Call me Ishmael

Don't miss an episode! Subscribe to the Madlik podcast: Spotify | Apple Podcasts | Google Podcasts

and Join Madlik on Clubhouse every Thursday at 8:00pm Eastern so you can participate in our weekly live discussion of the Parsha

Primogeniture

The entire Book of Genesis, is about the reversal of the iron law of primogeniture, about the election through some devious twist of destiny of a younger son to carry on the line.

A Literary Approach to the Bible, Robert Alter in: Beyond Form Criticism: Essays in Old Testament Literary Criticism (Sources for Biblical and Theological Study Old Testament Series) Vol. 2 Hardcover – Illustrated, June 30, 1992

Moby Dick - Herman Melville

CHAPTER I.


LOOMINGS.


Call me Ishmael. Some years ago—never mind how long precisely—having little or no money in my purse, and nothing particular to interest me on shore, I thought I would sail about a little and see the watery part of the world. It is a way I have of driving off the spleen, and regulating the circulation. Whenever I find myself growing grim about the mouth ; whenever it is a damp, drizzly November in my soul ; whenever I find myself involuntarily pausing before coffin warehouses, and bringing up the rear of every funeral I meet ; and especially whenever my hypos (greek "under" depression) get such an upper hand of me, that it requires a strong moral principle to prevent me from deliberately stepping into the street, and methodically knocking people’s hats off—then, I account it high time to get to sea as soon as I can. This is my substitute for pistol and ball. With a philosophical flourish Cato throws himself upon his sword ; I quietly take to the ship. There is nothing surprising in this. If they but knew it, almost all men in their degree, some time or other, cherish very nearly the same feelings towards the ocean with me.

(א) וְשָׂרַי֙ אֵ֣שֶׁת אַבְרָ֔ם לֹ֥א יָלְדָ֖ה ל֑וֹ וְלָ֛הּ שִׁפְחָ֥ה מִצְרִ֖ית וּשְׁמָ֥הּ הָגָֽר׃ (ב) וַתֹּ֨אמֶר שָׂרַ֜י אֶל־אַבְרָ֗ם הִנֵּה־נָ֞א עֲצָרַ֤נִי ה' מִלֶּ֔דֶת בֹּא־נָא֙ אֶל־שִׁפְחָתִ֔י אוּלַ֥י אִבָּנֶ֖ה מִמֶּ֑נָּה וַיִּשְׁמַ֥ע אַבְרָ֖ם לְק֥וֹל שָׂרָֽי׃ (ג) וַתִּקַּ֞ח שָׂרַ֣י אֵֽשֶׁת־אַבְרָ֗ם אֶת־הָגָ֤ר הַמִּצְרִית֙ שִׁפְחָתָ֔הּ מִקֵּץ֙ עֶ֣שֶׂר שָׁנִ֔ים לְשֶׁ֥בֶת אַבְרָ֖ם בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן וַתִּתֵּ֥ן אֹתָ֛הּ לְאַבְרָ֥ם אִישָׁ֖הּ ל֥וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה׃ (ד) וַיָּבֹ֥א אֶל־הָגָ֖ר וַתַּ֑הַר וַתֵּ֙רֶא֙ כִּ֣י הָרָ֔תָה וַתֵּקַ֥ל גְּבִרְתָּ֖הּ בְּעֵינֶֽיהָ׃ (ה) וַתֹּ֨אמֶר שָׂרַ֣י אֶל־אַבְרָם֮ חֲמָסִ֣י עָלֶ֒יךָ֒ אָנֹכִ֗י נָתַ֤תִּי שִׁפְחָתִי֙ בְּחֵיקֶ֔ךָ וַתֵּ֙רֶא֙ כִּ֣י הָרָ֔תָה וָאֵקַ֖ל בְּעֵינֶ֑יהָ יִשְׁפֹּ֥ט ה' בֵּינִ֥י וּבֵינֶֽיׄךָ׃ (ו) וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אַבְרָ֜ם אֶל־שָׂרַ֗י הִנֵּ֤ה שִׁפְחָתֵךְ֙ בְּיָדֵ֔ךְ עֲשִׂי־לָ֖הּ הַטּ֣וֹב בְּעֵינָ֑יִךְ וַתְּעַנֶּ֣הָ שָׂרַ֔י וַתִּבְרַ֖ח מִפָּנֶֽיהָ׃ (ז) וַֽיִּמְצָאָ֞הּ מַלְאַ֧ךְ ה' עַל־עֵ֥ין הַמַּ֖יִם בַּמִּדְבָּ֑ר עַל־הָעַ֖יִן בְּדֶ֥רֶךְ שֽׁוּר׃ (ח) וַיֹּאמַ֗ר הָגָ֞ר שִׁפְחַ֥ת שָׂרַ֛י אֵֽי־מִזֶּ֥ה בָ֖את וְאָ֣נָה תֵלֵ֑כִי וַתֹּ֕אמֶר מִפְּנֵי֙ שָׂרַ֣י גְּבִרְתִּ֔י אָנֹכִ֖י בֹּרַֽחַת׃ (ט) וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לָהּ֙ מַלְאַ֣ךְ ה' שׁ֖וּבִי אֶל־גְּבִרְתֵּ֑ךְ וְהִתְעַנִּ֖י תַּ֥חַת יָדֶֽיהָ׃ (י) וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לָהּ֙ מַלְאַ֣ךְ ה' הַרְבָּ֥ה אַרְבֶּ֖ה אֶת־זַרְעֵ֑ךְ וְלֹ֥א יִסָּפֵ֖ר מֵרֹֽב׃ (יא) וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לָהּ֙ מַלְאַ֣ךְ ה' הִנָּ֥ךְ הָרָ֖ה וְיֹלַ֣דְתְּ בֵּ֑ן וְקָרָ֤את שְׁמוֹ֙ יִשְׁמָעֵ֔אל כִּֽי־שָׁמַ֥ע ה' אֶל־עׇנְיֵֽךְ׃ (יב) וְה֤וּא יִהְיֶה֙ פֶּ֣רֶא אָדָ֔ם יָד֣וֹ בַכֹּ֔ל וְיַ֥ד כֹּ֖ל בּ֑וֹ וְעַל־פְּנֵ֥י כׇל־אֶחָ֖יו יִשְׁכֹּֽן׃ (יג) וַתִּקְרָ֤א שֵׁם־ה' הַדֹּבֵ֣ר אֵלֶ֔יהָ אַתָּ֖ה אֵ֣ל רֳאִ֑י כִּ֣י אָֽמְרָ֗ה הֲגַ֥ם הֲלֹ֛ם רָאִ֖יתִי אַחֲרֵ֥י רֹאִֽי׃ (יד) עַל־כֵּן֙ קָרָ֣א לַבְּאֵ֔ר בְּאֵ֥ר לַחַ֖י רֹאִ֑י הִנֵּ֥ה בֵין־קָדֵ֖שׁ וּבֵ֥ין בָּֽרֶד׃ (טו) וַתֵּ֧לֶד הָגָ֛ר לְאַבְרָ֖ם בֵּ֑ן וַיִּקְרָ֨א אַבְרָ֧ם שֶׁם־בְּנ֛וֹ אֲשֶׁר־יָלְדָ֥ה הָגָ֖ר יִשְׁמָעֵֽאל׃ (טז) וְאַבְרָ֕ם בֶּן־שְׁמֹנִ֥ים שָׁנָ֖ה וְשֵׁ֣שׁ שָׁנִ֑ים בְּלֶֽדֶת־הָגָ֥ר אֶת־יִשְׁמָעֵ֖אל לְאַבְרָֽם׃ {ס}

(1) Sarai, Abram’s wife, had borne him no children. She had an Egyptian maidservant whose name was Hagar. (2) And Sarai said to Abram, “Look, ה' has kept me from bearing. Consort with my maid; perhaps I shall have a child through her.” And Abram heeded Sarai’s request. (3) So Sarai, Abram’s wife, took her maid, Hagar the Egyptian—after Abram had dwelt in the land of Canaan ten years—and gave her to her husband Abram as concubine. (4) He cohabited with Hagar and she conceived; and when she saw that she had conceived, her mistress was lowered in her esteem. (5) And Sarai said to Abram, “The wrong done me is your fault! I myself put my maid in your bosom; now that she sees that she is pregnant, I am lowered in her esteem. ה' decide between you and me!” (6) Abram said to Sarai, “Your maid is in your hands. Deal with her as you think right.” Then Sarai treated her harshly, and she ran away from her. (7) A messenger of ה' found her by a spring of water in the wilderness, the spring on the road to Shur, (8) and said, “Hagar, slave of Sarai, where have you come from, and where are you going?” And she said, “I am running away from my mistress Sarai.” (9) And the messenger of ה' said to her, “Go back to your mistress, and submit to her harsh treatment.” (10) And the messenger of ה' said to her,
“I will greatly increase your offspring,
And they shall be too many to count.”
(11) The messenger of ה' said to her further,
“Behold, you are pregnant
And shall bear a son;
You shall call him Ishmael,
For ה' has paid heed to your suffering.

(12) He shall be a wild ass of a person;
His hand against everyone,
And everyone’s hand against him;
He shall dwell alongside of all his kin.”
(13) And she called ה' who spoke to her, “You Are El-roi,” by which she meant, “Have I not gone on seeing after my being seen!” (14) Therefore the well was called Beer-lahai-roi; it is between Kadesh and Bered.— (15) Hagar bore a son to Abram, and Abram gave the son that Hagar bore him the name Ishmael. (16) Abram was eighty-six years old when Hagar bore Ishmael to Abram.

(טו) וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֱלֹקִים֙ אֶל־אַבְרָהָ֔ם שָׂרַ֣י אִשְׁתְּךָ֔ לֹא־תִקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמָ֖הּ שָׂרָ֑י כִּ֥י שָׂרָ֖ה שְׁמָֽהּ׃ (טז) וּבֵרַכְתִּ֣י אֹתָ֔הּ וְגַ֨ם נָתַ֧תִּי מִמֶּ֛נָּה לְךָ֖ בֵּ֑ן וּבֵֽרַכְתִּ֙יהָ֙ וְהָֽיְתָ֣ה לְגוֹיִ֔ם מַלְכֵ֥י עַמִּ֖ים מִמֶּ֥נָּה יִהְיֽוּ׃ (יז) וַיִּפֹּ֧ל אַבְרָהָ֛ם עַל־פָּנָ֖יו וַיִּצְחָ֑ק וַיֹּ֣אמֶר בְּלִבּ֗וֹ הַלְּבֶ֤ן מֵאָֽה־שָׁנָה֙ יִוָּלֵ֔ד וְאִ֨ם־שָׂרָ֔ה הֲבַת־תִּשְׁעִ֥ים שָׁנָ֖ה תֵּלֵֽד׃ (יח) וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אַבְרָהָ֖ם אֶל־הָֽאֱלֹקִ֑ים ל֥וּ יִשְׁמָעֵ֖אל יִחְיֶ֥ה לְפָנֶֽיךָ׃ (יט) וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹקִ֗ים אֲבָל֙ שָׂרָ֣ה אִשְׁתְּךָ֗ יֹלֶ֤דֶת לְךָ֙ בֵּ֔ן וְקָרָ֥אתָ אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ יִצְחָ֑ק וַהֲקִמֹתִ֨י אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֥י אִתּ֛וֹ לִבְרִ֥ית עוֹלָ֖ם לְזַרְע֥וֹ אַחֲרָֽיו׃ (כ) וּֽלְיִשְׁמָעֵאל֮ שְׁמַעְתִּ֒יךָ֒ הִנֵּ֣ה ׀ בֵּרַ֣כְתִּי אֹת֗וֹ וְהִפְרֵיתִ֥י אֹת֛וֹ וְהִרְבֵּיתִ֥י אֹת֖וֹ בִּמְאֹ֣ד מְאֹ֑ד שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂ֤ר נְשִׂיאִם֙ יוֹלִ֔יד וּנְתַתִּ֖יו לְג֥וֹי גָּדֽוֹל׃ (כא) וְאֶת־בְּרִיתִ֖י אָקִ֣ים אֶת־יִצְחָ֑ק אֲשֶׁר֩ תֵּלֵ֨ד לְךָ֤ שָׂרָה֙ לַמּוֹעֵ֣ד הַזֶּ֔ה בַּשָּׁנָ֖ה הָאַחֶֽרֶת׃ (כב) וַיְכַ֖ל לְדַבֵּ֣ר אִתּ֑וֹ וַיַּ֣עַל אֱלֹקִ֔ים מֵעַ֖ל אַבְרָהָֽם׃

(15) And God said to Abraham, “As for your wife Sarai, you shall not call her Sarai, but her name shall be Sarah. (16) I will bless her; indeed, I will give you a son by her. I will bless her so that she shall give rise to nations; rulers of peoples shall issue from her.” (17) Abraham threw himself on his face and laughed, as he said to himself, “Can a child be born to a man a hundred years old, or can Sarah bear a child at ninety?” (18) And Abraham said to God, “O that Ishmael might live by Your favor!” (19) God said, “Nevertheless, Sarah your wife shall bear you a son, and you shall name him Isaac; and I will maintain My covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his offspring to come. (20) As for Ishmael, I have heeded you. I hereby bless him. I will make him fertile and exceedingly numerous. He shall be the father of twelve chieftains, and I will make of him a great nation. (21) But My covenant I will maintain with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear to you at this season next year.” (22) Done speaking with him, God was gone from Abraham.

לו ישמעאל יחיה לפניך פירושו יחיה ויתקיים זרעו כל ימי עולם:

‘LU’ (O) THAT ISHMAEL MIGHT LIVE BEFORE THEE. its meaning is that he live and his seed will always exist.

(י) וַתֹּ֙אמֶר֙ לְאַבְרָהָ֔ם גָּרֵ֛שׁ הָאָמָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את וְאֶת־בְּנָ֑הּ כִּ֣י לֹ֤א יִירַשׁ֙ בֶּן־הָאָמָ֣ה הַזֹּ֔את עִם־בְּנִ֖י עִם־יִצְחָֽק׃ (יא) וַיֵּ֧רַע הַדָּבָ֛ר מְאֹ֖ד בְּעֵינֵ֣י אַבְרָהָ֑ם עַ֖ל אוֹדֹ֥ת בְּנֽוֹ׃

(10) She said to Abraham, “Cast out that slave-woman and her son, for the son of that slave shall not share in the inheritance with my son Isaac. (11) The matter distressed Abraham greatly, for it concerned a son of his.

(כ) וַיְהִ֧י אֱלֹקִ֛ים אֶת־הַנַּ֖עַר וַיִּגְדָּ֑ל וַיֵּ֙שֶׁב֙ בַּמִּדְבָּ֔ר וַיְהִ֖י רֹבֶ֥ה קַשָּֽׁת׃ (כא) וַיֵּ֖שֶׁב בְּמִדְבַּ֣ר פָּארָ֑ן וַתִּֽקַּֽח־ל֥וֹ אִמּ֛וֹ אִשָּׁ֖ה מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם׃ {פ}
(20) God was with the boy and he grew up; he dwelt in the wilderness and became skilled with a bow. (21) He lived in the wilderness of Paran; and his mother got a wife for him from the land of Egypt.
(ב) וַיֹּ֡אמֶר קַח־נָ֠א אֶת־בִּנְךָ֨ אֶת־יְחִֽידְךָ֤ אֲשֶׁר־אָהַ֙בְתָּ֙ אֶת־יִצְחָ֔ק וְלֶ֨ךְ־לְךָ֔ אֶל־אֶ֖רֶץ הַמֹּרִיָּ֑ה וְהַעֲלֵ֤הוּ שָׁם֙ לְעֹלָ֔ה עַ֚ל אַחַ֣ד הֶֽהָרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר אֹמַ֥ר אֵלֶֽיךָ׃
(2) “Take your son, your favored one, Isaac, whom you love, and go to the land of Moriah, and offer him there as a burnt offering on one of the heights that I will point out to you.”
את בנך. אָמַר לוֹ שְׁנֵי בָנִים יֵשׁ לִי, אָמַר לוֹ אֶת יְחִידְךָ; אָמַר לוֹ זֶה יָחִיד לְאִמּוֹ וְזֶה יָחִיד לְאִמּוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ אֲשֶׁר אָהַבְתָּ; אָמַר לוֹ שְׁנֵיהֶם אֲנִי אוֹהֵב, אָמַר לוֹ אֶת יִצְחָק (סנהדרין פ"ט). וְלָמָּה לֹא גִּלָּה לוֹ מִתְּחִלָּה? שֶׁלֹּא לְעַרְבְּבוֹ פִּתְאוֹם וְתָזוּחַ דַּעְתּוֹ עָלָיו וְתִטָּרֵף, וּכְדֵי לְחַבֵּב עָלָיו אֶת הַמִּצְוָה וְלִתֵּן לוֹ שָׂכָר עַל כָּל דִּבּוּר וְדִבּוּר:
את בנך THY SON — Abraham said to God, “I have two sons”. “He answered him, “Thine only son”. Abraham said, “This one is the only son of his mother and the other is the only son of his mother”. God then said, “the one whom thou lovest”. Abraham replied, “I love both of them”. Whereupon God said “even Isaac”. Why did He not disclose this to him at the very first? So as not to confuse him suddenly lest his mind become distracted and bewildered and in his confused state he would involuntarily consent, when there would have been no merit in his sacrifice, and so that he might more highly value God’s command and that God might reward him for the increasing sacrifice demanded by obedience to each and every expression used here (Genesis Rabbah 55:7).
(א) וַיֹּ֧סֶף אַבְרָהָ֛ם וַיִּקַּ֥ח אִשָּׁ֖ה וּשְׁמָ֥הּ קְטוּרָֽה׃ (ב) וַתֵּ֣לֶד ל֗וֹ אֶת־זִמְרָן֙ וְאֶת־יׇקְשָׁ֔ן וְאֶת־מְדָ֖ן וְאֶת־מִדְיָ֑ן וְאֶת־יִשְׁבָּ֖ק וְאֶת־שֽׁוּחַ׃ (ג) וְיׇקְשָׁ֣ן יָלַ֔ד אֶת־שְׁבָ֖א וְאֶת־דְּדָ֑ן וּבְנֵ֣י דְדָ֔ן הָי֛וּ אַשּׁוּרִ֥ם וּלְטוּשִׁ֖ם וּלְאֻמִּֽים׃ (ד) וּבְנֵ֣י מִדְיָ֗ן עֵיפָ֤ה וָעֵ֙פֶר֙ וַחֲנֹ֔ךְ וַאֲבִידָ֖ע וְאֶלְדָּעָ֑ה כׇּל־אֵ֖לֶּה בְּנֵ֥י קְטוּרָֽה׃ (ה) וַיִּתֵּ֧ן אַבְרָהָ֛ם אֶת־כׇּל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֖וֹ לְיִצְחָֽק׃ (ו) וְלִבְנֵ֤י הַפִּֽילַגְשִׁים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לְאַבְרָהָ֔ם נָתַ֥ן אַבְרָהָ֖ם מַתָּנֹ֑ת וַֽיְשַׁלְּחֵ֞ם מֵעַ֨ל יִצְחָ֤ק בְּנוֹ֙ בְּעוֹדֶ֣נּוּ חַ֔י קֵ֖דְמָה אֶל־אֶ֥רֶץ קֶֽדֶם׃
(1) Abraham took another wife, whose name was Keturah. (2) She bore him Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah. (3) Jokshan begot Sheba and Dedan. The descendants of Dedan were the Asshurim, the Letushim, and the Leummim. (4) The descendants of Midian were Ephah, Epher, Enoch, Abida, and Eldaah. All these were descendants of Keturah. (5) Abraham willed all that he owned to Isaac; (6) but to Abraham’s sons by concubines Abraham gave gifts while he was still living, and he sent them away from his son Isaac eastward, to the land of the East.
קטורה. זוֹ הָגָר, וְנִקְרֵאת קְטוּרָה עַל שֶׁנָּאִים מַעֲשֶׁיהָ כִּקְטֹרֶת (בראשית רבה), וְשֶׁקָּשְׁרָה פִּתְחָהּ, שֶֶׁלֹא נִזְדַּוְּגָה לְאָדָם מִיּוֹם שֶׁפֵּרְשָׁה מֵאַבְרָהָם:
קטורה KETURAH — This is Hagar. She was named Keturah because her deeds were as beautiful (sweet) as incense (Ketoreth) (Genesis Rabbah 61). And since she closed her 'opening,' as she did not mate with anyone from the time she separated from Avraham (Genesis Rabbah 61:4).

רבן גמליאל אומר, שלח וקרא לשם בן נח ומל את בשר ערלתו ובשר ערלת ישמעאל בנו, שנאמר (בראשית יז, כו):

Rabban Gamaliel said: Abraham sent and called for Shem, the son of Noah, and he circumcised the flesh of the foreskin of our father Abraham, and the flesh of the foreskin of Ishmael his son, as it is said, "In the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son" (Gen. 17:26).

ד̇ נִקְרְאוּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא נוֹלְדוּ וְאֵילּוּ הֵן. יִצְחָק וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ וּשְׁלֹמֹה. יִצְחָק וְקָרָאתָ אֶת שְׁמוֹ יִצְחָק. יִשְׁמָעֵאל דִּכְתִיב וְקָרָאת אֶת שְׁמוֹ יִשְׁמָעֵאל. יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ הִנֵּה בֶן נוֹלָד לְבֵית דָּוִד יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ שְׁמוֹ. שְׁלֹמֹה כִּי שְׁלֹמֹה יִהְיֶה שְׁמוֹ. עַד כְּדוֹן בְצַדִּיקִים. אֲבָל בָּֽרְשָׁעִים זוֹרוּ רְשָׁעִים מֵרָחֶם.

Four were given names before they were born, and they are Isaac, Ismael, Josiah, and Solomon. Isaac, (Gen. 17:19) “You shall call his name Isaac”. Ismael as it is written (Gen. 16:11): “You shall call his name Ismael”. Josiah, (1Kings 13:2): “Behold, a son will be born to the dynasty of David; his name will be Josiah”. Solomon, (1Chr. 22:9) “Solomon will be his name”. All this for the just. But the wicked (Ps. 58:4) “The wicked are perverted from the womb.”

(א) רׇנִּ֥י עֲקָרָ֖ה לֹ֣א יָלָ֑דָה פִּצְחִ֨י רִנָּ֤ה וְצַהֲלִי֙ לֹא־חָ֔לָה כִּֽי־רַבִּ֧ים בְּֽנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָ֛ה מִבְּנֵ֥י בְעוּלָ֖ה אָמַ֥ר ה'׃ (ב) הַרְחִ֣יבִי ׀ מְק֣וֹם אׇהֳלֵ֗ךְ וִֽירִיע֧וֹת מִשְׁכְּנוֹתַ֛יִךְ יַטּ֖וּ אַל־תַּחְשֹׂ֑כִי הַאֲרִ֙יכִי֙ מֵיתָרַ֔יִךְ וִיתֵדֹתַ֖יִךְ חַזֵּֽקִי׃ (ג) כִּֽי־יָמִ֥ין וּשְׂמֹ֖אול תִּפְרֹ֑צִי וְזַרְעֵךְ֙ גּוֹיִ֣ם יִירָ֔שׁ וְעָרִ֥ים נְשַׁמּ֖וֹת יוֹשִֽׁיבוּ׃ (ד) אַל־תִּֽירְאִי֙ כִּי־לֹ֣א תֵב֔וֹשִׁי וְאַל־תִּכָּֽלְמִ֖י כִּ֣י לֹ֣א תַחְפִּ֑ירִי כִּ֣י בֹ֤שֶׁת עֲלוּמַ֙יִךְ֙ תִּשְׁכָּ֔חִי וְחֶרְפַּ֥ת אַלְמְנוּתַ֖יִךְ לֹ֥א תִזְכְּרִי־עֽוֹד׃ (ה) כִּ֤י בֹעֲלַ֙יִךְ֙ עֹשַׂ֔יִךְ ה' צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁמ֑וֹ וְגֹֽאֲלֵךְ֙ קְד֣וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֱלֹקֵ֥י כׇל־הָאָ֖רֶץ יִקָּרֵֽא׃ (ו) כִּֽי־כְאִשָּׁ֧ה עֲזוּבָ֛ה וַעֲצ֥וּבַת ר֖וּחַ קְרָאָ֣ךְ ה' וְאֵ֧שֶׁת נְעוּרִ֛ים כִּ֥י תִמָּאֵ֖ס אָמַ֥ר אֱלֹקָֽיִךְ׃ (ז) בְּרֶ֥גַע קָטֹ֖ן עֲזַבְתִּ֑יךְ וּבְרַחֲמִ֥ים גְּדֹלִ֖ים אֲקַבְּצֵֽךְ׃ (ח) בְּשֶׁ֣צֶף קֶ֗צֶף הִסְתַּ֨רְתִּי פָנַ֥י רֶ֙גַע֙ מִמֵּ֔ךְ וּבְחֶ֥סֶד עוֹלָ֖ם רִחַמְתִּ֑יךְ אָמַ֥ר גֹּאֲלֵ֖ךְ ה'׃ {ס} (ט) כִּֽי־מֵ֥י נֹ֙חַ֙ זֹ֣את לִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֣ר נִשְׁבַּ֗עְתִּי מֵעֲבֹ֥ר מֵי־נֹ֛חַ ע֖וֹד עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ כֵּ֥ן נִשְׁבַּ֛עְתִּי מִקְּצֹ֥ף עָלַ֖יִךְ וּמִגְּעׇר־בָּֽךְ׃ (י) כִּ֤י הֶהָרִים֙ יָמ֔וּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָע֖וֹת תְּמוּטֶ֑ינָה וְחַסְדִּ֞י מֵאִתֵּ֣ךְ לֹא־יָמ֗וּשׁ וּבְרִ֤ית שְׁלוֹמִי֙ לֹ֣א תָמ֔וּט אָמַ֥ר מְרַחֲמֵ֖ךְ ה'׃ {ס} (יא) עֲנִיָּ֥ה סֹעֲרָ֖ה לֹ֣א נֻחָ֑מָה הִנֵּ֨ה אָנֹכִ֜י מַרְבִּ֤יץ בַּפּוּךְ֙ אֲבָנַ֔יִךְ וִֽיסַדְתִּ֖יךְ בַּסַּפִּירִֽים׃ (יב) וְשַׂמְתִּ֤י כַּֽדְכֹד֙ שִׁמְשֹׁתַ֔יִךְ וּשְׁעָרַ֖יִךְ לְאַבְנֵ֣י אֶקְדָּ֑ח וְכׇל־גְּבוּלֵ֖ךְ לְאַבְנֵי־חֵֽפֶץ׃ (יג) וְכׇל־בָּנַ֖יִךְ לִמּוּדֵ֣י ה' וְרַ֖ב שְׁל֥וֹם בָּנָֽיִךְ׃ (יד) בִּצְדָקָ֖ה תִּכּוֹנָ֑נִי רַחֲקִ֤י מֵעֹ֙שֶׁק֙ כִּי־לֹ֣א תִירָ֔אִי וּמִ֨מְּחִתָּ֔ה כִּ֥י לֹֽא־תִקְרַ֖ב אֵלָֽיִךְ׃ (טו) הֵ֣ן גּ֥וֹר יָג֛וּר אֶ֖פֶס מֵאוֹתִ֑י מִי־גָ֥ר אִתָּ֖ךְ עָלַ֥יִךְ יִפּֽוֹל׃ (טז) (הן) [הִנֵּ֤ה] אָנֹכִי֙ בָּרָ֣אתִי חָרָ֔שׁ נֹפֵ֙חַ֙ בְּאֵ֣שׁ פֶּחָ֔ם וּמוֹצִ֥יא כְלִ֖י לְמַעֲשֵׂ֑הוּ וְאָנֹכִ֛י בָּרָ֥אתִי מַשְׁחִ֖ית לְחַבֵּֽל׃ (יז) כׇּל־כְּלִ֞י יוּצַ֤ר עָלַ֙יִךְ֙ לֹ֣א יִצְלָ֔ח וְכׇל־לָשׁ֛וֹן תָּקוּם־אִתָּ֥ךְ לַמִּשְׁפָּ֖ט תַּרְשִׁ֑יעִי זֹ֡את נַחֲלַת֩ עַבְדֵ֨י ה' וְצִדְקָתָ֛ם מֵאִתִּ֖י נְאֻם־ה'׃ {ס}

(1) Shout, O barren one,
You who bore no child!
Shout aloud for joy,
You who did not travail!
For the children of the wife forlorn
Shall outnumber those of the espoused
—said the LORD.
(2) Enlarge the site of your tent,
Extend the size of your dwelling,-a
Do not stint!
Lengthen the ropes, and drive the pegs firm.
(3) For you shall spread out to the right and the left;
Your offspring shall dispossess nations
And shall people the desolate towns.

(4) Fear not, you shall not be shamed;
Do not cringe, you shall not be disgraced.
For you shall forget
The reproach of your youth,

And remember no more
The shame of your widowhood.
(5) For He who made you will espouse you
His name is “LORD of Hosts.”
The Holy One of Israel will redeem you—
He is called “God of all the Earth.”

(6) The LORD has called you back
As a wife forlorn and forsaken.
Can one cast off the wife of his youth
?
—said your God.
(7) For a little while I forsook you,
But with vast love I will bring you back.
(8) In slight anger, for a moment,
I hid My face from you;
But with kindness everlasting
I will take you back in love
—said the LORD your Redeemer.
(9) For this to Me is like the waters of Noah:
As I swore that the waters of Noah
Nevermore would flood the earth,
So I swear that I will not
Be angry with you or rebuke you.
(10) For the mountains may move
And the hills be shaken,
But my loyalty shall never move from you,
Nor My covenant of friendship be shaken
—said the LORD, who takes you back in love.

(11) Unhappy, storm-tossed one, uncomforted!
I will lay carbuncles as your building stones
And make your foundations of sapphires.
(12) I will make your battlements of rubies,
Your gates of precious stones,
The whole encircling wall of gems.
(13) And all your children shall be disciples of the LORD,
And great shall be the happiness of your children;
(14) You shall be established through righteousness.
You shall be safe from oppression,
And shall have no fear;
From ruin, and it shall not come near you.
(15) Surely no harm can be done
Without My consent:
Whoever would harm you
Shall fall because of you.
(16) It is I who created the smith
To fan the charcoal fire
And produce the tools for his work;
So it is I who create
The instruments of havoc.
(17) No weapon formed against you
Shall succeed,
And every tongue that contends with you at law
You shall defeat.
Such is the lot of the servants of the LORD,
Such their triumph through Me
—declares the LORD.

הנסיון התשיעי, נולד ישמעאל בקשת ונתרבה בקשת שנ' ויהי אלקים את הנער ויגדל ונטל קשת וחצים והיה יורה אחר הפנות וראה את יצחק יושב לבדו וירה חץ להרגו וראה זה הדבר שרה והגיד לאברהם ואמרה לו כזה וכזה עשה ישמעאל ליצחק אלא עמוד וכתוב ליצחק כל מה שנשבע הב"ה לך ולזרעך שאין בן האמה יורש עם בני עם יצחק שנ' ותאמר לאברהם גרש את האמה הזאת ואת בנה כי לא יירש בן האמה הזאת עם בני עם יצחק.
THE TRIALS OF ABRAHAM (continued)
THE ninth trial (was as follows): Ishmael was born with (the prophecy of the) bow, and he grew up with the bow, as it is said, "And God was with the lad, and he grew … and he became an archer" (Gen. 21:20). He took bow and arrows and began to shoot at the birds. He saw Isaac sitting by himself, and he shot an arrow at him to slay him. Sarah saw (this), and told Abraham. She said to him: Thus and thus has Ishmael done to Isaac, but (now) arise and write (a will in favour) of Isaac, (giving him) all that the Holy One has sworn to give || to thee and to thy seed. The son of this handmaid shall not inherit with my son, with Isaac, as it is said, "And she said unto Abraham, Cast out this bondwoman and her son" (Gen. 21:10).

ר' יהודה אומר, נגלה הב"ה עליו אמ' לו אברהם אין אתה יודע שהיתה שרה ראויה לך לאשה ממעי אמה והיא חברתך ואשת בריתך לא נקראת שרה שפחה אלא אשתך לא נקראת הגר אשתך אלא שפחתך כל מה שדברה שרה באמת הגידה אל ירע בעיניך.

Rabbi Jehudah said: In that night the Holy One, blessed be He, was revealed unto him. He said to him: Abraham ! Dost thou not know that Sarah was appointed to thee for a wife from her mother's womb? She is thy companion, and the wife of thy covenant; Sarah is not called thy handmaid, but thy wife; neither is Hagar called thy wife, but thy handmaid; and all that Sarah has spoken she has uttered truthfully. Let it not be grievous in thine eyes, as it is said, "And God said unto Abraham, Let it not be grievous in thy sight" (Gen. 21:12).

השכים אברהם וכתב גט גירושין ונתן להגר ושלח אותה ואת בנה מעליו ומעל יצחק בנו מהעולם הזה ומהעולם הבא שנ' וישכם אברהם בבקר ויקח וכו' וישלחהו בגט גירושין ולקח בגד אחד וקשר במתניה כדי שיהא שוחף אחריה לידע שהיא שפחה ולא עוד אלא שעמד אברהם אבינו לראות את ישמעאל בנו ולראות את הדרך שהלכו בה.

Abraham rose up early, and wrote a bill of divorce, and gave it to Hagar, and he sent her and her son away from himself, and from Isaac his son, from this world and from the world to come, as it is said, "And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took bread and a bottle of water" (Gen. 21:14). He sent her away || with a bill of divorcement, and he took the veil, and he bound it around her waist, so that it should drag behind her to disclose (the fact) that she was a bondwoman. Not only this, but also because Abraham desired to see Ishmael, his son, and to see the way whereon they went.

ותלך ותתע וכו', אין ותתע אלא ע"ז דכתיב בה (ירמיה י טו) הבל המה מעשה תעתועים. ועייפה נפשו של ישמעאל בצמא והלך והשליך את עצמו תחת חרולי המדבר להיות חרשן עליו ואמ' אלקי אברהם אבי יש לפניך תוצאות מים קח את נפשי ממני ואל אמות בצמא ויעתר לו שנ' כי שמע אלקים את קול הנער באשר הוא שם ושם נפתחו להם הבאר שנבראת בין השמשות והלכו ושתו ומלאו את החמת מים שנ' ויפתח אלקים את עיניה ושם הניחו הבאר ומשם נשאו את רגליהם והלכו אל המדבר כלו עד שהגיעו למדבר פארן ומצאו שם מוצאי מים וישבו שם שנ' וישב במדבר פארן שלח ישמעאל ולקח לו אשה מבנות מואב ועישה שמה. לאחר שלש שנים הלך אברהם לראות את ישמעאל בנו, ונשבע לשרה שלא ירד מעל הגמל במקום שישמעאל שרוי תמן, והגיע לשם בחצי היום ומצא שם את אשתו של ישמעאל. אמ' לה, היכן הוא ישמעאל. אמרה לו, הלך הוא ואמו להביא פירות ותמרים מן המדבר. אמ' לה, תני לי מעט לחם ומים כי עייפה נפשי מדרך המדבר. אמרה לו, אין לי לחם ולא מים. אמ' לה, כשיבא ישמעאל הגידי לו את הדברים הללו ואמרי לו זקן אחד מארץ כנען בא לראותך ואמר חלף מפתן ביתך שאינה טובה לך. וכשבא ישמעאל מן המדבר הגידה לו את הדברים הללו, ובן חכם כחצי חכם, והבין ישמעאל ושלחה אמו ולקחה לו אשה מבית אביה, ופטימה שמה.
"And she departed and wandered" (ibid.). The meaning of "and she wandered" is merely idolatry, because it is written, concerning (this root), "They are vanity, a work of delusion" (Jer. 10:15). He went and cast himself beneath the thorns of the wilderness, so that the moisture might be upon him, and he said: O God of my father Abraham ! Thine are the issues of death; take away from me my soul, for I would not die of thirst. And He was entreated of him, as it is said, "For God hath heard the || voice of the lad where he is" (Gen. 21:17). The well which was created at twilight was opened for them there, and they went and drank and filled the bottle with water, as it is said, "And God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water" (Gen. 21:19). And there they left the well, and thence they started on their way, and went through all the wilderness until they came to the wilderness of Paran, and they found there streams of water, and they dwelt there, as it is said, "And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran" (Gen. 21:21). Ishmael sent for a wife from among the daughters of Moab, and 'Ayeshah was her name. After three years Abraham went to see Ishmael his son, having sworn to Sarah that he would not descend from the camel in the place where Ishmael dwelt. He arrived there at midday and found there the wife of Ishmael. He said to her: Where is Ishmael? She said to him: He has gone with his mother to fetch the fruit of the palms from the wilderness. He said to her: Give me a little bread and a little water, for my soul is faint after the journey in the desert. She said to him: I have neither bread nor water. He said to her: When Ishmael comes (home) tell him this || story, and say to him: A certain old man came from the land of Canaan to see thee, and he said, Exchange the threshold of thy house, for it is not good for thee. When Ishmael came (home) his wife told him the story. A son of a wise man is like half a wise man. Ishmael understood. His mother sent and took for him a wife from her father's house, and her name was Fatimah.

Pirke d’Rabbi Eliezer (“Chapters of Rabbi Eliezer”) is a midrash that retells and expands upon the stories of the Torah, from the creation of the world through the story of Miriam’s leprosy. It incorporates discussion on topics like redemption, Messiah, and calculating the end of days. Traditionally considered to have been authored by Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus in the time period of the Mishnah (the first and second centuries CE), the work was likely edited in the eighth or ninth century.

Composed: Talmudic Israel/Babylon, c.630 - c.1030 CE

The Muslim Ishmael


It is appropriate at this point to present a brief synopsis of the place of Ishmael in Islam. Contrary to what is commonly thought, the Qur’an does not contain much information about Ishmael. Only twelve Qur’anic verses mention Ishmael by name. Nine of them list him among other holy men from ancient time. There, he is described among those having “preference above the worlds” (6:86). He is listed alongside Idris and Zul-Kifl as “one of constancy and patience” (21:85). He is commemorated together with Zul-Kifl and Elisha as “of the company of the good people” (38:48). All three references are found in Meccan Suras (i.e., early in Muhammad’s life). In 2:125 (Medinan Sura, i.e., later life of Muhammad), God commands Abraham and Ishmael to purify his house (Kacba) for those who want to use it as a place of prayer and worship. In 2:127-29 (Medinan), Abraham is shown together with Ishmael as raising the foundations of the house and asking God to make them submit to him (Muslims). In 2:133 Ishmael is described along with Abraham and Isaac as a monotheist submitting to one God. In 2:136 and 4:163 (Medinan), Ishmael is included among those who have received revelation from God.

The only place where Ishmael is mentioned by himself is in Sura 19:54-55 (Meccan), where he is described as “true to his promise,” “a messenger,”“a prophet,” one who “enjoined upon his people the prayer and almsgiving,” and “was in his Lord’s eyes approved.” Nowhere in the above-mentioned verses is Ishmael given a distinctive place. The only Qur’anic reference that points to Abraham’s relationship to Ishmael is a passing statement of thanksgiving, where Abraham praises God for giving him in his old age, his two sons Ishmael and Isaac (Sura 14:39). Other than that, the Qur’an does not refer to the direct genealogical link between Abraham and Ishmael and does not speak of the family relationship between them as the Bible does (Gen. 16:1— 16; 17:9; 21:8-21; 25:12-18).


Sura 37:102-7, which speaks about Abraham’s attempt to sacrifice his son, is a controversial passage. Since it does not refer to the name of his son, many have assumed that Ishmael is implied there as the son offered to God, because it is not until verses 112-13 that Isaac’s birth is announced. However, there is no unanimous agreement, and Muslim tradition is evenly divided between those who identify Isaac and those who see Ishmael as the sacrificed son. However, today, this is not a debated issue in Muslim circles, for it is generally assumed that Ishmael was the sacrificed son, hence the major Muslim holiday of Adha (“the sacrifice”).

Hagar

Hagar is a pivotal figure in biblical theology. She is the first person in scripture whom a divine messenger visits and the only person who dares to name the deity. Within the historical memories of Israel, she is the first woman to bear a child. This conception and birth make her an extraordinary figure in the story of faith: the first woman to hear an annunciation, the only one to receive a divine promise of descendants, and the first to weep for her dying child. Truly, Hagar the Egyptian is the prototype of not only special but all mothers in Israel.

Phyllis Trible, Texts of Terror: Literary-feminist Readings of Biblical Narratives. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984. p. 28 see

وماتت هاجر، فتزوج إسماعيل امرأة من جرهم، قال: فاستأذن إبراهيم سارة أن يأتي هاجر، فأذنت له، وشرطت عليه ألا ينزل، وقدم إبراهيم - وقد ماتت هاجر - إلى بيت إسماعيل، فقال لامرأته: أين صاحبك؟ قالت: ليس ها هنا، ذهب يتصيد، وكان إسماعيل يخرج من الحرم فيتصيد، ثم يرجع، فقال إبراهيم هل عندك ضيافة؟ هل عندك طعام أو شراب؟ قالت: ليس عندي وما عندي أحد، قال إبراهيم: إذا جاء زوجك فأقرئيه السلام، وقولي له، فليغير عتبة بابه.

وذهب إبراهيم وجاء إسماعيل، فوجد ريح أبيه فقال لامرآته: هل جاءك أحد؟ قالت: جائني شيخ صفته كذا - وكذا المتسخفة بشأنه - قال:فما قال لك؟ قالت قال لي أقرئي زوجك السلام. وقولي له: فليغيرعتبة بابه، فطلقها وتزوج أخرى.

فلبث إبراهيم ما شاء الله أن يلبث، ثم استأذن سارة أن يزور إسماعيل، فأذنت له واشترطت عليه ألا ينزل، فجاء إبراهيم حتى انتهى إلى باب إسماعيل، فقال لامرأته: أين صاحبك؟ قالت: ذهب يتصيد و يجيء الآن إن شاء الله، فانزل يرحمك الله! قال لها: هل عندك ضيافة؟ قالت: نعم، قال: هل عندك خبرا او بر أو شعير أو تمر؟ قال: فجاءت باللبن واللحم، فدعا لهما بالبركة،

فلو جاءت يومئذ بخبز أو بر أو شعير أو تمر لكانت أكثر أرض الله براً وشعيراً وتمراً

فقالت: انزل حتى أغسل رأسك، فلم ينزل، فجاءته بالمقام فوضعته عن شقه الأيمن، فوضع قدمه عليه فبقي أثر قدمه عليه، فغسلت شق رأسه الأيمن، ثم حولت المقام إلى شقه الأيسر، فغسلت شقه الأيسر،

فقال لها: إذا جاء زوجك فأقرئيه السلام، وقولي له: قد استقامت عتبة بابك. فلما جاء إسماعيل وجد ريح أبيه، فقال لامرأته: هل جاءك أحد؟ قالت:نعم شيخ أحسن الناس وجهاً وأطيبهم ريحاً، فقال لي: كذا وكذا، وقلت له كذا وكذا، وغسلت رأسه، وهذا موضع قدميه على المقام، قال: وما قال لك؟ قالت: قال لي: إذا جاء زوجك فأقرئيه السلام، وقولي له: قد استقامت عتبة بابك، قال ذلك إبراهيم.

جاء - يعني إبراهيم - فوجد إسماعيل يصلح نبلا له من وراء زمزم، فقال إبراهيم: يا إسماعيل، إن ربك قد أمرني أن أبني له بيتاً، فقال له إسماعيل: فأطع ربك فيما أمرك، فقال إبراهيم: قد أمرك أن تعينني عليه قال: إذاً أفعل: قال: فقام معه، فجعل إبراهيم يبنيه وإسماعيل يناوله الحجارة ويقولان رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

فلما ارتفع البنيان وضعف الشيخ عن رفع الحجارة قام على حجر، وهو مقام إبراهيم، فجعل يناوله ويقولان: رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

فلما فرغ إبراهيم من بناء البيت الذي أمره الله عز وجل ببنائه، أمره الله أن يؤذن في الناس بالحج، فقال له:

" وَأَذِّنْ فِي النَّاسِ بِالْحَجِّ يَأْتُوكَ رِجَالًا وَعَلَ

ىٰ كُلِّ ضَامِرٍ يَأْتِينَ مِنْ كُلِّ فَجٍّ عَمِيقٍ

When Hagar died, Ishmael married a Jurhumite woman. Abraham asked Sarah’s permission to go and visit Hagar, and Sarah permitted it, but she made it conditional that he not settle down there.[11] Abraham set out—Hagar had already died—to Ishmael's house. He said to Ishmael's wife, “Where is your husband?” She answered, “He is not here. He went hunting.” Ishmael would often leave the Sanctuary[12] to go hunting. Abraham asked, “Do you have any accommodation? Do you have any food or drink?” She answered, “I have nothing, and there is no one with me.” Abraham said, “When your husband comes, give him greetings and tell him to change the threshold of his door.”

Abraham left, and when Ishmael came back he found the scent of his father. So he said to his wife, “Did anyone come to you?” She answered, “An old man of such-and-such description came to me”—as though she were making light of him. Ishmael said, “What did he say to you?” She answered, “He told me, ‘Give your husband greetings and tell him to change the threshold of his door.’” So he divorced her and married another.

Abraham stayed in Syria (i.e., the Levant) as long as God willed, and then asked Sarah’s permission to visit Ishmael. She permitted him but made it conditional that he not settle down there. Abraham came to Ishmael’s door and said to his [new] wife, “Where is your husband?” She answered, “He went hunting but will return soon, God willing, so stay, and may God be merciful to you!” He asked her, “Do you have any accommodation?” She answered, “Yes.” He said, “Do you have bread or wheat or barley or dates?” She brought milk and meat, and he prayed for blessing on both of them.

Had she brought bread or wheat or barley or dates on that day, [that place] would have been the most plentifully supplied on earth with wheat and barley and dates.

She said, “Stay so that I may wash your head.” But he would not stay, so she brought him the maqām and placed it on his right side. He set his foot on it and the mark of his foot remained on it. She then washed the right side of his head. Then she moved the maqām to the left side and washed the left side.

He said to her, “When your husband comes home, give him greetings and say to him, ‘The threshold of your door has been put in order.’” When Ishmael came, he found the scent of his father and said to his wife, “Did someone come to you?” She answered, “Yes, an old man, the handsomest and best-smelling. He said to me such-and-such, and I answered such-and-such, and I washed his head, and this is the place of his feet on the maqām.” He asked, “What did he say to you?” She answered, “He said to me, ‘When your husband comes, give him greetings and tell him that the threshold of your door has been put in order.’” Ishmael said, “That was Abraham.”

He came—that is, Abraham —and found Ishmael mending his arrows behind Zamzam and said to him, “O Ishmael! Your Lord has commanded me to build Him a House.” Ishmael replied, “Then obey your Lord and do what He commanded you to do.” Then Abraham said, “He has commanded that you assist me with it.” Ishmael responded, “Then I'll do it!” They began together, Abraham doing the building while Ishmael handed him the stones, and both of them saying, “O Lord! Accept this from us, for You are the Hearer, the Knower” (Q.2:127).[20]

When the building had become tall and the old man was too weak to lift the stones so high, [Ishmael] came upon a stone that was the maqām Ibrāhīm. He began to give it to him, while both were saying, “Accept this from us, for You are the Hearer, the Knower” (Q.2:127).[21]

When Abraham had finished building the House that God had commanded be built, God commanded that he proclaim the pilgrimage among humankind, saying to him, “And proclaim the pilgrimage unto humankind. They will come to you on foot and on every lean camel; they will come from every deep ravine” (Q.22:27).

See: https://www.thetorah.com/article/abraham-visits-ishmael-and-his-wives-between-jewish-and-islamic-tradition

Prof. Rabbi Reuven Firestone

21 Tell me, ye that desire to be under the [Mosaic] Law, do ye not hear the [Mosaic] Law?

22 For it is written, that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bondmaid, the other by a freewoman.

23 But he who was of the bondwoman was born after the flesh; but he of the freewoman was by promise.

24 Which things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants; the one from the mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, which is Hagar.

25 For this Hagar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth to Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children.

26 But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all.

27 For it is written, Rejoice, thou barren that bearest not; break forth and cry, thou that travailest not: for the desolate hath many more children than she which hath an husband.

28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise.

29 But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now.

30 Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman.

31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.

Galatians 4: 21-31

Supersessionism, also called replacement theology or fulfillment theology[1] is a Christian theology which asserts that the New Covenant through Jesus Christ has superseded or replaced the Mosaic covenant exclusive to the Jews. Supersessionist theology also holds that the universal Christian Church has succeeded ancient Israel as God's true Israel and that Christians have succeeded the ancient Israelites as the people of God. see

וַיַּרְא עֵשָׂו כִּי רָעוֹת בְּנוֹת כְּנָעַן וַיֵּלֶךְ עֵשָׂו אֶל יִשְׁמָעֵאל (בראשית כח, ח), רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר נָתַן דַּעְתּוֹ לְהִתְגַּיֵּר. (בראשית כז, ט): מָחֲלַת, שֶׁמָּחַל לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל כָּל עֲוֹנוֹתָיו. (בראשית לו, ג): בָּשְׂמַת, שֶׁנִּתְבַּסְמָה דַּעְתּוֹ עָלָיו, אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אִלּוּ הוֹצִיא אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת יָפֶה הָיָה, אֶלָּא (בראשית כח, ט): עַל נָשָׁיו, כְּאֵב עַל כְּאֵב. דָּבָר אַחֵר, כּוּב עַל כּוּב, תּוֹסֶפֶת עַל בַּיִת מָלֵא. רַבִּי יוּדָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַיְּבוּ אָמַר (משלי יב, יג): בְּפֶשַׁע שְׂפָתַיִם מוֹקֵשׁ רָע וַיֵּצֵא מִצָּרָה צַדִּיק, בְּפֶשַׁע שְׂפָתַיִם מוֹקֵשׁ רָע, מִמֶּרֶד שֶׁמָּרְדוּ עֵשָׂו וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְהִכְעִיסוּ אוֹתוֹ, וְכֵן נָשָׁיו שֶׁהִכְעִיסוּ אוֹתוֹ, בָּאת לָהֶם תַּקָּלָה, וַיֵּצֵא מִצָּרָה צַדִּיק, זֶה יַעֲקֹב, (בראשית כח, י): וַיֵּצֵא יַעֲקֹב מִבְּאֵר שָׁבַע וַיֵּלֶךְ חָרָנָה.

"And Esau saw that the daughters of Canaan pleased not Isaac his father, so Esau went unto Ishmael and took Mahalath" (Gen. 28:9). R. Yoshua b. Levi said: "He [Esau] made up his mind to become converted verted [possibly to reform]. She is called Mahalath because the Holy One, blessed be He forgave (mahal) him his transgressions. [She is also called] Basemath-[the name she is called in Gen. 36:3] [meaning] that his character grew better [nitbasah, to grow better, improve]." prove]." [This is a play on her name basmat.] R. Eleazar said to him: "Had he divorced his first wives, you would have spoken well, however ever Scripture says, `Unto the wives he had,' that is, adding grief to grief [derived from a play on her name, Mahalath; mahalah means sickness], adding to a house already full." R. Yudan quoted in R. Aibu's name: "'In the transgression of the lips is a snare to the evil man, but the righteous comes out of trouble' (Prov. 12:13). Through the revolt of Esau and Ishmael against the Holy One blessed be He, there came a stumbling-block to them. `But the righteous come out of trouble' refers

to Jacob, as Scripture says, `And Jacob went out from Beer-sheba"' sheba"' (Gen. 28:10).

Translation from: Carol Bakhos. Ishmael on the Border: Rabbinic Portrayals of the First Arab (SUNY series in Judaica: Hermeneutics, Mysticism, and Religion) (Kindle Locations 846-847). Kindle Edition

ר' ישמעאל אומ' חמשה עשר דברים עתידין בני ישמעאל לעשות בארץ באחרית הימים, ואלו הן: ימודו הארץ בחבלים ויעשו בית הקברות למרבץ צאן אשפתות ומדדו בהן ומהן על ראשי ההרים וירבה השקר ויגנז האמת וירחק חק מישראל ותרבה עונות בישראל שני תולעת כצמר ויקמל הנייר והקולמוס ויפסל סלע מלכות ויבנו ההרים הערים החרבות ויפנו הדרכים ויטעו גנות ופרדסים ויגדרו פרוצות חומות בית המקדש ויבנו בניין בהיכל ושני אחים יעמדו אליהם נשיאים בגופן ובימיהן יעמד צמח בן דוד שנ' (דניאל ב, מד) וּבְיוֹמֵיהוֹן דִּי מַלְכַיָּא אִנּוּן יְקִים אֱלָהּ שְׁמַיָּא מַלְכוּ דִּי לְעָלְמִין לָא תִתְחַבַּל.

Rabbi Ishmael said: In the future the children of Ishmael will do fifteen things in the land (of Israel) in the latter days, and they are: They will measure the land with ropes; they will change a cemetery into a resting-place for sheep (and) a dunghill; they will measure with them and from them upon the tops of the mountains; falsehood will multiply and truth will be hidden; the statutes will be removed far from Israel; sins will be multiplied in Israel; worm-crimson will be in the wool, and he will cover with insects paper and pen; he will hew down the rock of the kingdom, and they will rebuild the desolated cities and sweep the ways; and they will plant gardens and parks, and fence in the broken walls of the Temple; and they will build a building in the Holy Place; and two brothers will arise over them, princes at the end; and in their days the Branch, the Son of David, will arise, as it is said, || "And in the days of those kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed" (Dan. 2:44).

cf also R. Ishmael b. Elisha and R. Ishmael b. R. Yosse

The Emergence of a Double Sibling Trope

In his 1998 essay “The Banishment of Ishmael: The Akedah that Preceded Akedat Yitzhak,” Professor Uriel Simon [1929–], a biblical scholar at Bar-Ilan University and an observant Jew, demonstrates the structural parallelism between the two biblical chapters, points out the moral sensitivity of scripture, and arrives at a fairly modest conclusion: the recognition by the present-day siblings that the akedot imposed on their father were in fact a source of blessing for both should enable them to remember that despite their diverging destinies they are sons of the same father and serve the same god.

“Isaac and Ishmael? The Sibling Challenge to Israel’s Oedipalized Binding,” Religion and Literature 45:2 (Summer 2013): 109-129

“The Jews here are actually a single big refugee camp, and so are the Arabs. And now the Arabs live day by day with the disaster of their defeat, and the Jews live night by night with the dread of their vengeance.” see — Amos Oz

Ishmael in Moby Dick

Melville frequently employs biblical allusions as keys to understanding in the novel, and he does so here. The biblical Ishmael (Genesis 16:1-16; 21:10 ff.) is disinherited and dismissed from his home in favor of his half-brother Isaac. The name suggests that the narrator is something of an outcast, a drifter, a fellow of no particular family other than mankind. Ishmael confirms his independent ways by telling us that he seeks no special rank aboard ship and would not want to be either a cook or a captain; he says he has enough responsibility just taking care of himself. Ishmael speaks of no family or even a last name. This is consistent with the ending of the book in which only Ishmael survives

בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה: ״בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי״, וּמַפְטִירִין: ״הֲבֵן יַקִּיר לִי אֶפְרַיִם״. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים: ״וַה׳ פָּקַד אֶת שָׂרָה״, וּמַפְטִירִין בְּחַנָּה. וְהָאִידָּנָא דְּאִיכָּא תְּרֵי יוֹמֵי — יוֹמָא קַמָּא כְּיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, לִמְחַר: ״וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת אַבְרָהָם״, וּמַפְטִירִין ״הֲבֵן יַקִּיר״.
The baraita continues: On Rosh HaShana they read the portion of “On the seventh month on the first of the month” (Numbers 29:1–6) and they read as the haftara “Is Ephraim My dear son?” (Jeremiah 31:1–20), as it contains the verse: “I earnestly remember him still,” which recalls God’s love for His people. And some say that they read “And the Lord visited Sarah” (Genesis 21), which describes how God blessed her that she should have a child, and, according to tradition, God blessed her on Rosh HaShana. And they read as the haftara from the account of Hannah (I Samuel 1:1–2:10), who, according to tradition, was also blessed on Rosh HaShana that she should have a child. The Gemara comments: And nowadays, when there are two days of Rosh HaShana, on the first day they read Genesis 21 in accordance with the opinion cited as: Some say. And on the next day they read “And God tested Abraham” (Genesis 22), in order to mention the merit of the binding of Isaac on the day of God’s judgment, and they read as the haftara “Is Ephraim My dear son?”