הַַשְׁכִּיבֵנוּ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ לְשָׁלוֹם ,וְהַעֲמִידֵנוּ מַלְכֵּנוּ (שׁוֹמְרֵנוּ) לְחַיִּים וּפְרוֹשׂ עָלֵינוּ סֻכַּת שְׁלוֹמֶךָ, וְתַקְּנֵנוּ בְּעֵצָה טוֹבָה מִלְּפָנֶיךָ, וְהוֹשִׁיעֵנוּ לְמַעַן שְׁמֶךָ, וְהָגֵן בַּעַדֵנוּ, וְהָסֵר מֵעָלֵינוּ אוֹיֵב, דֶבֶר, וְחֶרֶב, וְרָעָב וְיָגוֹן, וְהָסֵר שָׂטָן מִלְפָנֵינוּ וּמֵאַחֲרֵנוּ, וּבְצֵל כְּנָפֶיךָ תַּסְתִּירֵנוּ. כִּי אֵל מַלְכֵּנוּ (שׁוֹמְרֵנוּ) וּמַצִּילֵנוּ אָתָּה, כִּי אֵל מֶלֶךְ חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם אָתָּה, וּשְׁמוֹר צֵאתֵנוּ וּבוֹאֵנוּ, לְחַיִּים וּלְשָׁלוֹם, מֵעַתָּה וְעַד עוֹלָם.
בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ, שׁוֹמֵר עַמּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל לָעַד
וּפְרֹשׂ עָלֵינוּ סֻכַּת שְׁלוֹמֶךָ. בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ, הַפּוֹרֵשׂ סֻכַּת שָׁלוֹם עָלֵינוּ וְעַל כָּל עַמּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַל יְִרוּשָׂלָיִם.
Lie us down to peace, Adonai our God, and raise us up to life, our king (protector) , and spread over us the shelter of your peace, and direct us with good advice before You, and save us for the sake of your name, and look out for us, and keep enemies, plagues swords, famines, and troubles from our midst, and remove Satan from in front of us and from behind us, and cradle us in the shadow of your wings, for You are God who guards us and saves us, for You are God. Our gracious and merciful king (protector). Guard our departure and our arrival to life and to peace, from now and ever more.
Blessed are You, Adonai, who guards his People Israel forever.
And spread over us the shelter of your
peace. Blessed are You, Adonai, who spreads a shelter of peace over us, over all of His People Israel, and over Jerusalem.
Where does Hashkiveinu Belong?
בית יוסף אורח חיים סימן רלו אות ב ד"ה ואע"ג דקיימא
ואע"ג דקיימא לן כרבי יוחנן דאמר שצריך לסמוך אף גאולה של ערבית לתפלה של ערבית השכיבנו לא הוי הפסק דכיון דתקינו ליה רבנן כגאולה אריכתא דמיא כמו בשחרית שתקנו להפסיק באדני שפתי תפתח וכו'. פשוט בריש ברכות (ד:) וכתב ה"ר יונה (ב: ד"ה ואע"ג דצריך) הטעם דהשכיבנו כגאולה אריכתא דמיא מפני שכשעבר השם לנגוף את מצרים היו מפחדים ומתפללים לשם יתברך שיקיים דברו שלא יתן המשחית לבוא אל בתיהם לנגוף וכנגד אותה תפלה תקנו לומר השכיבנו הילכך מעין גאולה הוי
Beit Yosef, Orech Chaim 236
In the Talmud, Rabbi Yochanan says that one needs to follow the evening G'ulah directly with the evening T'filah. We might see Hashkiveinu as a pause, but instead we should see it as an extension of the G'ulah. We should view it just like the preface "Adonai S'fatai, Open my lips," which was instituted as a part of the T'filah. We see Hashkiveinu as an extension of the G'ulah in that when God plagued Egypt, he caused a great fear upon the people [amidst the darkness]. They prayed to the Holy One, that the Angel of Death would not come to their houses to inflict death upon them. Hashkiveinu is a reminder of the fear the Israelites faced during the time of redemption; therefore it is a part of the G'ulah
Shalom, Shechinah, and Sukkah
Jewish law validates a sukkah even when it has gaping holes, when it is built from little more than two walls, or has large spaces between the walls and the roof. Even such a fragile structure still qualifies as a kosher sukkah. The same is true regarding peace. Peace is so precious, so vital, that even if we are unable to attain complete peace, we should still pursue a partial measure of peace. Even an imperfect peace between neighbors, or between an individual and the community, is worthwhile.
“How wonderful is peace!” proclaimed the Sages (VaYikra Rabbah 9:9). The value of peace is so great that we pray for it even if it will be like a sukkah — flimsy and temporary, rendered fit only by special laws.
(Silver from the Land of Israel. Adapted from Mo'adei HaRe’iyah p. 97)
Rabbi Avraham Arieh Trugman (Orchard of Delights, page 222)
In psychological terms darkness represents a sense of depression that is fed by despair and purposelessness. ...Depression causes people to feel alone, as if no one cares about them and in turn leads them not to care about others. This phenomenon is quite literally described in the biblical verse - "no one could see their fellow." An even more extreme form of depression occurs when people are completely sunk in the abyss and virtually unable to move. They are stuck in a state of physical or emotional paralysis. This phenomenon is also quite literally described in the biblical verse - "nor could anyone get up from his place."
Reb Hanoch of Alexander (19th Cen. Hassidic Rebbe; Parpera’ot La-Torah p 43)
"People could not see one another:" That is to say, each individual only worried about themselves and only looked to save themselves and the members of their households – and, thus, “did not rise from under the darkness for three days.” Not a single one of them succeeded in rising above the degraded spiritual level that they were caught in.
The Egyptians were responsible for their own darkness because of their selfishness and self-centeredness. It was not the symptom of darkness--it was the cause. Their darkness was spiritual.
Creative Alternatives to Hashkiveinu
LET THERE BE LOVE
Let there be love and understanding among us. Let peace and friendship be our shelter
from life's storms. Adonai, help us to walk with good companions, to live with hope in our hearts and eternity in our thoughts, that we may lie down in peace and rise up waiting to do Your will
(Mishkan T’filah, 161)
GIVE US A PLACE TO REST
Give us a place to rest, Adonai, our God. Bring us into shelter in the soft, long, evening shadows of Your truth. For with You are true protection and safety, and in Your Presence are acceptance and gentle love. Watch over us as we go forth. Prepare for us as we return. Spread over us Your shelter of peace, over all we love ––over Jerusalem and Yours
(Mishkan T'filah , 161)
Sometimes I lay
Under the moon
And thank God I'm breathing
Then I pray
Don't take me soon
'Cause I am here for a reason
Sometimes in my tears I drown
But I never let it get me down
So when negativity surrounds
I know some day it'll all turn around because
All my life I've been waiting for
I've been praying for
For the people to say
That we don't wanna fight no more
There will be no more wars
And our children will play
(Matisyahu, One Day)
Biblical and Theological Influences
מוֹדֶה אֲנִי לְפָנֶיךָ, מֶלֶךְ חַי וְקַיָּם, שֶׁהֶחֱזַרְתָּ בִּי נִשְׁמָתִי בְּחֶמְלָה רַבָּה אֱמוּנָתֶךָ
I give thanks before You, ever-living Sovereign, for you have restored my soul to me in mercy: How great is your faith [in me]!
The morning blessing reflects the pre-scientific and child-like belief that falling asleep is dangerous. Not only is night time filled with all sorts of dangers––animals, bandits, blindness––but the ancients believed that when someone loses consciousness, a piece of them actually dies. Each morning when they wake up, their nefesh, their soul is restored to them.
And there was thick darkness throughout all the land of Egypt, for three days: If a person does not see his fellow, or does not want to see him, there is darkness in the world.