Ashrei - A Guaranteed Spot in Heaven?

“Ashrei” “on one foot”

“Ashrei” is a prayer that we say at the beginning and end of the morning service and the beginning of the afternoon service. It is primarily composed of Psalm 145.

אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, אָמַר רַבִּי אֲבִינָא: כָּל הָאוֹמֵר ״תְּהִלָּה לְדָוִד״ בְּכָל יוֹם שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים — מוּבְטָח לוֹ שֶׁהוּא בֶּן הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא.

Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Avina said: Anyone who recites: “A Psalm of David” (Psalm 145, now known as “Ashrei”) three times every day is assured of a place in the World-to-Come.

Context: This is from the Babylonian Talmud, Masechet (Tractate) Brachot, which is about blessings and prayers. In the very first mishnah of the Talmud, it says that one can say the evening Shema up until dawn, but it is better to do it before midnight so as not to go to sleep and forget to do it at all. The rabbis talk about what else one needs to say when saying the evening Shema, and conclude that if you connect “redemption” (i.e. Mi Chamocha) with your Amidah, then you get a spot in the World-to-Come (Hashkiveinu counts as part of Mi Chamocha for this purpose in the evening service). This then leads to a further discussion of other things that assure one of a spot in the World-to-Come. While the Talmud is vague on details on the World-to-Come (which makes sense, because nobody has been there for a long time and then come back to give a report), Maimonides thinks it refers to the afterlife while Nachmonides thinks it refers to the Messianic Era (https://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/the-world-to-come/).

Ashrei is primarily composed of Psalm 145, preceded by two other verses from Psalms (84:5 and 144:15) and followed by one more verse from Psalms (115:18). This means that it starts with the very first word in the Book of Psalms, “Ashrei”, and ends with the very last word in the Book of Psalms, “Halleluyah”. This enhances Psalm 145’s role as the “title track” of the Book of Psalms, because although in Hebrew the book is called Tehilim, only Psalm 145 actually starts with the word “Tehila”.

Ashrei is at the beginning of the morning service (in P’sukei D’zimra, after Baruch She’amar), at the end of the morning service (after the Amidah as well as the Torah reading when the Torah is read), and at the start of Mincha (the afternoon service).

If prayer is meant to lead to action, what action could be derived from Ashrei which would guarantee a person a place in the World-to-Come?

So why does Ashrei have this power?

מַאי טַעְמָא? אִילֵּימָא מִשּׁוּם דְּאָתְיָא בְּאָלֶף בֵּית, נֵימָא ״אַשְׁרֵי תְמִימֵי דָרֶךְ״ דְּאָתְיָא בִּתְמָנְיָא אַפִּין.

This statement extolling the significance of this particular chapter of Psalms, usually referred to as Ashrei because its recitation is preceded by recitation of the verse, “Happy [ashrei] are those who dwell in Your House, they praise You Selah” (Psalms 84:5), raises the question: What is the reason that such significance is ascribed to this particular chapter? If you say that it is because it is arranged alphabetically, then let us say: “Happy are they who are upright in the way” (Psalms 119) where the alphabetical arrangement appears eight times.

Context: This is from Maseschet Brachot, right after the previous text. It posits that perhaps the special powers of Ashrei come from the fact that Psalm 145 is an alphabetical acrostic, though it counters that Psalm 119 is also an alphabetical acrostic with 8 verses for each letter.

Ashrei is primarily an alphabetical acrostic, probably to make it easier to remember pre-printing press. Why might a prayer that incorporates every sound of the alphabet help guarantee a spot in the World-to-Come?

אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם דְּאִית בֵּיהּ ״פּוֹתֵחַ אֶת יָדֶךָ״, נֵימָא ״הַלֵּל הַגָּדוֹל״ דִּכְתִיב בֵּיהּ ״נֹתֵן לֶחֶם לְכָל בָּשָׂר״. אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם דְּאִית בֵּיהּ תַּרְתֵּי.
Rather, if you suggest that this particular chapter is recited because it contains praise for God’s provision of sustenance to all of creation: “You open Your hand and satisfy every living thing with favor” (Psalms 145:16), then let him recite the great hallel (Psalms 136), in which numerous praises are written, including: “Who provides food to all flesh, Whose kindness endures forever” (Psalms 136:25). Rather, the reason why tehilla leDavid is accorded preference is because it contains both an alphabetic acrostic as well as mention of God’s provision of sustenance to all creation.

Context: This comes right after the previous text in Masechet Brachot. It posits that the Pey line of Ashrei, which says that G-d opens G-d’s metaphorical hand to satisfy the needs of all that live, is the reason why this prayer gets you a spot in the World-to-Come. It follows this this idea by noticing that the same idea is in Psalm 136. The text also points out that while Psalm 119 is also alphabetical and Psalm 136 has the same idea as this line in Ashrei (Psalm 145), only Psalm 145 has both aspects.

Why might being reminded to be generous 3 times a day guarantee you a spot in the World-to-Come?

(ז) צריך לכוין בפ' פותח את ידיך ואם לא כוון צריך לחזור ולאומרו פעם אחרת:

(7) One should focus one's heart during the verse "You open Your hand..." and if one does not focus then one must return and say the verse again.

Context: This is from the Shulchan Aruch, Rabbi Joseph Caro’s 1563 law code of rules for living a Jewish life. Here he is saying that if you don’t focus while saying the Pey line of Ashrei, then you have to go back and say it again. This may be why some people have the custom of literally opening their hand when they get to this line.

If the Pey line reminds us to be generous, why might it be important to actual focus while saying these words instead of just mechanically reciting them while your mind is elsewhere?

But what about the Nun line?

אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: מִפְּנֵי מָה לֹא נֶאֱמַר נוּן בְּ״אַשְׁרֵי״ — מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ מַפַּלְתָּן שֶׁל שׂוֹנְאֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, דִּכְתִיב: ״נָפְלָה לֹא תוֹסִיף קוּם בְּתוּלַת יִשְׂרָאֵל״. בְּמַעְרְבָא מְתָרְצִי לַהּ הָכִי: ״נָפְלָה וְלֹא תּוֹסִיף לִנְפּוֹל עוֹד, קוּם בְּתוּלַת יִשְׂרָאֵל״. אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק: אֲפִילּוּ הָכִי, חָזַר דָּוִד וּסְמָכָן בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר ״סוֹמֵךְ ה׳ לְכָל הַנֹּפְלִים״.
Additionally, with regard to this psalm, Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Why is there no verse beginning with the letter nun in ashrei? Because it contains an allusion to the downfall of the enemies of Israel, a euphemism for Israel itself. As it is written: “The virgin of Israel has fallen and she will rise no more; abandoned in her land, none will raise her up” (Amos 5:2), which begins with the letter nun. Due to this verse, ashrei does not include a verse beginning with the letter nun. In order to ease the harsh meaning of this verse, in the West, in Eretz Yisrael, they interpreted it with a slight adjustment: “She has fallen but she shall fall no more; rise, virgin of Israel.” Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak adds: Even so, David went and provided support, through divine inspiration. Although King David did not include a verse beginning with the letter nun alluding to Israel’s downfall, he foresaw the verse that would be written by Amos through divine inspiration; and the very next verse, which begins with the letter samekh, reads: “The Lord upholds the fallen and raises up those who are bowed down” (Psalms 145:14). Therefore, through divine inspiration, David offered hope and encouragement; although the virgin of Israel may have fallen, the Lord upholds the fallen.

Context: This is from the next part of Masechet Brachot. It is noticed, by 500 CE, that Psalm 145 (Ashrei) is an alphabetical acrostic yet the Nun line is missing. It is assumed that since there’s a verse in the Bible which talks about Israel as having fallen, that King David didn’t want to include it and yet made subtle reference to this in the next line (the Samech line) which talks about G-d supporting the fallen.

Why else might the Nun line not be there?

Dead Sea Scroll 11Q5 Psalmsa, including Psalm 145.

תהילים קמה:יג1

Ne’eman Elohim bidevarav, vechasid bechol maasav

God is faithful in all His words, and loving in all His deeds.

Context: The Dead Sea Scrolls were a set of Biblical texts (and communal rules) written by the Essenes near the Dead Sea prior to 70 CE. They were found preserved in a cave in 1947 by a Bedouin boy chasing his goat. One of the major discoveries in the Dead Sea Scrolls is that Psalm 145 did have a Nun line once - starting with the word “Faithful” (referring to G-d), not “fallen” (referring to the Jewish people). It is thought that a scribe must have copied the Mem line, gotten distracted, and picked up again in the wrong place. The next scribe copied off of that erroneous text and the Nun line got lost.

Have you ever lost your place when doing something? What happened as a result?

What does Ashrei actually say?

(ה) אַ֭שְׁרֵי יוֹשְׁבֵ֣י בֵיתֶ֑ךָ ע֝֗וֹד יְֽהַלְל֥וּךָ סֶּֽלָה׃

(5) Happy are those who dwell in Your house; they forever praise You. Selah.

(טו) אַשְׁרֵ֣י הָ֭עָם שֶׁכָּ֣כָה לּ֑וֹ אַֽשְׁרֵ֥י הָ֝עָ֗ם שֱׁיְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהָֽיו׃ {פ}
(15) Happy the people who have it so;
happy the people whose God is the LORD.

(א) תְּהִלָּ֗ה לְדָ֫וִ֥ד אֲרוֹמִמְךָ֣ אֱלוֹהַ֣י הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַאֲבָרְכָ֥ה שִׁ֝מְךָ֗ לְעוֹלָ֥ם וָעֶֽד׃ (ב) בְּכׇל־י֥וֹם אֲבָֽרְכֶ֑ךָּ וַאֲהַֽלְלָ֥ה שִׁ֝מְךָ֗ לְעוֹלָ֥ם וָעֶֽד׃ (ג) גָּ֘ד֤וֹל יְהֹוָ֣ה וּמְהֻלָּ֣ל מְאֹ֑ד וְ֝לִגְדֻלָּת֗וֹ אֵ֣ין חֵֽקֶר׃ (ד) דּ֣וֹר לְ֭דוֹר יְשַׁבַּ֣ח מַעֲשֶׂ֑יךָ וּגְב֖וּרֹתֶ֣יךָ יַגִּֽידוּ׃ (ה) הֲ֭דַר כְּב֣וֹד הוֹדֶ֑ךָ וְדִבְרֵ֖י נִפְלְאֹתֶ֣יךָ אָשִֽׂיחָה׃ (ו) וֶעֱז֣וּז נֽוֹרְאֹתֶ֣יךָ יֹאמֵ֑רוּ (וגדלותיך) [וּגְדֻלָּתְךָ֥] אֲסַפְּרֶֽנָּה׃ (ז) זֵ֣כֶר רַב־טוּבְךָ֣ יַבִּ֑יעוּ וְצִדְקָתְךָ֥ יְרַנֵּֽנוּ׃ (ח) חַנּ֣וּן וְרַח֣וּם יְהֹוָ֑ה אֶ֥רֶךְ אַ֝פַּ֗יִם וּגְדׇל־חָֽסֶד׃ (ט) טוֹב־יְהֹוָ֥ה לַכֹּ֑ל וְ֝רַחֲמָ֗יו עַל־כׇּל־מַעֲשָֽׂיו׃ (י) יוֹד֣וּךָ יְ֭הֹוָה כׇּל־מַעֲשֶׂ֑יךָ וַ֝חֲסִידֶ֗יךָ יְבָרְכֽוּכָה׃ (יא) כְּב֣וֹד מַלְכוּתְךָ֣ יֹאמֵ֑רוּ וּגְבוּרָתְךָ֥ יְדַבֵּֽרוּ׃ (יב) לְהוֹדִ֤יעַ ׀ לִבְנֵ֣י הָ֭אָדָם גְּבוּרֹתָ֑יו וּ֝כְב֗וֹד הֲדַ֣ר מַלְכוּתֽוֹ׃ (יג) מַֽלְכוּתְךָ֗ מַלְכ֥וּת כׇּל־עֹלָמִ֑ים וּ֝מֶֽמְשַׁלְתְּךָ֗ בְּכׇל־דּ֥וֹר וָדֹֽר׃ (יד) סוֹמֵ֣ךְ יְ֭הֹוָה לְכׇל־הַנֹּפְלִ֑ים וְ֝זוֹקֵ֗ף לְכׇל־הַכְּפוּפִֽים׃ (טו) עֵֽינֵי־כֹ֭ל אֵלֶ֣יךָ יְשַׂבֵּ֑רוּ וְאַתָּ֤ה נֽוֹתֵן־לָהֶ֖ם אֶת־אׇכְלָ֣ם בְּעִתּֽוֹ׃ (טז) פּוֹתֵ֥חַ אֶת־יָדֶ֑ךָ וּמַשְׂבִּ֖יעַ לְכׇל־חַ֣י רָצֽוֹן׃ (יז) צַדִּ֣יק יְ֭הֹוָה בְּכׇל־דְּרָכָ֑יו וְ֝חָסִ֗יד בְּכׇל־מַעֲשָֽׂיו׃ (יח) קָר֣וֹב יְ֭הֹוָה לְכׇל־קֹרְאָ֑יו לְכֹ֤ל אֲשֶׁ֖ר יִקְרָאֻ֣הוּ בֶֽאֱמֶֽת׃ (יט) רְצוֹן־יְרֵאָ֥יו יַעֲשֶׂ֑ה וְֽאֶת־שַׁוְעָתָ֥ם יִ֝שְׁמַ֗ע וְיוֹשִׁיעֵֽם׃ (כ) שׁוֹמֵ֣ר יְ֭הֹוָה אֶת־כׇּל־אֹהֲבָ֑יו וְאֵ֖ת כׇּל־הָרְשָׁעִ֣ים יַשְׁמִֽיד׃ (כא) תְּהִלַּ֥ת יְהֹוָ֗ה יְֽדַבֶּ֫ר־פִּ֥י וִיבָרֵ֣ךְ כׇּל־בָּ֭שָׂר שֵׁ֥ם קׇדְשׁ֗וֹ לְעוֹלָ֥ם וָעֶֽד׃ {פ}

(1) A psalm of David.

I will extol You, my God and ruler, and bless Your name forever and ever.

(2) Every day will I bless You and praise Your name forever and ever.

(3) Great is the LORD and much acclaimed; God’s greatness cannot be fathomed.

(4) One generation shall laud Your works to another and declare Your mighty acts.

(5) The glorious majesty of Your splendor and Your wondrous acts-a will I recite.

(6) People shall talk of the might of Your awesome deeds, and I will recount Your greatness.

(7) They shall celebrate Your abundant goodness, and sing joyously of Your beneficence.

(8) The LORD is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and abounding in kindness.

(9) The LORD is good to all, and God’s mercy is upon all God’s works.

(10) All Your works shall praise You, O LORD, and Your faithful ones shall bless You.

(11) They shall talk of the majesty of Your sovereignty, and speak of Your might,

(12) to make God’s mighty acts known among people and the majestic glory of God’s sovereignty.

(13) Your sovereignty is an eternal sovereignty; Your dominion is for all generations.

(14) The LORD supports all who stumble, and makes all who are bent stand straight.

(15) The eyes of all look to You expectantly, and You give them their food when it is due.

(16) You give it openhandedly, feeding every creature to its heart’s content.

(17) The LORD is beneficent in all God’s ways and faithful in all God’s works.

(18) The LORD is near to all who call God, to all who call God with sincerity.

(19) God fulfills the wishes of those who fear God; God hears their cry and delivers them.

(20) The LORD watches over all who love God, but all the wicked God will destroy.

(21) My mouth shall utter the praise of the LORD, and all creatures shall bless God’s holy name forever and ever.

(יח) וַאֲנַ֤חְנוּ ׀ נְבָ֘רֵ֤ךְ יָ֗הּ מֵעַתָּ֥ה וְעַד־עוֹלָ֗ם הַֽלְלוּ־יָֽהּ׃ {פ}

(18) But we will praise the LORD now and forever.
Hallelujah.

Context: This is the prayer “Ashrei”. As mentioned before, it is primarily Psalm 145, preceded by Psalm 84:5 and 144:15, and followed by Psalm 115:18. The structure of Psalm 145 is that the first section is “historical praise” (verses 1-7), then there’s a middle section of G-d’s attributes (verses 8-15), and finally a section about how G-d relates to Creation (verses 16-22). The verses themselves use parallelism, so that the second half of each verse basically restates the first half.

What reactions do you have to the text of this prayer?

Personally connecting to Ashrei

(ה) אַ֭שְׁרֵי יוֹשְׁבֵ֣י בֵיתֶ֑ךָ ע֝֗וֹד יְֽהַלְל֥וּךָ סֶּֽלָה׃

(5) Happy are those who dwell in Your house; they forever praise You. Selah.

Context: This is the very first line of Ashrei.

What might “G-d’s house” be, and why would those who dwell there be happy?

(ד) דּ֣וֹר לְ֭דוֹר יְשַׁבַּ֣ח מַעֲשֶׂ֑יךָ וּגְב֖וּרֹתֶ֣יךָ יַגִּֽידוּ׃

(4) One generation shall laud Your works to another and declare Your mighty acts.

Context: This is the “Daled” line of Ashrei.

Talking about what G-d has done is a multi-generation act. How have previous generations talked about G-d with you and/or how have you talked about G-d with the next generation?

(ט) טוֹב־יְהֹוָ֥ה לַכֹּ֑ל וְ֝רַחֲמָ֗יו עַל־כׇּל־מַעֲשָֽׂיו׃

(9) The LORD is good to all, and God’s mercy is upon all God’s works.

Context: This is the “Tet” line of Ashrei.

How does this play out, and how can we be G-d’s partner in making this happen?

(טז) פּוֹתֵ֥חַ אֶת־יָדֶ֑ךָ וּמַשְׂבִּ֖יעַ לְכׇל־חַ֣י רָצֽוֹן׃

(16) You open your hand, feeding every creature to its heart’s content.

Context: This is the “Pey” line of Ashrei.

If G-d is the Ultimate Role Model, how can we emulate G-d with this?

(יח) קָר֣וֹב יְ֭הֹוָה לְכׇל־קֹרְאָ֑יו לְכֹ֤ל אֲשֶׁ֖ר יִקְרָאֻ֣הוּ בֶֽאֱמֶֽת׃

(18) The LORD is near to all who call God, to all who call God with sincerity.

Context: This is the “Kuf” line of Ashrei.

When has G-d felt near to you?

(יח) וַאֲנַ֤חְנוּ ׀ נְבָ֘רֵ֤ךְ יָ֗הּ מֵעַתָּ֥ה וְעַד־עוֹלָ֗ם הַֽלְלוּ־יָֽהּ׃ {פ}

(18) But we will praise the LORD now and forever.
Hallelujah.

Context: This is the last line of Ashrei. It also also found in Hallel at the end of the “Adoshem Z’charanu Yivareich” prayer. Here we go from “I will praise G-d” to “We will praise G-d” (the “Tav” line of Psalm 145 also makes this transition).

What has G-d done for you that is deserving of praise?

Some musical settings of Ashrei

Context: This is the main tune for Ashrei, though it really should only be used for Shabbat and holiday morning services before the Torah is returned to the Ark. There are other ways of chanting Ashrei at other times. This is a recording by Cantor Brian Shamash, the cantor at Temple Israel of Great Neck, NY. The text comes from Tefillah Trainer, a computer program by Kinnor Software, which Cantor Neil Schwartz did much of the work on.

What does this tune make you think of?

Context: This is the Shabbat Mincha nusach for Ashrei. Nusach is a way of chanting Jewish prayers which sets the mood and indicates the time that the prayer is being done (Shabbat or weekday, morning or evening, festival or High Holiday). This recording is done by Cantor Erica Rubin, the cantor at Congregation Sons of Israel in Nyack, NY. A good way to remember the beginning of Shabbat Mincha nusach is that it sounds like the Crispy Critters cereal commercial (“The one and only cereal that comes in the shape of animals”) from the 1960s and 1980s - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nG949NeSDPk.

Why might this be the nusach for the service when Shabbat is on its way out?

Context: This recording of the Yom Kippur Neila Ashrei tune is made by 2 members of Grassroots Jews, an independent non-denominational Jewish community in London which has been meeting for High Holiday services since 2009. When they could not meet in-person in 2020 they made a set of videos, and this is one of them. For Ashrei, please see the minutes 0:27-1:39. This is the special way of doing Ashrei at Neila and also on Slichot.

Why might this be the nusach for when Yom Kippur is on its way out?

Context: This is Rabbi Shefa Gold’s tune for the beginning of Ashrei, sung by Aviva Chernick.

What mood does this setting of Ashrei evoke for you?

Context: Peri Smilow is a Jewish songwriter-singer and this is her version of the beginning of Ashrei. She is singing it at the Biennial of the Union for Reform Judaism, joined by other Jewish songwriter-singers (Peri is the one with the guitar).

What mood does this setting of Ashrei evoke for you?

Context: This is Debbie Friedman’s version of the last line of Ashrei, being sung at Neila (since Ashrei starts Neila). The meaning of the words is: “And we will praise you now and forever; halleluyah”.

What mood does this setting evoke for you?

Context: This is the Yeshiva Boys’ Choir singing their version of “Ashrei”.

What mood does this setting of Ashrei evoke for you?

With appreciation to Atara Blicker, Shmuel Perl, Yehudah Auerbach, Yonatan D, Benjamin Adler, Rabbi Daniel Victor, Deracheha, Bonnie Levine, Esther Azar, Liora Alban, Israel Friedman, Zach Mainzer, and Cantor Neil Schwartz.

Appendix: How to make P’sukei D’zimra shorter

(Hint: It still includes Ashrei)

(א) דין מי ששהה לבוא לב"ה עד ישתבח ובו ס"א:
אם בא לב"ה ומצא צבור בסוף פסוקי דזמרה אומר ברוך שאמר עד מהולל בתשבחות ואח"כ תהלה לדוד עד מעתה ועד עולם הללויה ואח"כ הללו את יקוק מן השמים עד לבני ישראל עם קרובו הללויה ואחר כך הללו אל בקדשו עד כל הנשמה תהלל יה: הגה ואם יש לו שהות יותר יאמר הודו ליקוק קראו עד והוא רחום וידלג עד והוא רחום שקודם אשרי כי בנתיים אינן רק פסוקים מלוקטים [הגהות מיימוני פ"ז מהלכות תפלה] ואח"כ ישתבח ואח"כ יוצר וק"ש וברכותיה ויתפלל עם הצבור ואם אין שהות כ"כ ידלג גם מזמור הללו את יקוק מן השמים: הגה אם עוד אין שהות לא יאמר רק ברוך שאמר ותהלה לדוד וישתבח [הרא"ש והר"י פ' אין עומדין] ואם כבר התחילו הצבור יוצר ואין שהות לומר פסוקי דזמר' אפי' בדלוג יקרא ק"ש וברכותיה עם הצבור ויתפלל עמהם ואח"כ יקרא כל פסוקי דזמר' בלא ברכ' שלפניה' ולא של אחריהם: הגה ומ"מ יאמר כל הברכות שמחוייב לברך בבוקר [כל בו וב"י בשם מהרי"א] כמו שנתבאר סי' מ"ו ומ"ז:

(1) If one comes to synagogue and finds the congregation at the end of P'sukei D'zimra, he should say "Barukh She'amar" until "M'hulal B'tishbahot" (i.e. the end of the blessing), and afterwards "T'hillah L'david" until "Me-atah v'ad olam halleluyah" (i.e. all of Ashrei). And afterwards "Hal'lu et Hashem min hashamayim" until "Livnei Yisrael am k'rovo hallelulyah" (i.e. Psalm 148). And aftewards "Hallelu el b'kodsho" until "Kol han'shamah t'hallel yah" (Psalm 150). Rem"a: And if he has more time, he should say "Hodu l'Hashem kiru" (I Chronicles 16:18-36) until "v'hu rahum" (during the anthology of verses from Psalms) and skip to the "v'hu rahum" [immediately] prior to Ashrei because in between [those separate instances of "v'hu rahum"] are simply gathered verses [Hagahot Maimoni, Chapter 7 from Hilkhot T'fillah]. And afterwards Yishtabach, and afterwards [the blessing of] Yotzer [Ohr], and the Sh'ma and its blessings, and then pray with the congregation. And if he doesn't have much time, he should also skip "Hal'lu et Hashem min Hashamayim". Rem"a: If there is still not enough time, he should only recite Barukh She'amar, T'hillah L'david (i.e. Ashrei), and Yishtabah [The Rosh and the Ri from the Chapter "Ein Omdin"]. And if the congregation has already started with Yotzer and one does not have time to recite P'sukei D'zimra even with skipping, he should recite the Sh'ma and its blessings with the congregation and pray with them (ie. the Amidah), and afterwards recite all of P'sukei D'zimra without a blessing before or afterwards. Rem"a: And in any case, he should say all of the blessings required of him to bless in the morning [Kol Bo and Beit Yosef from the Mahari] as it is explained in Siman 46 and 47).