The Holiness code is used in biblical criticism to refer to Leviticus chapters 17–26, and sometimes passages in other books of the Pentateuch, especially Numbers and Exodus. It is so called due to its highly repeated use of the word holy (Hebrew: קדוש qəḏōš or kadash). Kadash is usually translated as "holy", but originally meant "set apart", with "special", "clean/pure", "whole" and "perfect" as associated meanings. The term Holiness Code was first coined as the Heiligkeitsgesetz (literally "Holiness Law"; the word 'code' therefore means criminal code) by German theologian August Klostermann in 1877. Critical biblical scholars have regarded it as a distinct unit and have noted that the style is noticeably different from the main body of Leviticus. Unlike the remainder of Leviticus, the many laws of the Holiness Code are expressed very closely packed together, and very briefly.
According to most versions of the documentary hypothesis, the Holiness Code represents an earlier text that was edited and incorporated into the Priestly source and the Torah as a whole, although some scholars, such as Israel Knohl, believe the Holiness Code to be a later addition to the Priestly source. This source is often abbreviated as "H". A generally accepted date is sometime in the seventh century BC, when it presumably originated among the priests in the Temple in Jerusalem.
The Holiness Code also uses a noticeably different choice of vocabulary, repeating phrases such as I, Yahweh, am holy; I am Yahweh; and I am Yahweh, who makes you holy,[note 1] an unusually large number of times. Additionally, Leviticus 17 begins with This is the thing which Yahweh has commanded, saying.., and Leviticus 26 strongly resembles the conclusion of a law code, despite the presence of further laws afterward, such as at Leviticus 27, giving the Holiness Code the appearance of a single distinct unit.
This theme, and the exhortation, “you shall be holy, for I the Lord your God am holy,” they find their fullest expression in the block of text; Leviticus 17 through 26 that’s referred to as the Holiness Code. There’s an important difference between Leviticus 1 through 16 and the Holiness Code. According to Leviticus 1 through 16, Israel’s priests are designated as holy: a holy class within Israel, singled out, dedicated to the service of God and demarcated by rules that apply only to them. Israelites may aspire to holiness, but it’s not assumed. However, in the Holiness Code, we have texts that come closer to the idea that Israel itself is holy by virtue of the fact that God has set Israel apart from the nations to himself, to belong to him, just as he set apart the seventh day to himself to belong with him.
"Pharisee" is derived from Ancient Greek Pharisaios (Φαρισαῖος), from Aramaic Pərīšā (פְּרִישָׁא), plural Pərīšayyā (פְּרִישַׁיָּא), meaning "set apart, separated", related to Hebrew pārûš (פָּרוּשׁ), plural pĕrûhšîm (פְּרוּשִׁים), the Qal passive participle of the verb pāraš (פָּרַשׁ). This may be a reference to their separation from the Gentiles, sources of ritual impurity, or from non-religious Jews. Alternatively, it may have a particular political meaning as "separatists" due to their division from the Sadducee elite, with Yitzhak Isaac Halevi characterizing the Sadducees and Pharisees as political sects, not religious ones. Scholar Thomas Walter Manson and Talmud-expert Louis Finkelstein suggest that "Pharisee" derives from the Aramaic words pārsāh or parsāh, meaning "Persian" or "Persianizer", based on the demonym pārsi, meaning 'Persian' in the Persian language and further akin to Pārsa and Fārs. Harvard University scholar Shaye J. D. Cohen denies this, stating: "Practically all scholars now agree that the name "Pharisee" derives from the Hebrew and Aramaic parush or persushi."
The names of the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes provide only slight additional evidence. Practically all scholars now agree that the name "Pharisee" derives from the Hebrew and Aramaic parush or perushi (in the plural perushim), which means "one who is separated,"
but whether the separation is from the gentiles (as Ezra and Nehe- miah speak of those who separated themselves from the impurity of the nations of the lands'; compare 1 Macc. 1:11), from sources of ritual impurity, or from irreligious Jews, is not as clear. It is likely that the term was first used by the group's opponents in order to denigrate it ("separatists!" they cried), and that it never became part of the group's self-definition. At least it never so appears in the Mishnah or in the bulk of rabbinic tradition.
Greek schisma σχίσμα in the NT
So there was a division G4978 among the people because of him.
Therefore said some of the Pharisees, This man is not of God, because he keepeth not the sabbath day. Others said, How can a man that is a sinner do such miracles? And there was a division G4978 among them.
There was a division G4978 therefore again among the Jews for these sayings.
Now I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye all speak the same thing, and that there be no divisions G4978 among you; but that ye be perfectly joined together in the same mind and in the same judgment.
Schechter, on the other hand, believed in what he termed "Catholic Israel." The basic idea being that Jewish law, Halacha, is formed and evolves based on the behavior of the people. This concept of modifying the law based on national consensus is an untraditional viewpoint. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solomon_Schechter
I can safely say that New York alone could furnish us with an epitome of all the Judaisms or Richtungen Scattered all over the world, ranging from the precisionism and mysticism of the Far East or to the advanced radicalism of the Far West, in addition to the shadowy no-Judaisms hovering on the borderland. Such a community is indeeda mystery. And this mystery has become perplexing; for it is amidst all these Judaisms and no-Judaisms that my colleagues and myself are called to create a theological centre which should be all things to all men, reconciling all parties, and appealing to all sections of the community.
To give one instance from our own history, I will only recall to your minds the Karaitic Schism. Vile and violent were its attacks upon the tradition of the Fathers, and the breach is not healed to this very day, but it had also the blessed effect of giving a wholesome impetus to the study of the Bible which resulted in producing a school of Grammarians and Exegetes, and perhaps also of Massorites, such as Judaism had never seen before.
Remember, my friends, that there is no waste in the world of thought. Every good action, the mystics say, creates an angel; and every real thought, it may be be said, creates even something better; it creates men and women. In spite of all our "modernity,"most of our sentiments are "nothing else but organized traditions; our thoughts nothing else but reminis-
censes, conscious and unconscious," ... We dare not neglect any part of out the ordinances passed by a wise legislation of many years ago. this great intellectual bequest but at a serious risk and peril to ourselves.
President Abrahamn Lincoln, the wisest and great-est of rulers, addressed Congress on some occasion of great emergency with the words: "Fellow citizens, we cannot escape history.' Nor can we, my friends. The past, with its long chain of events, with its woes and joys, with its tragedies and romances, with its customs and usages, and above all, with its bequest
of the Torah, the great entail of the children of Israel, has become an integral and inalienable part of ourselves, bone of our bone and flesh of our flesh.
We must make an end to these constant amputations if we do not wish to see the body of "Israel"
bleed to death before our very eyes. We must leave off talking about Occidentalizing our religion-as if the Occident has ever shown the least genius for religion--or freeing the conscience by abolishing various laws. These, and similar platitudes and stock phrases borrowed from Christian apologetics, must be abandoned entirely if we do not want to drift slowly but surely into Paulinism, which entered the world as the deadliest enemy of Judaism, pursued it through all its course and is still finding its abettors among us, working for their own destruction. forgive them, for they know nothing.
are entrusted with carrying out the purpose of this institution, which, as you have seen, aims at the Lord,
Those who perpetuation of the tenets of the Jewish religion, both pupils and masters, must faithfully and man- fully maintain their loyalty to the Torah. no other Jewish religion but that taught by the Torah and confirmed by history and tradition, and sunk into the conscience of Catholic Israel.