Hashkiveinu השכיבנו

השכיבנו

הַַשְׁכִּיבֵנוּ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ לְשָׁלוֹם,וְהַעֲמִידֵנוּ מַלְכֵּנוּ (שׁוֹמְרֵנוּ) לְחַיִּים וּפְרוֹשׂ עָלֵינוּ סֻכַּת שְׁלוֹמֶךָ, וְתַקְּנֵנוּ בְּעֵצָה טוֹבָה מִלְּפָנֶיךָ, וְהוֹשִׁיעֵנוּ לְמַעַן שְׁמֶךָ, וְהָגֵן בַּעַדֵנוּ, וְהָסֵר מֵעָלֵינוּ אוֹיֵב, דֶבֶר, וְחֶרֶב, וְרָעָב וְיָגוֹן, וְהָסֵר שָׂטָן מִלְפָנֵינוּ וּמֵאַחֲרֵנוּ, וּבְצֵל כְּנָפֶיךָ תַּסְתִּירֵנוּ. כִּי אֵל מַלְכֵּנוּ (שׁוֹמְרֵנוּ) וּמַצִּילֵנוּ אָתָּה, כִּי אֵל מֶלֶךְ חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם אָתָּה, וּשְׁמוֹר צֵאתֵנוּ וּבוֹאֵנוּ, לְחַיִּים וּלְשָׁלוֹם, מֵעַתָּה וְעַד עוֹלָם.

(יום חול)

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ, שׁוֹמֵר עַמּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל לָעַד

(בשבת)

וּפְרֹשׂ עָלֵינוּ סֻכַּת שְׁלוֹמֶךָ. בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ, הַפּוֹרֵשׂ סֻכַּת שָׁלוֹם עָלֵינוּ וְעַל כָּל עַמּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַל יְִרוּשָׂלָיִם.

Hashkiveinu

Lie us down to peace, Adonai our God, and raise us up to life, our king (protector) , and spread over us the shelter of your peace, and direct us with good advice before You, and save us for the sake of your name, and look out for us, and keep enemies, plagues swords, famines, and troubles from our midst, and remove Satan from in front of us and from behind us, and cradle us in the

shadow of your wings, for You are God who guards us and saves us, for You are God. Our gracious and merciful king (protector). Guard our departure and our arrival to life and to peace, from now and ever more.

(On Weekdays)

Blessed are You, Adonai, who guards his People Israel forever.

(On Shabbat)

And spread over us the shelter of your

peace. Blessed are You, Adonai, who spreads a shelter of peace over us, over all of His People Israel, and over Jerusalem.

Where does Hashkiveinu Belong?

(ד) בשחר מברך שתים לפניה ואחת לאחריה, ובערב שתים לפניה ושתים לאחריה

In the morning he recites two benedictions before it (the Shema) ["yotzer or" and "ahavah"], and one after it ["emet veyatziv"]; and in the evening he recites two benedictions before it ["ma'ariv aravim" and ahavath olam"] and two after it ["emeth ve'emunah" and presumably "hashkiveinu"]

בערב מברך שתים לפניה ושתים לאחריה ואי אמרת בעי לסמוך הא לא קא סמך גאולה לתפלה דהא בעי למימר השכיבנו אמרי כיון דתקינו רבנן השכיבנו כגאולה

In the evening [the reading of the Shema'] is both preceded and followed by two benedictions. If, then, thou sayest that the Ge'ullah must be joined to the Tefillah, behold that condition is not fulfilled because one is required to say the prayer "Hashkiveinu! " They answer: Since the Rabbis instituted the Hashkiveinu, it is to be considered part of the Ge'ullah.

בית יוסף אורח חיים סימן רלו אות ב ד"ה ואע"ג דקיימא

ואע"ג דקיימא לן כרבי יוחנן דאמר שצריך לסמוך אף גאולה של ערבית לתפלה של ערבית השכיבנו לא הוי הפסק דכיון דתקינו ליה רבנן כגאולה אריכתא דמיא כמו בשחרית שתקנו להפסיק באדני שפתי תפתח וכו'. פשוט בריש ברכות (ד:) וכתב ה"ר יונה (ב: ד"ה ואע"ג דצריך) הטעם דהשכיבנו כגאולה אריכתא דמיא מפני שכשעבר השם לנגוף את מצרים היו מפחדים ומתפללים לשם יתברך שיקיים דברו שלא יתן המשחית לבוא אל בתיהם לנגוף וכנגד אותה תפלה תקנו לומר השכיבנו הילכך מעין גאולה הוי

Beit Yosef, Orech Chaim 236

In the Talmud, Rabbi Yochanan says that one needs to follow the evening G'ulah directly with the evening T'filah. We might see Hashkiveinu as a pause, but instead we should see it as an extension of the G'ulah. We should view it just like the preface "Adonai S'fatai, Open my lips," which was instituted as a part of the T'filah. We see Hashkiveinu as an extension of the G'ulah in that when God plagued Egypt, he caused a great fear upon the people [amidst the darkness]. They prayed to the Holy One, that the Angel of Death would not come to their houses to inflict death upon them. Hashkiveinu is a reminder of the fear the Israelites faced during the time of redemption; therefore it is a part of the ​G'ulah

Creative Alternatives to Hashkiveinu

LET THERE BE LOVE

Let there be love and understanding among us. Let peace and friendship be our shelter

from life's storms. Adonai, help us to walk with good companions, to live with hope in our hearts and eternity in our thoughts, that we may lie down in peace and rise up waiting to do Your will

(Mishkan T’filah, 161)

GIVE US A PLACE TO REST

Give us a place to rest, Adonai, our God. Bring us into shelter in the soft, long, evening shadows of Your truth. For with You are true protection and safety, and in Your Presence are acceptance and gentle love. Watch over us as we go forth. Prepare for us as we return. Spread over us Your shelter of peace, over all we love ––over Jerusalem and Yours

(Mishkan T'filah , 161)

ONE DAY

Sometimes I lay

Under the moon
And thank God I'm breathing
Then I pray
Don't take me soon
'Cause I am here for a reason

Sometimes in my tears I drown
But I never let it get me down
So when negativity surrounds
I know some day it'll all turn around because

All my life I've been waiting for
I've been praying for
For the people to say
That we don't wanna fight no more
There will be no more wars
And our children will play

One day

(Matisyahu, One Day)

Biblical and Theological Influences

(א) בְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית בָּרָ֣א אֱלֹהִ֑ים אֵ֥ת הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וְאֵ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ׃ (ב) וְהָאָ֗רֶץ הָיְתָ֥ה תֹ֙הוּ֙ וָבֹ֔הוּ וְחֹ֖שֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י תְה֑וֹם וְר֣וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֔ים מְרַחֶ֖פֶת עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הַמָּֽיִם׃ (ג) וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֖ים יְהִ֣י א֑וֹר וַֽיְהִי־אֽוֹר׃ (ד) וַיַּ֧רְא אֱלֹהִ֛ים אֶת־הָא֖וֹר כִּי־ט֑וֹב וַיַּבְדֵּ֣ל אֱלֹהִ֔ים בֵּ֥ין הָא֖וֹר וּבֵ֥ין הַחֹֽשֶׁךְ׃ (ה) וַיִּקְרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים ׀ לָאוֹר֙ י֔וֹם וְלַחֹ֖שֶׁךְ קָ֣רָא לָ֑יְלָה וַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם אֶחָֽד׃ (פ)

At the beginning of God's creating of the heavens and the earth, when the earth was barren and void, there was darkness over the face of Ocean, and a rushing-spirit of God hovering over the face of the waters. God said: Let there be light! And there was light.

God saw the light: that it was good. God separated the light from the darkness.

God called the light: Day! and the darkness he called: Night! There was setting, there was dawning: one day.

(כא) וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֗ה נְטֵ֤ה יָֽדְךָ֙ עַל־הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וִ֥יהִי חֹ֖שֶׁךְ עַל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם וְיָמֵ֖שׁ חֹֽשֶׁךְ׃ (כב) וַיֵּ֥ט מֹשֶׁ֛ה אֶת־יָד֖וֹ עַל־הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם וַיְהִ֧י חֹֽשֶׁךְ־אֲפֵלָ֛ה בְּכָל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם שְׁלֹ֥שֶׁת יָמִֽים׃ (כג) לֹֽא־רָא֞וּ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־אָחִ֗יו וְלֹא־קָ֛מוּ אִ֥ישׁ מִתַּחְתָּ֖יו שְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֑ים וּֽלְכָל־בְּנֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל הָ֥יָה א֖וֹר בְּמוֹשְׁבֹתָֽם׃

YHWH said to Moshe: Stretch out your hand over the heavens, and let there be darkness over the land of Egypt; they will feel the darkness! Moshe stretched out his hand over the heavens, and there was thick darkness throughout all the land of Egypt, for three days, a man could not see his brother, and a man could not arise from his spot, for three days. But for all the Children of Israel, there was light in their settlements.

Questions for Discussion

1. Why do you think darkness existed before light?

2. How could light exist when the sun wasn't yet created until the 4th day?

3. What is the relationship between the darkness and light of the 9th Plague and darkness and lights of creation?

4. How might the language of Hashkiveinu (and some of its creative interpretations) speak to the concepts of darkness in these toraitic texts.

(א) שִׁ֗יר לַֽמַּ֫עֲל֥וֹת אֶשָּׂ֣א עֵ֭ינַי אֶל־הֶהָרִ֑ים מֵ֝אַ֗יִן יָבֹ֥א עֶזְרִֽי׃ (ב) עֶ֭זְרִי מֵעִ֣ם יְהוָ֑ה עֹ֝שֵׂ֗ה שָׁמַ֥יִם וָאָֽרֶץ׃ (ג) אַל־יִתֵּ֣ן לַמּ֣וֹט רַגְלֶ֑ךָ אַל־יָ֝נ֗וּם שֹֽׁמְרֶֽךָ׃ (ד) הִנֵּ֣ה לֹֽא־יָ֭נוּם וְלֹ֣א יִישָׁ֑ן שׁ֝וֹמֵ֗ר יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ (ה) יְהוָ֥ה שֹׁמְרֶ֑ךָ יְהוָ֥ה צִ֝לְּךָ֗ עַל־יַ֥ד יְמִינֶֽךָ׃ (ו) יוֹמָ֗ם הַשֶּׁ֥מֶשׁ לֹֽא־יַכֶּ֗כָּה וְיָרֵ֥חַ בַּלָּֽיְלָה׃ (ז) יְֽהוָ֗ה יִשְׁמָרְךָ֥ מִכָּל־רָ֑ע יִ֝שְׁמֹ֗ר אֶת־נַפְשֶֽׁךָ׃ (ח) יְֽהוָ֗ה יִשְׁמָר־צֵאתְךָ֥ וּבוֹאֶ֑ךָ מֵֽ֝עַתָּ֗ה וְעַד־עוֹלָֽם׃

A song for ascents: I lift my eyes to the mountains. From where will my help come? My help comes from YHWH, Maker of the heavens and the earth. He does not allow your foot to stumble. Your guardian does not sleep. Behold He does not sleep and He does not slumber, He is the Guardian of Israel. YHWH is your Guardian. YHWH is your shade. He is at your right hand. By day the sun will not strike you, nor the moon by night. YHWH will guard you from all harm. He will guard your life. He will guard you in your coming and your going, from now until forever.

(ח) וָאֶעֱבֹ֨ר עָלַ֜יִךְ וָאֶרְאֵ֗ךְ וְהִנֵּ֤ה עִתֵּךְ֙ עֵ֣ת דֹּדִ֔ים וָאֶפְרֹ֤שׂ כְּנָפִי֙ עָלַ֔יִךְ וָאֲכַסֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתֵ֑ךְ וָאֶשָּׁ֣בַֽע לָ֠ךְ וָאָב֨וֹא בִבְרִ֜ית אֹתָ֗ךְ נְאֻ֛ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִ֖ה וַתִּ֥הְיִי לִֽי׃

(8) Now when I passed by you, and looked upon you, and, behold, your time was the time of love, I spread my skirt over you, and covered your nakedness;, I swore unto you, and entered into a covenant with you, says the Adonai you God, and you becamest Mine.

(ט) וַיֹּ֖אמֶר מִי־אָ֑תּ וַתֹּ֗אמֶר אָנֹכִי֙ ר֣וּת אֲמָתֶ֔ךָ וּפָרַשְׂתָּ֤ כְנָפֶ֙ךָ֙ עַל־אֲמָ֣תְךָ֔ כִּ֥י גֹאֵ֖ל אָֽתָּה׃

(9) And he said: ‘Who art thou?’ And she answered: ‘I am Ruth thine handmaid; spread therefore thy skirt over thy handmaid; for thou art a near kinsman.’

(ו) בָּר֥וּךְ אַתָּ֖ה בְּבֹאֶ֑ךָ וּבָר֥וּךְ אַתָּ֖ה בְּצֵאתֶֽךָ׃

(6) Blessed are you in your coming, and blessed are you in your going.

נעמן גר תושב היה נבוזר אדן גר צדק היה מבני בניו של סיסרא למדו תורה בירושלים מבני בניו של סנחריב לימדו תורה ברבים ומאן נינהו שמעיה ואבטליון מבני בניו של המן למדו תורה בבני ברק ואף מבני בניו של אותו רשע ביקש הקב"ה להכניסן תחת כנפי השכינה אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם

Naaman was a geir toshav (a not yet Jewish community member), and so was Nebuzar, who was a righteous geir (proselyte), who was descended from the children of Sisera. He taught Torah in Jerusalem, and the Children of Senacharib taught Torah to the masses in Bnei Brak––these were Shimayah and Abtalyon. The decedents of Haman taught Torah in Beni Brak as well. The Holy One leads even those who are wicked under the wings of Shekhinah (God's feminine side). The ministering angels said to the Holy One Master of the Universe

(ח) שָׁ֭מְרֵנִי כְּאִישׁ֣וֹן בַּת־עָ֑יִן בְּצֵ֥ל כְּ֝נָפֶ֗יךָ תַּסְתִּירֵֽנִי׃

Protect me as the apple of the eye, Hide me in the shadow of your wings.

ברכות השחר

מוֹדֶה אֲנִי לְפָנֶיךָ, מֶלֶךְ חַי וְקַיָּם, שֶׁהֶחֱזַרְתָּ בִּי נִשְׁמָתִי בְּחֶמְלָה רַבָּה אֱמוּנָתֶךָ

Morning Blessings

I give thanks before You, ever-living Sovereign, for you have restored my soul to me in mercy: How great is your faith [in me]!

The morning blessing reflects the pre-scientific and child-like belief that falling asleep is dangerous. Not only is night time filled with all sorts of dangers––animals, bandits, blindness––but the ancients believed that when someone loses consciousness, a piece of them actually dies. Each morning when they wake up, their nefesh​, their soul is restored to them.