourself in that place — make it come to life in your mind. Then invite God to join you. Spend some time with God, maybe sharing your day or whatever is most pressing on your mind, and then, just enjoy being in God’s presence (this is contemplation! At least, that’s the hope!).

Soon, there will be thoughts and feeling rushing to claim your attention. Don’t work at stopping them, let them come. But instead of focusing on those thoughts that come, focus your attention on your breathing, focus on its rhythm, and return to what you’re seeing. Allow all these things to help you let your thoughts pass through but not stay. Stay with that for a moment.

Finally, imagine that God comes to join you — in whatever shape that flows for you. Imagine God quietly sits next to you and then just allow your prayer to unfold. Whatever happens next is up to you and God. From your end, it will be shaped by who you are — your personality and your current relationship with God. Maybe you’ll sit in awkward silence for a few minutes before going your separate ways, no words exchanged. Maybe as soon as God sits, you start talking about what’s uppermost in your mind. Maybe God speaks to you or asks you questions.

After you’ve spent some time with God, turn to say goodbye.

See: One Way to Bring Imaginative Prayer to Life, Amanda Roberts

The Saving Grace of the Tragedy

AND yet the interruption of the historical development of enlightened Judaism after the thirteenth century, the rejection of Maimonides’ philosophy as an integral element of Judaism, was not without its special blessing. It has saved us from an additional set of intellectual fetters. I can easily understand the glee and rapture of such a devoted, far-sighted Jew as Samuel David Luzzatto at the successive defeats of the Maimunists in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. For imagine our present embarrassment if the Moreh Nehukim had been accepted as an authoritative work of dogmatic theology as the Shidhan Aruk was later accepted as the authoritative code for practical religious guidance. We would then have a fixed philosophy to fetter our thinking as we now have a fixed ritual to fetter our acting. Combative orthodoxy would have to the present day insisted upon the scrapped doctrines of Aristotle and Avicenna because they had been taught by the great master. With Maimonides’ philosophy rejected, those of us who relish this kind of pastime are at liberty to synthesize our Judaism with philosophies of a later date. Happily Maimonides is our precedent; he is not our arbiter. How much more fortunate we are than the Catholics. They, too, had their Maimonides in Thomas Aquinas. It happened that the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas became the official philosophy of the Church. Ever since, the Catholic church has had to defend it, has had to retain its medieval scholasticism under the guise of neo-scholasticism. Catholicism not only has to defend its scriptures and its traditions against the onslaughts of the modern inquiring spirit ; it also has to defend the Aristotelianism of Thomas Aquinas against the heresies of modern science and philosophy.

The Craving of Reform for Modernity

BUT there is one note of warning that should be sounded. As theology by its very nature must be constantly changing, to maintain the continuity of religious thought, we must not be too prone to change the form in which theology seeks to express itself. We should endeavor to retain the old familiar forms of expression and be satisfied with merely reading some new meaning into them. It will not do to coin a new term for God every time we change our conception of him. Achad Ha-’Am has quite wisely pointed out in his essay “Sacred and Profane” the importance of having old forms retained in things sacred. And for this reason I cannot tolerate the many breaches in theological good taste on the part of our liberal Jews. Especially offensive in this respect is the Union Prayer Book which is used in most of the temples of liberal Jews throughout the United States. I do not mind the entire omission of certain passages which to my mind should not have been omitted, for this is their own belief, or rather their own misbelief. But I cannot bring myself to look with composure upon the mutilation of certain ancient phraseologies, where a mere change of meaning and new interpretation would have served the purpose. It always jars upon my sense of propriety when I hear the rabbis read “Praise be to Thee, 0 God, who hast implanted within us immortal life” in place of the old, familiar, traditional “Praise be to Thee, O God, who quickenest the dead. [בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה הֹ' מְחַיֵּה הַמֵּתִים] ” What noble bravery, forsooth, to flaunt openly, in so many words, their rejection of the belief of bodily resurrection ! What a petty display of intellectual freedom ! There was once Maimonides and with him probably a host of others who did not follow the common interpretation of resurrection as the rising to a life which is to last forever. There is none among us today, I believe, who. has greater conscientious objections than had Maimonides and his followers to uttering a belief in eternal physical life as the ultimate destiny of man, and yet they were quite satisfied to repeat three times daily the old prayer unchanged, with its undoubted traditional connotation of a belief in the rising of the dead to an eternal bodily existence. And we today, with our vague and vacillating notions about all things eschatalogical, dodging the issue whenever we are called upon to declare ourselves, drowning our ignorance and indecisions in torrents of meaningless verbiage, believing in ghosts and in spiritism,—we are objecting to the utterance of the phrase “quickenest the dead” as something blasphemous.


All this must be said because, after all, liberal Judaism is the Judaism of the future; it is the only type of Judaism that is valiantly grappling with the intellectually religious problem ; it is the most active, the most energetic spiritual force in Judaism today. It enjoys a worldly prosperity unequalled in the history of any other Jewish religious body; it has an admirable organization and an efficient, capable, contented clergy. But unfortunately it has prematurely lost its spirit of adventure, of revolt, and of experiment. It begins to look upon the youthful indiscretions of its young past as reverent precedents to bind it for all times in the future. It is afraid of changing its mind. So young, and already the opinionation of its elders prevails in its councils over the ardor of its younger men. It has set itself up as a sect, instead of remaining what it really is, a stage in the process of Judaism’s adjustment to the world. It preaches about a mission to humanity, forgetting its great mission to the Jews. It has destroyed its unlimited power for good and usefulness by alienating itself from the common strivings of the Jewish people. It affects the sanctimonious liberalism of a pharisaic Christian and the haughty pride of a decadent breed of blue blood. While Judaism is calling, it wastes itself in fighting imaginary phobias. Above all, it suffers from an excessive craving for modernity, formality, and respectability.

Wolfson, Austryn Wolfson (1923). Escaping Judaism. United States: Menorah Press, Intercollegiate Menorah Association.