Inclusion and Exclusion in Jewish Ritual, Part III - Mishnah Bikkurim, Ch. 4

הָאַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס וְהַשָּׁלִיחַ וְהָעֶבֶד וְהָאִשָּׁה וְטֻמְטוּם וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס, מְבִיאִין וְלֹא קוֹרִין, שֶׁאֵינָן יְכוֹלִין לוֹמַר (דברים כ״ו:י׳) אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה לִּי ה':

A guardian, an agent, a slave, a woman, a tumtum, or an androgynos bring the bikkurim, but do not recite, since they cannot say: “Which you, Eternal One, have given to me” (Deuteronomy 26:10).

(א) אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס יֵשׁ בּוֹ דְּרָכִים שָׁוֶה לַאֲנָשִׁים, וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ דְּרָכִים שָׁוֶה לַנָּשִׁים, וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ דְּרָכִים שָׁוֶה לַאֲנָשִׁים וְנָשִׁים, וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ דְּרָכִים אֵינוֹ שָׁוֶה לֹא לַאֲנָשִׁים וְלֹא לַנָּשִׁים:

(ב) כֵּיצַד שָׁוֶה לַאֲנָשִׁים: מְטַמֵּא בְּלֹבֶן כַּאֲנָשִׁים, וְזוֹקֵק לְיִבּוּם כַּאֲנָשִׁים, וּמִתְעַטֵּף וּמִסְתַּפֵּר כַּאֲנָשִׁים, וְנוֹשֵׂא אֲבָל לֹא נִשָּׂא כַּאֲנָשִׁים, וְחַיָּב בְּכָל מִצְוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה כַּאֲנָשִׁים:

(ג) כֵּיצַד שָׁוֶה לַנָּשִׁים: מְטַמֵּא בְּאֹדֶם כַּנָּשִׁים, וְאֵינוֹ מִתְיַחֵד עִם הָאֲנָשִׁים כַּנָּשִׁים, וְאֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עַל "בַּל תַּקִּיף" וְלֹא עַל "בַּל תַּשְׁחִית," וּפָסוּל מִן הָעֵדוּת כַּנָּשִׁים, וְנִפְסַל מִן הַכְּהֻנָּה כַּנָּשִׁים:

(ד) כֵּיצַד שָׁוֶה לַאֲנָשִׁים וְלַנָּשִׁים: חַיָּבִים עַל מַכָּתוֹ וְעַל קִלְלָתוֹ כַּאֲנָשִׁים וְכַנָּשִׁים, וְהַהוֹרְגוֹ שׁוֹגֵג גּוֹלֶה וּמֵזִיד נֶהֱרַג כַּאֲנָשִׁים וְנָשִׁים, וְחוֹלֵק בְּקָדְשֵׁי קֳדָשִׁים כַּאֲנָשִׁים וְכַנָּשִׁים, וְנוֹחֵל לְכָל הַנְּחָלוֹת כַּאֲנָשִׁים וְכַנָּשִׁים, וְאִם אָמַר "הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר שֶׁזֶּה אִישׁ וְאִשָּׁה" הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר:

(ה) כֵּיצַד אֵינוֹ שָׁוֶה לֹא לַאֲנָשִׁים וְלֹא לַנָּשִׁים: וְאֵינוֹ נֶעֱרָךְ לֹא כַּאֲנָשִׁים וְלֹא כַּנָּשִׁים.

רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר: אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס בְּרִיָּה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ הוּא וְלֹא יָכְלוּ חֲכָמִים לְהַכְרִיעַ עָלָיו אִם הוּא אִישׁ אוֹ אִשָּׁה. אֲבָל טֻמְטוּם אֵינוֹ כֵּן, פְּעָמִים שֶׁהוּא אִישׁ פְּעָמִים שֶׁהוּא אִשָּׁה:

(1) The androgynos is in some ways like men, and in other ways like women. In other ways they are like men and women, and in others they are like neither men nor women.

(2) In what ways are they like men? They cause impurity with white discharge, like men; They are bound by yibbum, like men; They dress and cut their hair like men. They marry, but are not married, like men. And they are obligated in all the commandments spoken of in the Torah, like men.

(3) And in what ways are they like women? They cause impurity with red discharge, like women; And they cannot be alone with men, like women; And they do not trangress the prohibitions of "do not round [the corners of your head] or destroy the corners of your beard." (Lev. 19:27), like women. And they are invalidated from giving testimony, like women, and they are ineligible for the Priesthood.

(4) In what ways are they like both men and women? One who strikes them or curses him is liable, as in the case of men and women; One who unwittingly kills them must go into exile - and if on purpose, then receives the death penalty, as in the case of men and women. They may eat the holy things that are eaten outside of the Temple; And they may inherit any inheritance, as in the case of men and women.

(5) And in what are they different from both men and women? They cannot be evaluated, as men or women are.

Rabbi Meir says: the androgynous is a unique creation, and the sages could not decide about them, whether they were men or women. But this is not so with a tumtum, for sometimes one is a man and sometimes one is a woman.